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## Power Flow Solution on Multi-Terminal HVDC Systems: Supergrid Case

Citations: | 2 - 2 self |

### Citations

35 |
FACTS: modelling and simulation in power networks
- Acha
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... 1 cos n i i j ij i j ij j P V V Y s(5)s 1 sin n i i j ij i j ij j Q V V Y s(6)sA complete explanation for the classical AC power flowscan be found on [26], [27], [25], =-=[28]-=-.sIn the case of a ndc DC nodes networks, each node isscharacterized by nodal voltage (Udc,i), and nodal (Pdc,i)spower injected into the DC network. The current injectedsat the i-th DC node (Idc,i) ca... |

32 |
Computer Analysis of Power Systems,
- Arrillaga, Arnold
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ck node.s 1 cos n i i j ij i j ij j P V V Y s(5)s 1 sin n i i j ij i j ij j Q V V Y s(6)sA complete explanation for the classical AC power flowscan be found on [26], =-=[27]-=-, [25], [28].sIn the case of a ndc DC nodes networks, each node isscharacterized by nodal voltage (Udc,i), and nodal (Pdc,i)spower injected into the DC network. The current injectedsat the i-th DC nod... |

22 |
Multiterminal VSC HVDC for the European supergrid: Obstacles,"
- Hertem, Ghandhari
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., a lot of scepticism existss[10]. VSC-HVDC appears to be a technical solution forsSupergrid transmission system, DC side behaves as currentssource, rendering power flow reversal a trivial task [11],s=-=[12]-=-. The operating principles of VSC are completelysdifferent from those of current source converter (CSC).sFor this reason, the power flow algorithm developed forsCSC-MTDC cannot be directly used for th... |

15 |
Power system modelling and scripting.
- Milano
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... theszero of a set of nonlinear equations starting from ansadequate initial guess. The most general form of the powersflow equations is a set of differential-algebraic-equationss(DAE) in steady-state =-=[25]-=-. The most commonsformulation of the power flow equations is reduced to thesalgebraic representation (1):s g x 0s(1)swhere g is the set of algebraic equations that define thespower balance at netw... |

13 |
A control system for HVDC transmission by voltage sourced converters,”
- Nakajima, Irokawa
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... It seems thatsadvances on technologies open the door for VSC HVDCssystems at higher voltage and at higher power range,swhich is making multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) system astechnical possibility [3], =-=[4]-=-, [5], [6], [7].sA meshed MTDC system enables the opportunity tosconstruct a whole overlaying DC Supergrid, a truly panEuropean electricity super highway [8]. Supergrid issdefined as "a pan-European t... |

11 |
Solution of Large Networks by Matrix Methods
- Brown
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he slack node.s 1 cos n i i j ij i j ij j P V V Y s(5)s 1 sin n i i j ij i j ij j Q V V Y s(6)sA complete explanation for the classical AC power flowscan be found on =-=[26]-=-, [27], [25], [28].sIn the case of a ndc DC nodes networks, each node isscharacterized by nodal voltage (Udc,i), and nodal (Pdc,i)spower injected into the DC network. The current injectedsat the i-th ... |

10 |
Interconnecting offshore wind farms using multiterminal VSC-based HVDC,"
- Jovcic
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sadvances on technologies open the door for VSC HVDCssystems at higher voltage and at higher power range,swhich is making multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) system astechnical possibility [3], [4], [5], [6], =-=[7]-=-.sA meshed MTDC system enables the opportunity tosconstruct a whole overlaying DC Supergrid, a truly panEuropean electricity super highway [8]. Supergrid issdefined as "a pan-European transmission net... |

9 |
A sequential AC/DC power flow algorithm for networks containing Multi-terminal VSC HVDC systems
- Beerten, Cole, et al.
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... have beenslately for MTDC.sTemesgen et al [19], presents a numerical iteration basedsupon Newton-Raphson approximation for losslesssconverter stations using the unified approach. Beerten et als[20], =-=[21]-=- have used the sequential approach for thesMTDC power flow problem. They have included converterslosses and have defined the power set-points with respectsto the system bus. In [22] the concept of dis... |

