#### DMCA

## Do Borders Really Slash Trade (2015)

### Citations

669 | Gravity with gravitas: A solution to the border puzzle. - Anderson, Wincoop - 2003 |

325 |
The six major puzzles in international macroeconomics: Is there a common cause?,
- Obstfeld, Rogoff
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...2411S). The views expressed here are ours and not necessarily those of the Czech National Bank. An online appendix with data and code is available at meta-analysis.cz/border. 1 Introduction The finding that international borders significantly reduce trade, first reported by McCallum (1995), has become a stylized fact of international economics. A high ratio of trade within national borders to trade across borders, after controlling for other trade determinants, implies large unobserved border barriers, an implausibly high elasticity of substitution between domestic and foreign goods, or both. Obstfeld & Rogoff (2001) include the border effect among the six major puzzles in international macroeconomics, and dozens of researchers have attempted to shrink McCallum’s original estimates. Researchers have proposed several methodological solutions to the border puzzle, such as the inclusion of multilateral resistance terms, consistent measurement of within and betweencountry distance, and use of disaggregated data. But the border effects reported in the literature are, on average, still close to those estimated by McCallum (1995): regions are likely to trade with foreign regions about fifteen times less than wit... |

244 |
National Borders Matter: Canada-U.S.
- McCallum
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hank Jan Babecky, Oxana Babecka-Kucharcukova, Anne- Celia Disdier, Jarko Fidrmuc, Keith Head, Jiri Schwarz, Tom Stanley, Borek Vasicek, Diana Zigraiova, and seminar participants at Charles University and the Czech National Bank for their helpful comments. We acknowledge support from the Czech Science Foundation (grant #15-02411S). The views expressed here are ours and not necessarily those of the Czech National Bank. An online appendix with data and code is available at meta-analysis.cz/border. 1 Introduction The finding that international borders significantly reduce trade, first reported by McCallum (1995), has become a stylized fact of international economics. A high ratio of trade within national borders to trade across borders, after controlling for other trade determinants, implies large unobserved border barriers, an implausibly high elasticity of substitution between domestic and foreign goods, or both. Obstfeld & Rogoff (2001) include the border effect among the six major puzzles in international macroeconomics, and dozens of researchers have attempted to shrink McCallum’s original estimates. Researchers have proposed several methodological solutions to the border puzzle, such as the inc... |

178 | Benchmark priors for Bayesian model averaging
- Fernandez, Ley, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... in a gravity equation on the dummy variable that equals one for within-country trade flows. PIP = posterior inclusion probability. SD = standard deviation. In the frequentist check we only include explanatory variables with PIP > 0.3. The standard errors in the frequentist check are clustered at both the study and data set level (the implementation of two-way clustering follows Cameron et al., 2011). In this specification we use the beta-binomial prior advocated by Ley & Steel (2009) (the prior model probabilities are the same for all possible model sizes) and set Zellner’s g prior following Fernandez et al. (2001). More details on the BMA estimation are available in Table A2 and Figure A2. A detailed description of all variables is available in Table 4. 32 Table 8: Robustness check—unweighted regressions Response variable: Bayesian model averaging Frequentist check (OLS) Estimate of Home Post. mean Post. SD PIP Coef. Std. er. p-value Data characteristics Mid-year of data -0.025 0.003 1.000 -0.027 0.006 0.000 Panel data 0.215 0.165 0.695 0.283 0.155 0.069 Disaggregated 0.619 0.120 1.000 0.537 0.235 0.022 Obs. per year 0.060 0.054 0.617 0.105 0.127 0.407 No. of years 0.022 0.050 0.195 Countries examined ... |

170 |
Wheat From Chaff: Meta-analysis as quantitative literature review
- Stanley
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ish over time and do not converge to a consensus value that could be used for calibrations. Our goal in this paper is to collect the empirical estimates of the border effect, examine why they vary, and compute a benchmark value for different regions conditional on the implementation of major innovations in the gravity equation. That is, using previously reported results we construct a large synthetic study that estimates the border effect, but corrects for potential publication or misspecification biases. We employ the framework of meta-analysis, the quantitative method of research synthesis (Stanley, 2001). Meta-analysis has been used in economics by, for instance, Card & Krueger (1995) on the employment effects of minimum wage increases, Disdier & Head (2008) on the impact of distance on trade, Havranek & Irsova (2011) on the relation between foreign investment and local firms’ productivity, and Chetty et al. (2011) on the intertemporal elasticity of substitution in labor supply. We collect 32 aspects of studies, such as the characteristics of data, estimation, inclusion of control variables, number of citations, and information on the publication outlet. To explore how these characteristics a... |

