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## Statistical evidence in experimental psychology: An empirical comparison using 855 t tests (2011)

Venue: | Perspectives on Psychological Science |

Citations: | 27 - 4 self |

### Citations

11773 |
Statistical Power Analysis for the behavioral sciences
- Cohen
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...proach to remediation has sometimes been institutionalized, being required by journal editors or recommended by the American Psychological Association (e.g., American Psychological Association, 2010; =-=Cohen, 1988-=-; Erdfelder, 2010; Wilkinson & the Task Force on Statistical Inference, 1999). A second, more fundamental criticism that comes from Bayesian statistics is that there are basic conceptual and practical... |

1823 | Bayes factors
- Kass, Raftery
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... may quantify the evidence for one hypothesis relative to another. The Bayes factor is the most commonly used (although certainly not the only possible) Bayesian measure for doing so (Jeffreys, 1961; =-=Kass & Raftery, 1995-=-). The Bayes factor is the probability of the data under one hypothesis relative to the other. When a hypothesis is a simple point, such as the null, then the probability of the data under this hypoth... |

921 | Probability theory: the logic of science
- Jaynes
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...This makes the Bayesian approach fundamentally different from the classical ‘‘frequentist’’ approach, which relies on sampling distributions of data (Berger & Delampady, 1987; Berger & Wolpert, 1988; =-=Jaynes, 2003-=-; Lindley, 1972). Within the Bayesian framework, one may quantify the evidence for one hypothesis relative to another. The Bayes factor is the most commonly used (although certainly not the only possi... |

881 |
Theory of Probability
- Jeffreys
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n framework, one may quantify the evidence for one hypothesis relative to another. The Bayes factor is the most commonly used (although certainly not the only possible) Bayesian measure for doing so (=-=Jeffreys, 1961-=-; Kass & Raftery, 1995). The Bayes factor is the probability of the data under one hypothesis relative to the other. When a hypothesis is a simple point, such as the null, then the probability of the ... |

704 | The Design of Experiments - Fisher - 1951 |

369 | The earth is round (p < .05
- Cohen
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...however, not the only possible or reasonable approach to measuring evidence and making statistical and scientific inferences. Indeed, the use of t tests and p values has been widely criticized (e.g., =-=Cohen, 1994-=-; Cumming, 2008; Dixon, 2003; Howard, Maxwell, & Flemming, 2000; Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005; Loftus, 1996; Nickerson, 2000; Wagenmakers, 2007). There are at least two different criticisms, coming from di... |

275 | Why most published research findings are false,”
- Ioannidis
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ayes factor. Both methods help prevent researchers from overestimating the strength of their findings and help keep the field from incorporating ambiguous findings as if these were real and reliable (=-=Ioannidis, 2005-=-). As a practical illustration, consider a series of recent experiments on precognition (Bem, 2011). In nine experiments with over 1,000 participants, Bem intended to show that precognition exists, th... |

254 |
of Statistics: A Concise Course in Statistical Inference. Texts in Statistics
- Wasserman
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... more difficult than calculating p values and effect sizes. However, psychologists can now turn to easy-to-use Web pages to calculate the Bayes Table 1. Evidence Categories for p Values (adapted from =-=Wasserman, 2004-=-, p. 157), for Effect Sizes (as proposed by Cohen, 1988), and for Bayes Factor BFA0 (Jeffreys, 1961) Statistic Interpretation p value <.001 Decisive evidence against H0 .001–.01 Substantive evidence a... |

220 | Bayesian statistical inference for psychological research - Edwards, Lindman, et al. - 1963 |

206 | Statistical significance testing and cumulative knowledge in psychology: Implications for the training of researchers - Schmidt - 1996 |

180 |
Testing a point null hypothesis: The irreconcilability of P -values and evidence
- Berger, Sellke
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ses seems likely to matter. It is not just that there are philosophical differences between the three choices. It is also clear that the three measures of evidence can be mutually inconsistent (e.g., =-=Berger & Sellke, 1987-=-; Rouder et al., 2009; Wagenmakers, 2007; Wagenmakers & Grünwald, 2006; Wagenmakers, Lodewyckx, Kuriyal, & Grasman, 2010). In this article, we assess the practical consequences of choosing among infe... |