8 |
Technical limitations towards a SuperGrid - A European prospective.
- Hertem, Ghandhari, et al.
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... some onshore shallow connections.sThese projects and ideas have received widespreadsattention from both politicians and the press. However,swithin the technical community, a lot of scepticism existss=-=[10]-=-. VSC-HVDC appears to be a technical solution forsSupergrid transmission system, DC side behaves as currentssource, rendering power flow reversal a trivial task [11],s[12]. The operating principles of... |

6 |
Control of a multiterminal VSC transmission scheme for connecting offshore wind farms,” in
- Hendriks, Paap, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... thatsadvances on technologies open the door for VSC HVDCssystems at higher voltage and at higher power range,swhich is making multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) system astechnical possibility [3], [4], [5], =-=[6]-=-, [7].sA meshed MTDC system enables the opportunity tosconstruct a whole overlaying DC Supergrid, a truly panEuropean electricity super highway [8]. Supergrid issdefined as "a pan-European transmissio... |

5 | Multi-terminal VSCHVDC system for integration of offshore wind farms and green electrification of platforms
- Hailesalassie, Molinas, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...seems thatsadvances on technologies open the door for VSC HVDCssystems at higher voltage and at higher power range,swhich is making multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) system astechnical possibility [3], [4], =-=[5]-=-, [6], [7].sA meshed MTDC system enables the opportunity tosconstruct a whole overlaying DC Supergrid, a truly panEuropean electricity super highway [8]. Supergrid issdefined as "a pan-European transm... |

5 |
Prospects and challenges of future HVDC SuperGrids with modular multilevel converters,"
- Ahmed, Haider, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...munity, a lot of scepticism existss[10]. VSC-HVDC appears to be a technical solution forsSupergrid transmission system, DC side behaves as currentssource, rendering power flow reversal a trivial task =-=[11]-=-,s[12]. The operating principles of VSC are completelysdifferent from those of current source converter (CSC).sFor this reason, the power flow algorithm developed forsCSC-MTDC cannot be directly used ... |

5 |
VSC MTDC systems with a distributed DC voltage control - A power flow approach," in PowerTech,
- Beerten, Hertem, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eerten et als[20], [21] have used the sequential approach for thesMTDC power flow problem. They have included converterslosses and have defined the power set-points with respectsto the system bus. In =-=[22]-=- the concept of distributed DCsvoltage control for power flow is included.sThis paper presents a general method for VSC-MTDCspower flow calculations based on the Gauss-Seidelsapproach. The proposed me... |

5 |
version 7.12.0.635 (R2011a 64-bit
- MATLAB
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... 2.sFig. 2. Flowchart of sequential power flow for AC/DC powersflow algorithm.s3. Simulation and ResultssIn order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposedsAC/DC power flow approach, a MATLAB =-=[29]-=- versions7.12.0.635 (R2011a 64-bit) program (m-file) is developedsfor this purpose. This algorithm is integrated with the aidsof the AC power flow program Power System Toolboxs(PST) [30], an open-sour... |

5 |
A North Sea Electricity Grid [R]evolution: Electricity Output of Interconnected Offshore Wind Power, a Vision of Offshore Wind Power Integration. Greenpeace - 3E. Available at www.greenpeace.org
- Decker
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed yet. While the basic technologysmight seem available, several technical limitations stillsexist [10]. Many Supergrid topologies have been proposedsor studied by different organizations [31], [32], =-=[33]-=-.sHowever, regulatory and policies aspects have beensdefined such as A single planner (European Network ofsTransmission System Operators for Electricity, Entso-e), assingle operator (ISO), a single gr... |

4 |
Supergrid to the rescue
- Gordon
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...(MTDC) system astechnical possibility [3], [4], [5], [6], [7].sA meshed MTDC system enables the opportunity tosconstruct a whole overlaying DC Supergrid, a truly panEuropean electricity super highway =-=[8]-=-. Supergrid issdefined as "a pan-European transmission networksfacilitating the integration of large-scale renewablesenergy and the balancing and transportation ofselectricity, with the aim of improvi... |