148 |
04). One money, one market: the effect of common currencies on trade.
- Rose
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...all studies examined is available in the online appendix at meta-analysis.cz/border. We apply three inclusion criteria. First, the study must investigate the effect of international borders. That is, we exclude studies estimating intranational border effects (for example, Wolf, 2000). We expect the mechanism driving border effects in intranational trade to be different enough to call for a separate meta-analysis. Second, we exclude papers that include the “same nation” dummy in the gravity equation as a control variable for territories, such as the overseas departments of France (for example, Rose, 2000). The “same nation” dummy has little variation and often captures trade between a large country and its small territories. Third, we only include studies that provide standard errors for their estimates—or statistics from which standard errors can be computed. Without estimates of standard errors we cannot test for publication bias in the literature. While we conduct the search using English keywords, we do not further exclude any studies based on the language of publication. The 61 studies that conform to our selection criteria are listed in Appendix B. Of these, 48 are published in refereed ... |

138 |
Intra-National versus International Trade: How Stubborn are Nations in global Integration.
- Wei
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...iate the danger of typos and mistakes, both of us collect the data independently and correct inconsistencies by comparing the two data sets. The final data set is available in the online appendix at meta-analysis.cz/border. Figure 2 shows a box plot of the estimates reported in the primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011... |

101 |
Do National Borders Matter for Quebec’s Trade?”
- Helliwell
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson an... |

96 |
Border Effects and the Gravity Equation: Consistent Methods for Estimation.
- Feenstra
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figure shows a box plot of the estimates of the home coefficient (the coefficient estimated ... |

96 |
Intra-National Versus International Trade in the European Union: Why Do National Borders Matter?”.
- Chen
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figure shows a box plot of the estimates of the home coefficient (the coefficient estimated in a gravity equation on the dummy variable that equals one for... |

91 |
National borders and international trade: evidence from the European Union.
- Nitsch
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. ... |

89 |
Bonus Vetus OLS: A simple method for approximating international trade-cost effects using the gravity equation.
- Baier, Bergstrand
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figure shows a box plot of the estimates of the home coefficient (the coefficient estimated in a gravity equation on the dummy variable that equals one for within-country trade flows) reported in individual studies. Full references for the studies included in the meta-analysis are available in Appendix B. 7 Table 1: Border effects differ across countries Unweighted Weighted No. of estimates Mean 95% conf. int. Mean 95% co... |

77 | Non-Europe : The Magnitude and Causes of Market Fragmentation
- Head, Mayer
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...me coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) A... |

68 | Are Micro and Macro Labor Supply Elasticities Consistent? A Review
- Chetty, Guren, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... gravity equation. That is, using previously reported results we construct a large synthetic study that estimates the border effect, but corrects for potential publication or misspecification biases. We employ the framework of meta-analysis, the quantitative method of research synthesis (Stanley, 2001). Meta-analysis has been used in economics by, for instance, Card & Krueger (1995) on the employment effects of minimum wage increases, Disdier & Head (2008) on the impact of distance on trade, Havranek & Irsova (2011) on the relation between foreign investment and local firms’ productivity, and Chetty et al. (2011) on the intertemporal elasticity of substitution in labor supply. We collect 32 aspects of studies, such as the characteristics of data, estimation, inclusion of control variables, number of citations, and information on the publication outlet. To explore how these characteristics affect the estimates of the border effect, we employ Bayesian model averaging (Raftery et al., 1997). The method addresses the model uncertainty inherent in meta-analysis by estimating regressions comprising the potential subsets of the study aspects and weighting them by statistics related to the goodness of fit. Ou... |

68 | Illusory border effects: distance mismeasurement inflates estimates of home bias in trade,”
- Head, Mayer
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anders... |

63 | On the effect of prior assumptions in Bayesian model averaging with applications to growth regression
- Ley, Steel
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...how that these intuitive priors yield the best predictive performance. Nevertheless, there are obviously many other ways of choosing the priors, and the choice could influence our results. The disadvantage of the uniform model prior is that it gives more weight to models with the mean number of variables, which is 32/2 = 16 in our case. Such models appear most frequently among the subsets of all the 232 possible models. Nevertheless, the true model may only contain a few variables, so the emphasis on large models may be counterproductive. An alternative is the beta-binomial prior advocated by Ley & Steel (2009), which gives the same prior probability 31 Table 7: Robustness check—alternative priors for BMA Response variable: Bayesian model averaging Frequentist check (OLS) Estimate of Home Post. mean Post. SD PIP Coef. Std. er. p-value Data characteristics Mid-year of data 0.003 0.003 0.466 -0.001 0.012 0.926 Panel data 0.004 0.062 0.102 Disaggregated 0.745 0.143 1.000 0.545 0.306 0.075 Obs. per year 0.000 0.008 0.060 No. of years 0.113 0.082 0.738 0.100 0.098 0.310 Countries examined Canada 0.724 0.126 1.000 0.823 0.317 0.010 US -1.183 0.133 1.000 -1.131 0.227 0.000 EU -0.518 0.161 0.995 -0.548 0.38... |