164 |
A simple, general purpose display of magnitude of experimental effect.
- Rosenthal, Rubin
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ize Effect sizes quantify the magnitude of an effect and serve as a measure of howmuch the results deviate from the null hypothesis (Cohen, 1988; Richard, Bond, & Stokes-Zoota, 2003; Rosenthal, 1990; =-=Rosenthal & Rubin, 1982-=-; Thompson, 2002). For the data fromMussweiler (2006), the effect size,d, is calculated as follows: d Me Mc spooled 6:42 5:79 0:68 0:93 Note that in contrast to the p value, the effect size i... |

163 |
Spiegelhalter D. WinBUGS—a Bayesian modelling framework: concepts, structure, and extensibility. Statistics in Computing
- DJ, Thomas, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s. Statistical Evidence in Psychology 293sat PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV on September 12, 2016pps.sagepub.comDownloaded fromsfactor for many common experimental situations or use software such asWinBUGS (=-=Lunn, Thomas, Best, & Spiegelhalter, 2000-=-; Wetzels, Lee, & Wagenmakers, 2010; Wetzels et al., 2009).2 In this article, we use the Bayes factor calculation described in Rouder et al. (2009). Rouder et al.’s development is suitable for one-sam... |

157 | Toward a method of selecting among computational models of cognition.
- Pitt, Myung, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... weighted average of the likelihood across that range. This averaging automatically controls for the complexity of different models, as has been emphasized in Bayesian literature in psychology (e.g., =-=Pitt, Myung, & Zhang, 2002-=-; Rouder et al., 2009). We take as the null that a parametera is restricted to 0 (i.e.,H0: a 0), and we take as the alternative that a is not zero (i.e., HA: a 6 0). In this case, the Bayes factor ... |

117 |
thinking: The foundations of probability and its applications
- Good
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pðDjHA; aÞpðajHAÞda pðDjH0Þ ; as a measure of the change from prior model odds to posterior model odds, brought about by the observed data. This change is often interpreted as the weight of evidence (=-=Good, 1983-=-, 1985). Before seeing the data D, the two hypotheses H0 and HA are assigned prior probabilities p(H0) and p(HA). The ratio of the two prior probabilities defines the prior odds. When the data D are o... |

115 |
An alternative to null-hypothesis significance tests,”
- Killeen
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lues is not straightforward, and their use in hypothesis testing is heavily debated (Cohen, 1994; Cortina & Dunlap, 1997; Cumming, 2008; Dixon, 2003; Frick, 1996; Gigerenzer, 1993, 1998; Hagen, 1997; =-=Killeen, 2005-=-, 2006; Kruschke, 2010a, 2010c; Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005; Loftus, 1996; Nickerson, 2000; Schmidt, 1996; Wagenmakers & Grünwald, 2006; Wainer, 1999). The p value is the probability of obtaining a test ... |

101 |
Testing precise hypotheses
- Berger, Delampady
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ied by probability distributions over parameters. This makes the Bayesian approach fundamentally different from the classical ‘‘frequentist’’ approach, which relies on sampling distributions of data (=-=Berger & Delampady, 1987-=-; Berger & Wolpert, 1988; Jaynes, 2003; Lindley, 1972). Within the Bayesian framework, one may quantify the evidence for one hypothesis relative to another. The Bayes factor is the most commonly used ... |

96 |
A practical solution to the pervasive problems of p values.
- Wagenmakers
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., the use of t tests and p values has been widely criticized (e.g., Cohen, 1994; Cumming, 2008; Dixon, 2003; Howard, Maxwell, & Flemming, 2000; Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005; Loftus, 1996; Nickerson, 2000; =-=Wagenmakers, 2007-=-). There are at least two different criticisms, coming from different perspectives and resulting in different remedies. First, many have argued that null hypothesis tests should be supplemented with o... |

94 | What future quantitative social science research could look like: confidence intervals for effect sizes.
- Thompson
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the magnitude of an effect and serve as a measure of howmuch the results deviate from the null hypothesis (Cohen, 1988; Richard, Bond, & Stokes-Zoota, 2003; Rosenthal, 1990; Rosenthal & Rubin, 1982; =-=Thompson, 2002-=-). For the data fromMussweiler (2006), the effect size,d, is calculated as follows: d Me Mc spooled 6:42 5:79 0:68 0:93 Note that in contrast to the p value, the effect size is independent of... |