4 |
Toward a benchmark test system for the offshore grid
- Rudion, Orths, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e materialised yet. While the basic technologysmight seem available, several technical limitations stillsexist [10]. Many Supergrid topologies have been proposedsor studied by different organizations =-=[31]-=-, [32], [33].sHowever, regulatory and policies aspects have beensdefined such as A single planner (European Network ofsTransmission System Operators for Electricity, Entso-e), assingle operator (ISO),... |

4 |
The North Sea Super Grid - a technical perspective
- Vrana, Torres-Olguin, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... operator (ISO), a single grid code (Entso-e) and assingle European regulator (ACER). However, the NorthsSea Supergrid can probably not fulfil the planned criteriasfor an optimallysoperated structure =-=[34]-=-.sThe main reason, for the latter would be that independentlysplanned projects would be attempted to be coupledstogether, leading to a rather grown network, comprisingsseveral DC and AC voltage levels... |

3 |
Friends of the Supergrid. Available: http://www.friendsofthesupergrid.eu
- FOSG
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s "a pan-European transmission networksfacilitating the integration of large-scale renewablesenergy and the balancing and transportation ofselectricity, with the aim of improving the Europeansmarket" =-=[9]-=-. The future vision of an offshore SuperGridscan be outlined as: (i) Transcends weather systems andsnational, boundaries, reducing generation variability, (ii)sPerform the dual role of connecting wind... |

3 |
Integration of h.v.d.c. links with fastdecoupled load-flow solutions
- Arrillaga, Bodger
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rectly used for the VSC-MTDC.sThe solution methods for HVDC power flow are generallysdivided in sequential and unified methods. The unifieds(simultaneous) method was originally suggested bysArrillaga =-=[13]-=-and co-workers.The AC and DC system aressolved together [14], [15], the DC equations along with thespower flow equations, consequently solving the combinedsset simultaneously. The sequential method wa... |

3 |
A new, fast technique for load-flow solution of integrated multi-terminal DC/AC system
- El-Marsafawy, Mathur
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...power flow are generallysdivided in sequential and unified methods. The unifieds(simultaneous) method was originally suggested bysArrillaga [13]and co-workers.The AC and DC system aressolved together =-=[14]-=-, [15], the DC equations along with thespower flow equations, consequently solving the combinedsset simultaneously. The sequential method was proposedsby Reeve et al [16]. It solves the DC system equa... |

3 |
Versatile Load Flow Method for Multi-Terminal HVDC Systems
- Reeve, Fahmy, et al.
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...DC system aressolved together [14], [15], the DC equations along with thespower flow equations, consequently solving the combinedsset simultaneously. The sequential method was proposedsby Reeve et al =-=[16]-=-. It solves the DC system equationssusing interface variables as computed from AC power flows[17], [18]. Sequential approach is quite easy to developsand be integrated into an existing AC based power ... |

3 |
Implementation aspects of a sequential AC/DC power flow computation algorithm for multi-terminal VSC HVDC systems
- Beerten, Coles
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ations have beenslately for MTDC.sTemesgen et al [19], presents a numerical iteration basedsupon Newton-Raphson approximation for losslesssconverter stations using the unified approach. Beerten et als=-=[20]-=-, [21] have used the sequential approach for thesMTDC power flow problem. They have included converterslosses and have defined the power set-points with respectsto the system bus. In [22] the concept ... |

3 |
Clean Power from the Deserts, The DESERTEC Concept for Energy, Water and Climate Security, Whitebook 4 th Edition
- Foundation
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rialised yet. While the basic technologysmight seem available, several technical limitations stillsexist [10]. Many Supergrid topologies have been proposedsor studied by different organizations [31], =-=[32]-=-, [33].sHowever, regulatory and policies aspects have beensdefined such as A single planner (European Network ofsTransmission System Operators for Electricity, Entso-e), assingle operator (ISO), a sin... |