59 |
Meta-Regression Methods for Detecting and Estimating Empirical Effects in the Presence of Publication Selection
- Stanley
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n) for the ratio of estimates to their standard errors, the estimates and standard errors should be statistically independent quantities. In contrast, if statistically significant estimates are preferred, researchers will search for large estimates of the semi-elasticity in order to offset the standard errors and produce large t-statistics, which will lead to a correlation between the semi-elasticies and standard errors. Similarly, when researchers discard negative estimates, a positive relationship arises between the reported estimates and their standard errors because of heteroskedasticity (Stanley, 2008): HOMEij = HOME0 + β · SE(HOMEij) + uij , (2) 13 where HOMEij are i-th estimates of the semi-elasticity reported in j-th study, SE(HOMEij) are the reported standard errors of the semi-elasticity estimates, HOME0 is the mean semi-elasticity corrected for potential publication bias, β measures the extent of publication bias, and uij is a normal disturbance term. For example, if the true mean semi-elasticity was zero (implying no border effect) but all researchers reported the 5% of estimates that are positive and statistically significant, the estimated β would be close to two: the researchers w... |

39 |
Measuring internal trade distances: a new method applied to estimate provincial border effects in Canada.”
- Helliwell, Verdier
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) ... |

37 | Multinational Companies and Productivity Spillovers: - Gorg, Strobl - 2001 |

33 |
Time-Series Minimum-Wage Studies:
- Card, Krueger
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or calibrations. Our goal in this paper is to collect the empirical estimates of the border effect, examine why they vary, and compute a benchmark value for different regions conditional on the implementation of major innovations in the gravity equation. That is, using previously reported results we construct a large synthetic study that estimates the border effect, but corrects for potential publication or misspecification biases. We employ the framework of meta-analysis, the quantitative method of research synthesis (Stanley, 2001). Meta-analysis has been used in economics by, for instance, Card & Krueger (1995) on the employment effects of minimum wage increases, Disdier & Head (2008) on the impact of distance on trade, Havranek & Irsova (2011) on the relation between foreign investment and local firms’ productivity, and Chetty et al. (2011) on the intertemporal elasticity of substitution in labor supply. We collect 32 aspects of studies, such as the characteristics of data, estimation, inclusion of control variables, number of citations, and information on the publication outlet. To explore how these characteristics affect the estimates of the border effect, we employ Bayesian model averaging (Raft... |

33 | Gravity Equations: Workhorse, Toolkit, and Cookbook,”
- Head, Mayer
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he analysis. Fourth, we include dummy variables that capture how the authors treat multilateral resistance. Five, we distinguish between the different types of treatment of zero trade flows. Sixth, we include dummy variables reflecting whether the gravity equation uses control variables. Finally, we include information on publication and citation characteristics of the studies. Our intention is to introduce the possible reasons for heterogeneity in the estimated border effects, not to present a detailed survey of the methods used in estimating the gravity equation. For a survey of methods see Head & Mayer (2014). Table 4: Description and summary statistics of regression variables Variable Description Mean SD WM Home The coefficient estimated in a gravity equation on the dummy variable that equals one for within-country trade flows (or minus the coefficient on the dummy variable that equals one for cross-border flows). 3.03 1.60 2.59 SE The estimated standard error of home. 0.30 0.35 0.26 Data characteristics Mid-year of data The midpoint of the sample on which the gravity equation is estimated (base is the sample minimum: 1899). 91.3 16.0 91.7 Panel data = 1 if panel data are used in the gravity equa... |

30 |
The Puzzling Persistence of the Distance Effect
- Disdier, Head
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es of the border effect, examine why they vary, and compute a benchmark value for different regions conditional on the implementation of major innovations in the gravity equation. That is, using previously reported results we construct a large synthetic study that estimates the border effect, but corrects for potential publication or misspecification biases. We employ the framework of meta-analysis, the quantitative method of research synthesis (Stanley, 2001). Meta-analysis has been used in economics by, for instance, Card & Krueger (1995) on the employment effects of minimum wage increases, Disdier & Head (2008) on the impact of distance on trade, Havranek & Irsova (2011) on the relation between foreign investment and local firms’ productivity, and Chetty et al. (2011) on the intertemporal elasticity of substitution in labor supply. We collect 32 aspects of studies, such as the characteristics of data, estimation, inclusion of control variables, number of citations, and information on the publication outlet. To explore how these characteristics affect the estimates of the border effect, we employ Bayesian model averaging (Raftery et al., 1997). The method addresses the model uncertainty inherent in m... |