93 |
Bayesian t tests for accepting and rejecting the null hypothesis.
- Rouder, Speckman, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...age (1963), it has become especially prominent and increasingly influential in the last decade (e.g., Dienes, 2008; Gallistel, 2009; Kruschke, 2010a, 2010c; Lee, 2008; Myung, Forster, & Browne, 2000; =-=Rouder, Speckman, Sun, Morey, & Iverson, 2009-=-). One standard Bayesian measure for quantifying the amount of evidence from the data in support of an experimental effect is the Bayes factor (Gönen, Johnson, Lu, & Westfall, 2005; Rouder et al., 20... |

84 | Mixtures of g priors for Bayesian variable selection
- Liang, Paulo, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on. This prior distribution has statistical advantages that make it an appropriate default choice (for example, it has excellent theoretical properties in the limit, N ! 1 and t ! 1; for details, see =-=Liang, Paulo, Molina, Clyde, & Berger, 2008-=-). The default test is easy to use and avoids informed specification of prior distributions that other researchers may contest. Conversely, one may argue that the informed specification of priors is t... |

78 | Psychology will be a much better science when we change the way to analyse data.
- Loftus
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d scientific inferences. Indeed, the use of t tests and p values has been widely criticized (e.g., Cohen, 1994; Cumming, 2008; Dixon, 2003; Howard, Maxwell, & Flemming, 2000; Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005; =-=Loftus, 1996-=-; Nickerson, 2000; Wagenmakers, 2007). There are at least two different criticisms, coming from different perspectives and resulting in different remedies. First, many have argued that null hypothesis... |

76 | An exploration of aspects of Bayesian multiple testing - Scott, Berger - 2006 |

74 | Feeling the future: Experimental evidence for anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect.
- Bem
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d help keep the field from incorporating ambiguous findings as if these were real and reliable (Ioannidis, 2005). As a practical illustration, consider a series of recent experiments on precognition (=-=Bem, 2011-=-). In nine experiments with over 1,000 participants, Bem intended to show that precognition exists, that is, that people can foresee the future. And indeed, eight out of nine experiments yielded a sig... |

68 |
An introduction to Bayesian hierarchical models with an application in the theory of signal detection.
- Rouder, Lu
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...icular, we think the hierarchical Bayesian approach, which is standard in statistics (e.g., Gelman & Hill, 2007) and is becoming more common in psychology (e.g. Kruschke, 2010b, 2010c; Lee, in press; =-=Rouder & Lu, 2005-=-), could fundamentally change how psychologists identify effects. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis can be a valuable tool both for meta-analyses and for the 296 Wetzels et al.sat PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV... |

66 |
Three case studies in Bayesian analysis of cognitive models.
- Lee
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... back to at least Edwards, Lindman, and Savage (1963), it has become especially prominent and increasingly influential in the last decade (e.g., Dienes, 2008; Gallistel, 2009; Kruschke, 2010a, 2010c; =-=Lee, 2008-=-; Myung, Forster, & Browne, 2000; Rouder, Speckman, Sun, Morey, & Iverson, 2009). One standard Bayesian measure for quantifying the amount of evidence from the data in support of an experimental effec... |

62 |
How are we doing in soft psychology?
- Rosenthal
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...fromsThe effect size Effect sizes quantify the magnitude of an effect and serve as a measure of howmuch the results deviate from the null hypothesis (Cohen, 1988; Richard, Bond, & Stokes-Zoota, 2003; =-=Rosenthal, 1990-=-; Rosenthal & Rubin, 1982; Thompson, 2002). For the data fromMussweiler (2006), the effect size,d, is calculated as follows: d Me Mc spooled 6:42 5:79 0:68 0:93 Note that in contrast to the p... |

57 | One hundred years of social psychology quantitatively described.
- Richard, Bond, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er 12, 2016pps.sagepub.comDownloaded fromsThe effect size Effect sizes quantify the magnitude of an effect and serve as a measure of howmuch the results deviate from the null hypothesis (Cohen, 1988; =-=Richard, Bond, & Stokes-Zoota, 2003-=-; Rosenthal, 1990; Rosenthal & Rubin, 1982; Thompson, 2002). For the data fromMussweiler (2006), the effect size,d, is calculated as follows: d Me Mc spooled 6:42 5:79 0:68 0:93 Note that in ... |

56 |
Bayesian versus Orthodox statistics: Which side are you on?
- Dienes
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er et al., 2009; Wetzels, Raaijmakers, Jakab, & Wagenmakers, 2009). The measure takes the form of an odds ratio: It is the probability of the data under one hypothesis relative to that under another (=-=Dienes, 2011-=-;Kass&Raftery, 1995;Lee&Wagenmakers, 2005). With this background, it seems that psychological statistical practice currently stands at a three-way fork in the road. Staying on the current path means c... |