3 |
Friends of Supergrind. Position paper on the EC Communication for a European Infrastructure Package. Available: http://www.friendsofthesupergrid.eu/documentation.aspx BIOGRAPHIES Francisco M. González-Longatt (S’01, M’03, SM’ 2009) was born in Cagua-Venez
- FOSG
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...A ENGLISH CHANNEL KATTEGAT DENMARK GERMANY NETHERLANDS BELGIUM UNITED KINGDOM IRELAND www.fglongatt.org.ve Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt, PhD Octubre 2011 Manchester, UK NORWAY Fig. 7. Supergrid Phase I =-=[35]-=-.sEnergy from wind generation clusters from UK east coastswill be collected at SuperNodes at Firth of Forth, DoggersBank/Hornsea and Norfolk Bank which will besconnected together and interconnected wi... |

2 |
European Offshore SuperGrid – Creating a More Powerful Europe," presented at the CIEP Seminar 'Standard grids, smart grids, super grids: All the same, all different, complementary, not compatible?', Clingendael Institute
- O'Kane
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g the rising energysrequirements in a manner that is: sustainable, secure, andscompetitive. No single answer is readily available but theresare several aspects to consider regarding primary resourcess=-=[1]-=-: (i) greater energy efficiency and conservation, (ii)sincreased use of resources that are secure, indigenous,ssustainable, clean and competitive. A realistic solution issbased on a primary energy sou... |

2 |
Teck, "Multi-terminal DC transmission system for wind-farms
- Weixing, Boon
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ength. It seems thatsadvances on technologies open the door for VSC HVDCssystems at higher voltage and at higher power range,swhich is making multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) system astechnical possibility =-=[3]-=-, [4], [5], [6], [7].sA meshed MTDC system enables the opportunity tosconstruct a whole overlaying DC Supergrid, a truly panEuropean electricity super highway [8]. Supergrid issdefined as "a pan-Europ... |

2 |
Power Flow Analysis in MTDCAC Systems- New Approach
- Padiyar, Kalyanaraman
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...flow are generallysdivided in sequential and unified methods. The unifieds(simultaneous) method was originally suggested bysArrillaga [13]and co-workers.The AC and DC system aressolved together [14], =-=[15]-=-, the DC equations along with thespower flow equations, consequently solving the combinedsset simultaneously. The sequential method was proposedsby Reeve et al [16]. It solves the DC system equationss... |

2 |
A new approach to AC-DC load flow analysis
- El-Hawary, Ibrahim
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...onsequently solving the combinedsset simultaneously. The sequential method was proposedsby Reeve et al [16]. It solves the DC system equationssusing interface variables as computed from AC power flows=-=[17]-=-, [18]. Sequential approach is quite easy to developsand be integrated into an existing AC based power flowssoftware while for the unified approach a wholesimplementation is needed. Few publications h... |

2 |
The power flow algorithm for balanced and unbalanced bipolar multiterminal ac–dc systems
- Ugur
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ently solving the combinedsset simultaneously. The sequential method was proposedsby Reeve et al [16]. It solves the DC system equationssusing interface variables as computed from AC power flows[17], =-=[18]-=-. Sequential approach is quite easy to developsand be integrated into an existing AC based power flowssoftware while for the unified approach a wholesimplementation is needed. Few publications have be... |

2 |
Power flow analysis of multiterminal HVDC networks
- Haileselassie, Uhlen
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to developsand be integrated into an existing AC based power flowssoftware while for the unified approach a wholesimplementation is needed. Few publications have beenslately for MTDC.sTemesgen et al =-=[19]-=-, presents a numerical iteration basedsupon Newton-Raphson approximation for losslesssconverter stations using the unified approach. Beerten et als[20], [21] have used the sequential approach for thes... |

1 |
European Wind Energy Association: Policy/Project -Offshore Wind. Available: http://www.ewea.org/index.php?id=203
- EWEA
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cost-free: wind power. Europe's offshore windspotential is enormous and able to meet Europe’s demandsseven times over. There are 150 GW of offshore windsprojects already in various stages of planning =-=[2]-=-. A 126sGW capacity is expected to be installed in 2030,sproducing 530 TWh of electricity annually.sThe North Sea has a vast potential for renewable energysgeneration: offshore wind power, tidal and w... |