30 | Default Priors and Predictive Performance in Bayesian Model Averaging, with Application to Growth Determinants,
- Eicher, Papageorgiou, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h is the sum of the posterior model probabilities of the regressions in which the variable is included. The posterior inclusion probability reflects how likely it is that the variable should be included in the true model. Note that while BMA can be used to select the “best” model with a particular set of explanatory variables, we focus on the average of all models weighted by posterior probability; that is, we do not drop any explanatory variables. Diagnostics of our BMA exercise are available in Appendix A. More details on BMA in general can be found, for example, in Raftery et al. (1997) or Eicher et al. (2011). 4.2 Results Figure 5 reports our results concerning the model inclusion of different explanatory variables in the BMA exercise. The columns in the figure show the different regression models, and the width of the columns denotes the posterior model probability. The rows show the individual variables sorted by posterior inclusion probability in descending order. If the cell corresponding to a variable is empty, it means that the variable is not included in the model. Blue color (darker in 23 F ig u re 5: M o d el in cl u si on in B ay es ia n m o d el av er ag in g M o d el In cl u si o n B a... |

23 |
Benchmark Priors Revisited: On Adaptive Shrinkage and the Supermodel Effect in Bayesian Model Averaging.” IMF Working Papers 09/202, International Monetary Fund.
- Feldkircher, Zeugner
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lly, we would also like to run regressions containing different subsets of the explanatory variables to see whether our results are robust. With such a large number of explanatory variables we face substantial model uncertainty, which can be addressed by Bayesian model averaging (BMA). BMA runs many regressions involving subsets of the 32 potential explanatory variables. With 232 possible combinations, it would take several months to estimate all the regressions, so our approach relies on a Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm that walks through the potential models (we use the bms R package by Feldkircher & Zeugner, 2009). For each model BMA computes a weight, called the posterior model probability, which is analogous to information criteria or adjusted R-squared and captures how well the model fits the data. The regression coefficients reported by BMA are weighted averages of the many estimated models; instead of standard errors, BMA reports posterior standard deviations reflecting the distribution of the regression parameters retrieved from the individual models. For each variable we compute the posterior inclusion probability, which is the sum of the posterior model probabilities of the regressions in which... |

19 | Dual’ Gravity: Using Spatial Econometrics To Control For Multilateral Resistance.”
- Behrens, Ertur, et al.
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figure shows a box plot of the estimates of the home coefficient (the coefficient estimated in a gravity equation on the dummy variable that equals one for within-country trade flows) reported in individual studies. Full references for the studies included in the meta-analysis are available in Appendix B. 7 Table 1:... |

18 | Estimating vertical spillovers from FDI: Why results vary and what the true effect is.”
- Havranek, Irsova
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e a benchmark value for different regions conditional on the implementation of major innovations in the gravity equation. That is, using previously reported results we construct a large synthetic study that estimates the border effect, but corrects for potential publication or misspecification biases. We employ the framework of meta-analysis, the quantitative method of research synthesis (Stanley, 2001). Meta-analysis has been used in economics by, for instance, Card & Krueger (1995) on the employment effects of minimum wage increases, Disdier & Head (2008) on the impact of distance on trade, Havranek & Irsova (2011) on the relation between foreign investment and local firms’ productivity, and Chetty et al. (2011) on the intertemporal elasticity of substitution in labor supply. We collect 32 aspects of studies, such as the characteristics of data, estimation, inclusion of control variables, number of citations, and information on the publication outlet. To explore how these characteristics affect the estimates of the border effect, we employ Bayesian model averaging (Raftery et al., 1997). The method addresses the model uncertainty inherent in meta-analysis by estimating regressions comprising the potenti... |

18 |
Gravity Redux : Estimation of Gravity-Equation Coecients, Elasticities of Substitution and General Equilibrium Comparative Statics under Asymmetric Bilateral Trade Costs,
- Bergstrand, Egger, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...kubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figure shows a box plot of the estimates of the home coefficient (the coefficient estimated in a gravity equation on the dummy variable that equals one for within-country trade flows) reported in individual studies. Full references for the studies included in the meta-analysis are av... |