53 |
The superego, the ego, and the id in statistical reasoning. In:
- Gigerenzer
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he p value The interpretation of p values is not straightforward, and their use in hypothesis testing is heavily debated (Cohen, 1994; Cortina & Dunlap, 1997; Cumming, 2008; Dixon, 2003; Frick, 1996; =-=Gigerenzer, 1993-=-, 1998; Hagen, 1997; Killeen, 2005, 2006; Kruschke, 2010a, 2010c; Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005; Loftus, 1996; Nickerson, 2000; Schmidt, 1996; Wagenmakers & Grünwald, 2006; Wainer, 1999). The p value is th... |

52 | Why psychologists must change the way they analyze their data: The case of psi. - Wagenmakers, Wetzels, et al. - 2011 |

43 | On the logic and purpose of significance testing.
- Cortina, Dunlap
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...core of the experimental group, Me, was 6.4 (se 0.66, ne 10). The p value The interpretation of p values is not straightforward, and their use in hypothesis testing is heavily debated (Cohen, 1994; =-=Cortina & Dunlap, 1997-=-; Cumming, 2008; Dixon, 2003; Frick, 1996; Gigerenzer, 1993, 1998; Hagen, 1997; Killeen, 2005, 2006; Kruschke, 2010a, 2010c; Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005; Loftus, 1996; Nickerson, 2000; Schmidt, 1996; Wage... |

42 |
The importance of proving the null.
- Gallistel
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... psychological statistical practice dates back to at least Edwards, Lindman, and Savage (1963), it has become especially prominent and increasingly influential in the last decade (e.g., Dienes, 2008; =-=Gallistel, 2009-=-; Kruschke, 2010a, 2010c; Lee, 2008; Myung, Forster, & Browne, 2000; Rouder, Speckman, Sun, Morey, & Iverson, 2009). One standard Bayesian measure for quantifying the amount of evidence from the data ... |

41 | 2007): Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Model - Gelman, Hill |

40 | Weight of evidence: A brief survey,” - Good - 1985 |

38 |
In praise of the null hypothesis statistical test.
- Hagen
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ation of p values is not straightforward, and their use in hypothesis testing is heavily debated (Cohen, 1994; Cortina & Dunlap, 1997; Cumming, 2008; Dixon, 2003; Frick, 1996; Gigerenzer, 1993, 1998; =-=Hagen, 1997-=-; Killeen, 2005, 2006; Kruschke, 2010a, 2010c; Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005; Loftus, 1996; Nickerson, 2000; Schmidt, 1996; Wagenmakers & Grünwald, 2006; Wainer, 1999). The p value is the probability of ob... |

37 |
The appropriate use of null hypothesis testing.
- Frick
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...6, ne 10). The p value The interpretation of p values is not straightforward, and their use in hypothesis testing is heavily debated (Cohen, 1994; Cortina & Dunlap, 1997; Cumming, 2008; Dixon, 2003; =-=Frick, 1996-=-; Gigerenzer, 1993, 1998; Hagen, 1997; Killeen, 2005, 2006; Kruschke, 2010a, 2010c; Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005; Loftus, 1996; Nickerson, 2000; Schmidt, 1996; Wagenmakers & Grünwald, 2006; Wainer, 1999).... |

35 | What to believe: Bayesian methods for data analysis.” - Kruschke - 2010 |

35 |
A special issue on model selection.
- Myung, Forster, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... least Edwards, Lindman, and Savage (1963), it has become especially prominent and increasingly influential in the last decade (e.g., Dienes, 2008; Gallistel, 2009; Kruschke, 2010a, 2010c; Lee, 2008; =-=Myung, Forster, & Browne, 2000-=-; Rouder, Speckman, Sun, Morey, & Iverson, 2009). One standard Bayesian measure for quantifying the amount of evidence from the data in support of an experimental effect is the Bayes factor (Gönen, J... |

34 | Bayesian hypothesis testing for psychologists: A tutorial on the Savage-Dickey method. - Wagenmakers, Lodewyckx, et al. - 2010 |

33 | Replication and p intervals: p values predict the future only vaguely, but confidence intervals do much better.
- Cumming
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the only possible or reasonable approach to measuring evidence and making statistical and scientific inferences. Indeed, the use of t tests and p values has been widely criticized (e.g., Cohen, 1994; =-=Cumming, 2008-=-; Dixon, 2003; Howard, Maxwell, & Flemming, 2000; Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005; Loftus, 1996; Nickerson, 2000; Wagenmakers, 2007). There are at least two different criticisms, coming from different perspec... |

