#### DMCA

## Prepared by (2003)

### Citations

267 |
Hydraulic Control Systems,
- Merritt
- 1967
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ere Z m is a passive load impedance and F s is an external force. Using Eq. (4) and the previous definitions, Eq. (4) is equivalent to x E F V E (-Zmx� T-F s) V = s 33 +d 33 = s 33 +d33 t A t A t 9 , =-=(6)-=- which after a few algebraic manipulations and utilizing the Laplace s-operator for derivatives (assuming zero initial conditions), collect like terms of x and Eq. (6) becomesFrom Eq. (5) and the prev... |

193 |
Formulas For Stress And
- Roark
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...NA d ⎞⎛ 33 ts ⎞ 33 ⎜ E ⎟⎜ ⎟ m t s33 Ad33 I=sQ= ε - sV+ - or in a more condensed form as where and 1+ Z s 1+ Z s ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ sC (V-T′ F ) I=sCV+ 1+sC T Z 2 s t 1 2 2 ′ m NA C= ε t T 0 33 1 0 2 ( ) . =-=(9)-=- (10) (11) , (12) C=C 1-k , (13) 2 C=Ck 2 0 , (14) d k= ε s 2 2 33 T E 33 33 , (15)sE t s33 T= ′ . (16) Ad Equation (11) has an equivalent linear circuit representation as shown in Fig. 3 where 1 C an... |

126 |
Formulas for Natural Frequency and Mode
- Blevins
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...chanical velocity and displacement are the output variables. These constitutive relations are typically expressed in a tensor formulation as: and E S p = spqT+ q dkpE k , (2) T D i = diqT+ q εikE k , =-=(3)-=- where S represents the strain tensor, E s is the elastic compliance matrix constrained to a constant electric field, T represents the stress tensor, d is the matrix of piezoelectric material coeffici... |

33 |
A lumped parameter electromechanical model for describing the nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric actuators,” Trans.
- Goldfarb, Celanovic
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...stress. For the material used in this study, all the stresses and fields are limited to the 3-direction and the constitutive relationship can be accurately approximated by and E S= 3 s33T+ q d33E k , =-=(4)-=- T D 3 = d33T+ 3 ε33E 3 , (5) where the E s 33 , d 33 , T ε 33 are now all scalars. Let 3 S = x/t, 3 D = Q/A, 3 E= V/t, T= 3 F/A where x is the displacement of a single stack, t is the thickness of a ... |

22 |
Characteristics of Relaxorbased Piezoelectric Single Crystals for Ultrasonic Transducers",
- Park, Shrout
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... (5) and the previous definitions, E ⎛ E Zm -1 ⎞ ⎛ E Zm -1 ⎞ 33 33 s 33 33 t x= - s 1+ts Ns F +d 1+ts Ns V A ⎜ A ⎟ ⎜ A ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Q F T V d33 T V =d 33 +ε 33 =- ( ZmNsx+F s ) +ε33 A A t A t 10 . (7) . =-=(8)-=- Inserting Eq. (7) into Eq. (8) to remove the variable x and defining the total charge Q= t NQ, one obtains 2 ⎡ d ⎤ 33 2 E Fs NA ⎢ ⎛ T d ⎞ 33 s ⎥ 33 Q=-Nd t 33 + ⎢ ε33- + V E E Z ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ m t s33 E Zm 1+... |

13 |
The Analysis and Design of Pneumatic Systems
- Anderson
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...me 8 ⎝2⎠ E = electric field, typically under 10 6 V/m, ε = electric permittivity, T 33 f = frequency of voltage source (Hz), and 2 k = electrical to mechanical conversion constant (0.86 for PZN). 5 , =-=(1)-=- The term in the parentheses in Eq. (1) is the electrical energy density stored in the piezoelectric material, and for modest electric fields this term could have values of 0.02 J/cm 3 (or 2.7 J/kg fo... |

3 |
Electromechanical transducers and wave
- Mason
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... in this study, all the stresses and fields are limited to the 3-direction and the constitutive relationship can be accurately approximated by and E S= 3 s33T+ q d33E k , (4) T D 3 = d33T+ 3 ε33E 3 , =-=(5)-=- where the E s 33 , d 33 , T ε 33 are now all scalars. Let 3 S = x/t, 3 D = Q/A, 3 E= V/t, T= 3 F/A where x is the displacement of a single stack, t is the thickness of a single stack, Q is the charge... |

2 |
IPNs around the world
- JW, SC
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t the drawback of rubber modification, viz. the reduction in the stiffness and strength, e.g. by using a high Tg thermoplastic modifier. A number of thermoplasts were explored, such as polyetherimide =-=[13,14]-=-, polysulphone [15], polyethersulphone [16–18] and poly(dimethylphenylene ether) [19]. The toughening efficiency was, however, in most cases lower compared with the liquid rubber modified epoxies. In ... |

2 |
Eamor MW
- CS
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t the drawback of rubber modification, viz. the reduction in the stiffness and strength, e.g. by using a high Tg thermoplastic modifier. A number of thermoplasts were explored, such as polyetherimide =-=[13,14]-=-, polysulphone [15], polyethersulphone [16–18] and poly(dimethylphenylene ether) [19]. The toughening efficiency was, however, in most cases lower compared with the liquid rubber modified epoxies. In ... |

2 |
Meijer HEH. Polym Eng Sci
- JMH
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... fixed SDS concentration. The particle size decreases with the initial resin concentration, indicating that the particle size is the result of the equilibrium between droplet break-up and coalescence =-=[28]-=-. In this study, we chose to examine the toughening efficiency of the rubbery DGEPPO particles prepared in this new way, rather than focusing on the optimisation of the particle synthesis steps by e.g... |

1 |
Private communications, A discussion with Pearson, who experienced the same, gave the solution to these puzzling and contradicting results
- RA
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...toughness values are remarkably high compared to those reported in the literature [3,4,6]. The origin of the problem appeared to be the preparation of the precrack in the fracture toughness specimens =-=[31]-=-. By chilling the razor B.J.P. Jansen et al. / Polymer 40 (1999) 5601–56075604 Table 2 Particle size versus epoxy concentration in water (wt%) (5 g/l SDS) DGEPPO (wt%) Particle size (m) 1 0.6 5 3 10 1... |