17 |
Structural estimation and the border puzzle”,
- Balistreri, Hillberry
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...icient by about 1. Next, more years of data available for the estimation translates into larger border effects, but the posterior inclusion probability of this variable is only 0.81. For all other variables in this category we get weak posterior inclusion probabilities. Regional differences help explain the heterogeneity in the estimated border effects; the posterior inclusion probabilities for all the region dummies are decisive. Researchers typically obtain the largest border effects for developing and transition countries, followed by Canada. The smallest estimates are reported for the US. Balistreri & Hillberry (2007) discuss how the small 25 Table 5: Explaining the differences in the estimates of the border effect Response variable: Bayesian model averaging Frequentist check (OLS) Estimate of Home Post. mean Post. SD PIP Coef. Std. er. p-value Data characteristics Mid-year of data 0.003 0.004 0.542 0.001 0.011 0.915 Panel data 0.004 0.055 0.068 Disaggregated 0.800 0.138 1.000 0.654 0.359 0.069 Obs. per year 0.001 0.008 0.048 No. of years 0.136 0.079 0.811 0.147 0.107 0.170 Countries examined Canada 0.718 0.126 1.000 0.741 0.322 0.021 US -1.177 0.134 1.000 -1.135 0.239 0.000 EU -0.518 0.165 0.992 -0.639 0.... |

17 |
Gravity Model Specification and the Effect of the Canada-U.S.
- Wall
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nger of typos and mistakes, both of us collect the data independently and correct inconsistencies by comparing the two data sets. The final data set is available in the online appendix at meta-analysis.cz/border. Figure 2 shows a box plot of the estimates reported in the primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and ... |

15 |
Aggregation Bias, Compositional Change, and the Border Effect. In:
- HILLBERRY
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and... |

15 |
Border effects and the availability of domestic products abroad.”
- Evans
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figure shows a box plot of the estimates of the home coefficient (the coefficient estimated in a gravity ... |

15 | Trade in the Triad: How Easy is the Access to Large Markets?, - Fontagne, Mayer, et al. - 2005 |

14 |
Do We Really Know that
- Rose
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Furthermore, Head & Mayer (2014) also collect estimates of the regression coefficient for the “same nation dummy,” which serves as a control variable in many applications focusing on issues other than the border effect: for example, the trade effect of currency unions. The same nation dummy usually has little variation and in most cases captures trade flows between large countries and their territories, such as between France and its overseas departments. The estimated coefficient for the dummy is often statistically insignificant and close to zero (see, for example, the results presented in Rose, 2004), which is the primary reason why Head & Mayer (2014) obtain a smaller mean border effect than we do. They also include estimates of intranational home bias (for example, Wolf, 2000), which we prefer to exclude and 36 focus on the effect of international borders. In consequence, only 10 primary studies overlap in the two meta-analyses. Head & Mayer (2014) do not explicitly explore the heterogeneity in the estimates, but compute separate summary statistics for studies that control for multilateral resistance. For these studies they report a mean home coefficient of 1.9 and a median of 1.6. That... |

14 | The border effect in the Japanese market: A Gravity Model analysis.”
- Okubo
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the estimates reported in the primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013)... |

10 |
Are All Economic Facts Greatly Exaggerated? Theory Competition and Selectivity.”
- Doucouliagos, Stanley
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... compute the general equilibrium impact of borders conditional on best practice methodology, we find that borders reduce international trade worldwide by only one third. The border effects differ significantly across regions—we obtain large estimates for emerging countries, but relatively small estimates for most OECD countries. We find little evidence of publication bias in the literature: researchers do not preferentially report small, large, or statistically significant estimates of the border effect. This result is 3 remarkable considering a recent survey of estimates of publication bias, Doucouliagos & Stanley (2013), who show that the problem of selecting intuitive and statistically significant estimates concerns most fields of empirical economics. For example, Ashenfelter et al. (1999) find evidence of publication bias in the literature on the returns from schooling, Gorg & Strobl (2001) in the estimates of foreign direct investment spillovers, and Rusnak et al. (2013) in the literature on the transmission of monetary policy shocks to prices. Unlike many other important parameters in economics, it is easy for researchers to obtain statistically significant estimates of the border effect, so the literat... |

10 |
Bias in Meta-Analysis Detected by a Simple,
- Egger, Smith, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ce elasticity of water demand is exaggerated fourfold because of publication bias. The problem is widely recognized in medical science, and the best medical journals now require registration of clinical trials before publication, so that researchers can find the results of all trials, even though some are not submitted for publication. In a similar vein, the American Economic Association has agreed to establish a registry of randomized experiments “to counter publication bias” (Siegfried, 2012, p. 648). The presence of publication bias can be examined visually using the so-called funnel plot (Egger et al., 1997). It is a scatter plot showing the magnitude of the estimated effects on the horizontal axis and the precision (the inverse of the estimated standard error) on the vertical axis. If the literature is not influenced by publication bias, the most precise estimates of the effect will be close to the mean underlying effect. As the precision decreases, the estimates get more dispersed, forming a symmetrical inverted funnel. In the presence of publication bias the funnel becomes asymmetrical (if researchers discard estimates of a particular sign or magnitude), or hollow (if researchers discard stati... |