32 | Bayesian data analysis
- Kruschke
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...atistical practice dates back to at least Edwards, Lindman, and Savage (1963), it has become especially prominent and increasingly influential in the last decade (e.g., Dienes, 2008; Gallistel, 2009; =-=Kruschke, 2010-=-a, 2010c; Lee, 2008; Myung, Forster, & Browne, 2000; Rouder, Speckman, Sun, Morey, & Iverson, 2009). One standard Bayesian measure for quantifying the amount of evidence from the data in support of an... |

32 |
Subjective and Objective Bayesian Statistics: Principles, Models and Applications.
- Press
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he appropriate way to take problem-specific prior knowledge into account. Bayesian statisticians are divided over the relative merits of default versus informed specifications of prior distributions (=-=Press, Chib, Clyde, Woodworth, & Zaslavsky, 2003-=-). In our opinion, the default test provides an excellent starting point of analysis, one that may later be supplemented with a detailed problem-specific analysis (see Dienes, 2008, 2011, this issue; ... |

30 |
Bayesian statistical inference in psychology:
- Lee, Wagenmakers
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and making statistical and scientific inferences. Indeed, the use of t tests and p values has been widely criticized (e.g., Cohen, 1994; Cumming, 2008; Dixon, 2003; Howard, Maxwell, & Flemming, 2000; =-=Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005-=-; Loftus, 1996; Nickerson, 2000; Wagenmakers, 2007). There are at least two different criticisms, coming from different perspectives and resulting in different remedies. First, many have argued that n... |

29 |
How to quantify support for and against the null hypothesis: A flexible WinBUGS implementation of a default Bayesian t-test.
- Wetzels, Raaijmakers, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ne standard Bayesian measure for quantifying the amount of evidence from the data in support of an experimental effect is the Bayes factor (Gönen, Johnson, Lu, & Westfall, 2005; Rouder et al., 2009; =-=Wetzels, Raaijmakers, Jakab, & Wagenmakers, 2009-=-). The measure takes the form of an odds ratio: It is the probability of the data under one hypothesis relative to that under another (Dienes, 2011;Kass&Raftery, 1995;Lee&Wagenmakers, 2005). With this... |

25 |
One cheer for null hypothesis significance testing.
- Wainer
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...3; Frick, 1996; Gigerenzer, 1993, 1998; Hagen, 1997; Killeen, 2005, 2006; Kruschke, 2010a, 2010c; Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005; Loftus, 1996; Nickerson, 2000; Schmidt, 1996; Wagenmakers & Grünwald, 2006; =-=Wainer, 1999-=-). The p value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic (in this case, the t statistic) at least as extreme as the one that was observed in the experiment, given that the null hypothesis is tr... |

24 |
Understanding Psychology as a Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Statistical Inference.
- Dienes
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n criticism of psychological statistical practice dates back to at least Edwards, Lindman, and Savage (1963), it has become especially prominent and increasingly influential in the last decade (e.g., =-=Dienes, 2008-=-; Gallistel, 2009; Kruschke, 2010a, 2010c; Lee, 2008; Myung, Forster, & Browne, 2000; Rouder, Speckman, Sun, Morey, & Iverson, 2009). One standard Bayesian measure for quantifying the amount of eviden... |

23 | Bayesian assessment of null values via parameter estimation and model comparison.
- Kruschke
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...wever, most p values fell in the ambiguous range of .01 to .05, and across all nine experiments, a Bayes factor analysis indicates about as much evidence for the alternative hypothesis as against it (=-=Kruschke, 2011-=-; Wagenmakers, Wetzels, Borsboom, & van der Maas, 2011). We believe that this situation typifies part of what could be improved in psychological research today. It is simply too easy to obtain a p val... |

21 | Doing Bayesian data analysis: A tutorial introduction with R”, - Kruschke - 2010 |

18 | Bayesian analysis of recognition memory: The case of the list – length effect.
- Dennis, Lee, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... various categories of evidence against the null hypothesis. A basic limitation of null hypothesis significance testing is that it does not allow a researcher to gather evidence in favor of the null (=-=Dennis, Lee, & Kinnell, 2008-=-; Gallistel, 2009; Rouder et al., 2009; Wetzels et al., 2009). For the data from Mussweiler (2006), we compute a p value based on the t test. The t test is designed to test whether a difference betwee... |