9 |
Picture This: A simple graph that reveals much ado about research
- Stanley, Doucouliagos
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng close to the average reported semi-elasticity. Second, the funnels are not hollow, and even estimates with very little precision (and, thus, small p-values) are reported. Third, the funnel in panel (a) has multiple peaks, which suggests heterogeneity in the estimated border effects. Signs of heterogeneity are not surprising given our estimates of 12 cross-country differences in the previous section. We conclude that typical funnel plots reported in economics meta-analyses show much clearer signs of publication bias than what we observe in the literature on border effects (see, for example, Stanley & Doucouliagos, 2010). Figure 4: Funnel plots suggest little publication bias (a) All estimates 0 10 20 30 40 50 P re ci si on o f t he e st im at e (1 /S E ) −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient (b) Median estimates reported in studies 0 10 20 30 40 P re ci si on o f t he e st im at e (1 /S E ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Estimate of the home coefficient Notes: In the absence of publication bias the funnel should be symmetrical around the most precise estimates of the home coefficient (the coefficient estimated in a gravity equation on the dummy variable that equals one for within-country trade flows). The dashed vertic... |

9 |
Intra-European Trade of Manufacturing Goods: An extension of the Gravity Model.
- Vancauteren, Weiserbs
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s and mistakes, both of us collect the data independently and correct inconsistencies by comparing the two data sets. The final data set is available in the online appendix at meta-analysis.cz/border. Figure 2 shows a box plot of the estimates reported in the primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (20... |

8 |
Regional trade and “the medicine line”: The national border effect in U.S. commodity flow data.”
- Hillberry
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007)... |

8 | Market access in global and regional trade. - Sousa, Mayer, et al. - 2011 |

6 |
The border effects in Spain: an industry-level analysis.”
- Requena, Llano
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing the two data sets. The final data set is available in the online appendix at meta-analysis.cz/border. Figure 2 shows a box plot of the estimates reported in the primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglo... |

4 | How Much Does Geography Deflect Services Trade?
- Anderson, Milot, et al.
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...border trade flows, in which case we simply take the negative of the estimated coefficient. Sometimes, however, the dummy variable equals one only for trade flows crossing the border in one direction (for example, Anderson & Smith, 1999). Following the common practice to “better err on the side of inclusion” in meta-analysis (Stanley, 2001, p. 135), we choose to include the estimates of directional border effects, but control for this aspect of methodology to see whether it yields systematically different estimates. We also include the few border effect estimates that use services trade data (Anderson et al., 2014), although almost all studies focus on the arguably less home-biased goods trade. Finally, the collection of data is labor-intensive, since we gather information on 32 aspects of estimation design for all 1,271 estimates. To alleviate the danger of typos and mistakes, both of us collect the data independently and correct inconsistencies by comparing the two data sets. The final data set is available in the online appendix at meta-analysis.cz/border. Figure 2 shows a box plot of the estimates reported in the primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It i... |

4 |
Border Effect Estimates for France and Germany Combining International Trade and Intranational Transport Flows.”
- Helble
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop ... |

3 |
Trade Effects of the Euro: a
- Baldwin, Taglioni
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of internal and external distance. We also include a dummy variable that equals one for estimates obtained with a measure of distance computed from actual road or sea routes instead of the great-circle formula (6% of all estimates). We expect that the great-circle formula overstates internal distance and thus leads to an upward bias in the estimated border effect. Regions are likely to be connected more efficiently with other regions in the same country than with foreign regions that show the same great-circle distance (Braconier & Pisu, 2013). A couple of studies in our data set commit what Baldwin & Taglioni (2007) call the “silver medal mistake” in estimating the gravity equation: they use total or average trade flows as the response variable and compute the sum or average before taking logs. About 14% of studies use an asymmetric definition of border effects, which means that they examine the difficulty of crossing borders in one direction (for example, Anderson & Smith, 1999). Finally, we control for the case where researchers use instruments to account for the endogeneity of GDP in the gravity equation (6% of all estimates). Treatment of multilateral resistance We include five dummy variables to con... |

3 |
Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee:
- Siegfried
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re as a whole exaggerates the effect in question. For example, Stanley (2005) finds that the mean estimate of the price elasticity of water demand is exaggerated fourfold because of publication bias. The problem is widely recognized in medical science, and the best medical journals now require registration of clinical trials before publication, so that researchers can find the results of all trials, even though some are not submitted for publication. In a similar vein, the American Economic Association has agreed to establish a registry of randomized experiments “to counter publication bias” (Siegfried, 2012, p. 648). The presence of publication bias can be examined visually using the so-called funnel plot (Egger et al., 1997). It is a scatter plot showing the magnitude of the estimated effects on the horizontal axis and the precision (the inverse of the estimated standard error) on the vertical axis. If the literature is not influenced by publication bias, the most precise estimates of the effect will be close to the mean underlying effect. As the precision decreases, the estimates get more dispersed, forming a symmetrical inverted funnel. In the presence of publication bias the funnel becomes a... |

3 |
Trade bloc formation in inter-war Japan: A gravity model analysis.”
- Okubo
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... box plot of the estimates reported in the primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand ... |

2 |
Sectoral border effects and the geographic concentration of production.
- CAFISO
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figure shows a box plot of the estimates of the home coefficient (the coefficient estimated in a gravity equation on the dummy variable that equals one for within-country trade flows) r... |

2 |
The ‘File Drawer Problem’ and Tolerance for
- Rosenthal
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...shed in these journals and they report a median semi-elasticity of 1.7, implying a border effect of 5.5, less than a third of the overall mean effect. Studies in respected journals seem to report smaller semi-elasticities, but the pattern may be explained by differences in methodology. Another potential reason for between-study differences in estimates is publication selection. 3 Publication Bias Publication selection bias arises when estimates have a different probability of being reported based on their magnitude or statistical significance. Sometimes it is called the “file drawer problem” (Rosenthal, 1979): researchers may hide in their file drawers estimates that are insignificant 11 or have an unintuitive sign and search for estimates that are easier to publish. Publication bias has been identified in empirical economics by, for example, DeLong & Lang (1992), Card & Krueger (1995), and Ashenfelter et al. (1999). In a survey of examinations of publication bias, Doucouliagos & Stanley (2013) find that most fields of empirical economics are seriously affected by the problem. Because the potential presence of publication bias determines the weights that should be used in meta-analysis, we test fo... |

2 |
Has the Border Narrowed?” The North American
- Ceglowski
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figure shows a box plot of the estimates of the home coefficient (the coefficient estimated in a gravity equation on the dummy variable that equals one for within-country t... |

2 |
The treatment effect of borders on trade: The great war and the disintegration of
- Heinemeyer
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson an... |

2 |
The disappearance of the border barrier in some European Union countries’ bilateral trade.”
- Minondo
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens... |

2 | Is the EU internal market suffering from an integration deficit? Estimating the ‘home-bias effect’.” Working paper, Centre for European Policy Studies. - Pacchioli - 2011 |

2 |
Monetary union, exchange rate variability and trade.
- Taglioni
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...correct inconsistencies by comparing the two data sets. The final data set is available in the online appendix at meta-analysis.cz/border. Figure 2 shows a box plot of the estimates reported in the primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) ... |

2 |
Structural Estimation of a Flexible Translog Gravity Model.” Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 1164,
- Tan
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dently and correct inconsistencies by comparing the two data sets. The final data set is available in the online appendix at meta-analysis.cz/border. Figure 2 shows a box plot of the estimates reported in the primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (200... |

1 |
Canadian Provinces in World Trade:
- Anderson, Smith
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figure shows a box plot of the estimates of the home coefficient (the coefficient estimated in a gravity equation on the dummy variable that equals one for within-country trade flows) reported in individual studies. Full references for the studies included in the meta-analysis are available in Appendix B. 7 Table 1: Border effects differ across countries Unweighted Weighted No. of estimates Mean 95% conf. int. Mean 95% conf. int. Canada 213 2.86 2.66 3.06 2.81 2.58 3.05 US 64 0.72 0.03 1.40 1.36 0.99 1.73 EU 263 2.55 2.04 3.05 2.59 2.18 2.99 OECD 98 2.3... |

1 |
How to Solve the Price Puzzle?
- Rusnak, Havranek, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ias in the literature: researchers do not preferentially report small, large, or statistically significant estimates of the border effect. This result is 3 remarkable considering a recent survey of estimates of publication bias, Doucouliagos & Stanley (2013), who show that the problem of selecting intuitive and statistically significant estimates concerns most fields of empirical economics. For example, Ashenfelter et al. (1999) find evidence of publication bias in the literature on the returns from schooling, Gorg & Strobl (2001) in the estimates of foreign direct investment spillovers, and Rusnak et al. (2013) in the literature on the transmission of monetary policy shocks to prices. Unlike many other important parameters in economics, it is easy for researchers to obtain statistically significant estimates of the border effect, so the literature lacks the typical driver of publication selection. Estimates consistent with McCallum (1995) appear to be over-reported, but this fact does not bias the literature because McCallum’s estimates are close to the overall mean and median. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes how we collect data from studies and discusses the ... |