15 | We need statistical thinking, not statistical rituals. - Gigerenzer - 1998 |

14 |
The p-value fallacy and how to avoid it.
- Dixon
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...le or reasonable approach to measuring evidence and making statistical and scientific inferences. Indeed, the use of t tests and p values has been widely criticized (e.g., Cohen, 1994; Cumming, 2008; =-=Dixon, 2003-=-; Howard, Maxwell, & Flemming, 2000; Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005; Loftus, 1996; Nickerson, 2000; Wagenmakers, 2007). There are at least two different criticisms, coming from different perspectives and res... |

12 | A Bayesian perspective on hypothesis testing. - Wagenmakers, Grunwald - 2006 |

11 |
The proof of the pudding: An illustration of the relative strengths of null hypothesis, meta-analysis, and Bayesian analysis.
- Howard, Maxwell, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y, as long as the studies in these subfields use the same level of statistical significance, approximately the same number of participants, and approximately the samenumber of trials per participant (=-=Howard et al., 2000-=-). In the next sections, we describe the empirical relation between the three measures of evidence, starting with the relation between effect sizes and p values. Comparing effect sizes and p values Th... |

11 |
Null hypothesis statistical testing: A review of an old and continuing controversy.
- Nickerson
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nferences. Indeed, the use of t tests and p values has been widely criticized (e.g., Cohen, 1994; Cumming, 2008; Dixon, 2003; Howard, Maxwell, & Flemming, 2000; Lee & Wagenmakers, 2005; Loftus, 1996; =-=Nickerson, 2000-=-; Wagenmakers, 2007). There are at least two different criticisms, coming from different perspectives and resulting in different remedies. First, many have argued that null hypothesis tests should be ... |

10 | The Bayesian two-sample t test. - Gönen, Johnson, et al. - 2005 |

10 |
Bayesian statistics: A review. Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
- Lindley
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Bayesian approach fundamentally different from the classical ‘‘frequentist’’ approach, which relies on sampling distributions of data (Berger & Delampady, 1987; Berger & Wolpert, 1988; Jaynes, 2003; =-=Lindley, 1972-=-). Within the Bayesian framework, one may quantify the evidence for one hypothesis relative to another. The Bayes factor is the most commonly used (although certainly not the only possible) Bayesian m... |

6 |
The Likelihood Principle (2nd
- Berger, Wolpert
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...utions over parameters. This makes the Bayesian approach fundamentally different from the classical ‘‘frequentist’’ approach, which relies on sampling distributions of data (Berger & Delampady, 1987; =-=Berger & Wolpert, 1988-=-; Jaynes, 2003; Lindley, 1972). Within the Bayesian framework, one may quantify the evidence for one hypothesis relative to another. The Bayes factor is the most commonly used (although certainly not ... |

4 |
A note on statistical analysis.
- Erdfelder
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ediation has sometimes been institutionalized, being required by journal editors or recommended by the American Psychological Association (e.g., American Psychological Association, 2010; Cohen, 1988; =-=Erdfelder, 2010-=-; Wilkinson & the Task Force on Statistical Inference, 1999). A second, more fundamental criticism that comes from Bayesian statistics is that there are basic conceptual and practical problems with p ... |

4 |
Doing is for thinking!
- Mussweiler
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al protocol, Mussweiler concluded that the low p value should be taken to provide ‘‘initial support for the hypothesis that engaging in stereotypic movements activates the corresponding stereotype’’ (=-=Mussweiler, 2006-=-, p. 28). The use of t tests and corresponding p values in this way constitutes a common and widely accepted practice in the psychological literature. It is, however, not the only possible or reasonab... |

4 |
Bayesian inference using WBDev: A tutorial for social scientists.
- Wetzels, Lee, et al.
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV on September 12, 2016pps.sagepub.comDownloaded fromsfactor for many common experimental situations or use software such asWinBUGS (Lunn, Thomas, Best, & Spiegelhalter, 2000; =-=Wetzels, Lee, & Wagenmakers, 2010-=-; Wetzels et al., 2009).2 In this article, we use the Bayes factor calculation described in Rouder et al. (2009). Rouder et al.’s development is suitable for one-sample and two-sample designs, and the... |

1 | Statistical Evidence in Psychology 297 at PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV on September 12, 2016pps.sagepub.comDownloaded from - Killeen - 2006 |