1 |
Intranational Home Bias In
- Wolf
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s 370 hits since 1995. We read the abstracts of all the studies and download those that show promise of containing empirical estimates of the border effect. Additionally, we examine the references of the studies and obtain other papers that might provide empirical estimates. We stop the search on January 1, 2014. The list of all studies examined is available in the online appendix at meta-analysis.cz/border. We apply three inclusion criteria. First, the study must investigate the effect of international borders. That is, we exclude studies estimating intranational border effects (for example, Wolf, 2000). We expect the mechanism driving border effects in intranational trade to be different enough to call for a separate meta-analysis. Second, we exclude papers that include the “same nation” dummy in the gravity equation as a control variable for territories, such as the overseas departments of France (for example, Rose, 2000). The “same nation” dummy has little variation and often captures trade between a large country and its small territories. Third, we only include studies that provide standard errors for their estimates—or statistics from which standard errors can be computed. Without esti... |

1 | Yotov (2010a): “Specialization: Pro- and Anti-globalizing, - Anderson, V - 1990 |

1 |
Gravity with Google Maps:
- Benz
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figure shows a box plot of the estimates of the home coefficient (the coefficient estimated in a gravity equation on the dummy variable that equals one for within-country trade flows) reported in individual studies. Full references for the studies included in the meta-analysis are available in A... |

1 | Why Has the Border Effect in the Japanese Machinery Sectors Declined?: The Role of
- Fukao, Okubo
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...all (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figure shows a box plot of the estimates of the home ... |

1 |
Revisiting the border effect in Europe and Spain: New results using region-to-region intra-national and inter-national flows.” Working paper, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid.
- Gallego, Llano
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figure shows a box plot of the... |

1 |
Competitiveness and interregional as well as international trade: The case of Catalonia.”
- Ghemawat, Llano, et al.
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (2009) Balistreli and Hillberry (2007) Baier and Bergstrand (2009) Anderson et al. (2014) Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) Anderson and Yotov (2010b) Anderson and Yotov (2010a) Anderson and Smith (1999b) Anderson and Smith (1999a) Notes: The figur... |

1 | The Drivers and Impediments for Cross-border eCommerce in the EU.” Working paper, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. - Gomez, Martens, et al. - 2013 |

1 |
Is the Border Effect an
- Llano, Minondo, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tween and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) Behrens et al. (2012b) Behrens et al. (2012a) Bas and Ledezma (200... |

1 | It’s Not Right But It’s Okay: On the Measurement of Intra- and International Trade Distances.” Working paper,
- Nitsch
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... reported in the primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy (2013) Chen (2004) Ceglowski (2000) Cafiso (2011b) Cafiso (2011a) Brulhart and Trionfetti (2009) Braconier and Pisu (2013) Bergstrand et al. (2013) Benz (2013) B... |

1 |
Gravity with gravitas: comment.” CPB Discussion Paper 111, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
- Straathof
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tencies by comparing the two data sets. The final data set is available in the online appendix at meta-analysis.cz/border. Figure 2 shows a box plot of the estimates reported in the primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002) Evans (2006) Evans (2003) Coughlin and Novy... |

1 | The Impact of Technical Barriers to Trade on Home Bias: An application to EU data.” Discussion Papers 2002032, Universite catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales.
- Vancauteren
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ct the data independently and correct inconsistencies by comparing the two data sets. The final data set is available in the online appendix at meta-analysis.cz/border. Figure 2 shows a box plot of the estimates reported in the primary studies; the heterogeneity both between and within studies is substantial. It is apparent, however, that most studies report 6 Figure 2: Estimated border effects vary widely −2 0 2 4 6 8 Estimate of the home coefficient de Sousa et al. (2012) de Almeida and da Silva (2007) da Silva et al. (2007) Wolf (2009) Wei (1996) Wall (2000) Vancauteren and Weiserbs (2011) Vancauteren (2002) Tan (2012) Taglioni (2004) Straathof (2008) Requena and Llano (2010) Pachioli (2011) Olper and Raimondi (2008c) Olper and Raimondi (2008b) Olper and Raimondi (2008a) Okubo (2007) Okubo (2004) Nitsch (2001) Nitsch (2000) Minondo (2007) McCallum (1995) Llano et al. (2011) Hillberry (2002) Hillberry (1998) Helliwell and Verdier (2001) Helliwell (1997) Helliwell (1996) Helble (2007) Heinemeyer (2007) Head and Mayer (2010) Head and Mayer (2000) Gomez−Herrera (2013) Gil−Pareja et al. (2005) Ghemawat et al. (2010) Gallego and Llano (2011) Fukao and Okubo (2011) Fontagne et al. (2005) Feenstra (2002)... |