### Citations

1402 |
Cramming more components onto integrated circuits, Electronics
- Moore
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...manufacturing processes are developed. For example according to “Moore’ssLaw”, the demand is the semiconductor industry with respect to the number of transistorssper chip will be doubled every 2 year =-=[2]-=-, and shrinking of device dimensions will bringscomplex manufacturing processes which could significantly impact the quality ofsproducts.sHence, advanced process control techniques are essentially nee... |

959 | Functional Data Analysis
- Ramsay, Silverman
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ature,sanalysis of nonstationary multivariate functional data has been investigated in statistics.sThe involved modeling techniques include nonparametric regression [28][29], functionalsdata analysis =-=[30]-=-, spatial statistics [31], and principal curve [32]. These methodologiesswere mainly proposed for exploratory study and are not directly applicable for processsmonitoring and control. Hence, this is a... |

713 |
Synchronization: A Universal Concept in Nonlinear Sciences, ser. Cambridge Nonlinear Science Series
- Pikovsky, Rosenblum, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... rhythm of signal pace should be applied whilesdiscarding the effect of amplitude. A m:n phase-locking between a pair of signals is thatsthe relative phase |mφ1-nφ2| is bounded, i.e., |mφ1-nφ2|<const =-=[37]-=-[38]. There are mainlysthree phase-locking statistics used to investigate the timing-correlation introduced insfollowing:s• Phase Coherence [39]: The phase coherence index is based on the coherencessp... |

392 | Principal curves
- Hastie, Stuetzle
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ional data has been investigated in statistics.sThe involved modeling techniques include nonparametric regression [28][29], functionalsdata analysis [30], spatial statistics [31], and principal curve =-=[32]-=-. These methodologiesswere mainly proposed for exploratory study and are not directly applicable for processsmonitoring and control. Hence, this is a lack of methodology which could integrate bothspro... |

315 |
Statistics for Spatial Data, Revised edition,
- Cressie
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tionary multivariate functional data has been investigated in statistics.sThe involved modeling techniques include nonparametric regression [28][29], functionalsdata analysis [30], spatial statistics =-=[31]-=-, and principal curve [32]. These methodologiesswere mainly proposed for exploratory study and are not directly applicable for processsmonitoring and control. Hence, this is a lack of methodology whic... |

158 |
Applied Regression Analysis, 3rd Ed.,
- Draper, Smith
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the Fourier expansion of Qk(.)’s willsbe predictors. The model coefficients ωi, 1 2, ,..., pm m mja , 1 2 , ,..., pm m m jb , and ρl can be estimatedsusing the Generalized Least Squares (GLS) method =-=[76]-=-.s4.2.2 Interaction Structure AnalysissThe proposed interaction structure analysis approach is outlined in Fig. 3. Sincesthe complexity of interaction analysis increases exponentially with the number ... |

115 | Functional Data Analysis, 2nd ed. - Ramsay, Silverman - 2005 |

113 |
Detection of n:m phase locking from noisy data: application to magnetoencephalography.
- TASS, MG, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...thm of signal pace should be applied whilesdiscarding the effect of amplitude. A m:n phase-locking between a pair of signals is thatsthe relative phase |mφ1-nφ2| is bounded, i.e., |mφ1-nφ2|<const [37]=-=[38]-=-. There are mainlysthree phase-locking statistics used to investigate the timing-correlation introduced insfollowing:s• Phase Coherence [39]: The phase coherence index is based on the coherencesspectr... |

100 | Applied multivariate statistical analysis, 4th edition, Prentic Hall, - Johnson, Wichern - 1998 |

65 | Correlations without synchrony
- Brody
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n reported in the literature to model correlationssamong nonstationary continuous signals. The most commonly used method is the crosscorrelogram which measures the cross-covariance of paired FPVs [33]=-=[34]-=-. This timedomain method is powerful, but if not used carefully can lead to spurious detectionsbecause of artifactual sharp peaks in the signals. Coherence and cross spectrum methodssaim to analyze th... |

55 |
A functional data-analytic approach to signal discrimination
- Hall, Poskitt, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...etric regression, i.e., tosapproximate curves with functions non-parametrically. Data collected under differentsprocess conditions can then be discriminated by estimated probability density functionss=-=[23]-=- or baseline functions [27]. Both of the two strategies assume that the collectedsfunctional data is well-summarized by the extracted features, estimated probabilitysdensity functions, or baseline. Ch... |

54 | Sampling properties of the spectrum and coherency of sequences of action potentials.
- Jarvis, Mitra
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rtifactual sharp peaks in the signals. Coherence and cross spectrum methodssaim to analyze the correlation of paired signals in the frequency domain and are mostscommonly used with continuous signals =-=[35]-=-. The correlation analysis based on thesesmethods might be affected both by amplitude fluctuations and by phase variability inssignals. Hence, the phase synchronization or phase-locking method has rec... |

54 |
The Fourier approach to the identification of functional coupling between neuronal spike trains,
- Rosenberg
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ative phase |mφ1-nφ2| is bounded, i.e., |mφ1-nφ2|<const [37][38]. There are mainlysthree phase-locking statistics used to investigate the timing-correlation introduced insfollowing:s• Phase Coherence =-=[39]-=-: The phase coherence index is based on the coherencesspectral estimator for bivariate time series. The instantaneous phase differencesbetween 2 signals can be obtained from the unit circle representa... |

51 |
On-line monitoring when the process yields a linear profile,
- Kang, Albin
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...approximate curves with functions non-parametrically. Data collected under differentsprocess conditions can then be discriminated by estimated probability density functionss[23] or baseline functions =-=[27]-=-. Both of the two strategies assume that the collectedsfunctional data is well-summarized by the extracted features, estimated probabilitysdensity functions, or baseline. Changes in these summaries in... |

46 |
Principal modes of variation for processes with continuous sample curves
- Castro, Lawton, et al.
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., functional datasimposes new dimensions and challenges for real-time process control because standardsstatistical procedures developed in SPC are not directly applicable for continuous samplescurves =-=[22]-=-.sTwo main strategies have been deployed in process control based on FPVs,sdepending on how the data is summarized. The first one is to extract “features” fromsfunctional data (e.g., wavelet coefficie... |

38 |
Cortico-muscular synchronization during isometric muscle contraction in humans as revealed by magnetoencephalography
- Gross, Tass, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...is always less than or equal tos1, taking a value of 1 only when the relative phase Φj remains constantsthroughout the observation period T.s2 1( ) j k i N k j k N t e N γ Φ = − = ∑ 9s• Entropy Index =-=[40]-=-: This method also first employs the 1:1 phase-locking idea toscompute Φj for each time point tk. A histogram of relative phase Φj for j = k-N, …,sk , the observation time window is then built . So th... |

33 | Detecting direction of coupling in interacting oscillators. Physical Review E,
- Rosenblum, Pikovsky
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...time domain, coherence, entropy, orsmutual information indices in phase domain have been proposed to detect synchrony ins53spaired signals [70-72]. A nonlinear dynamics model was further developed in =-=[73]-=- tosstudy phase synchronization:s)(),()(/ )(),()(/ 21222222 12111111 tfqdtd tfqdtd εφφφωφ εφφφωφ +++= +++=s(4.1)swhere φ1,2sare the phases of coupling variables, ω1,2 are the base angular frequencies ... |

32 |
The theory and design of plate glass polishing machines,”
- Preston
- 1927
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rface for accelerated and improved planarizationsperformance.sCMP studies roughly follow three categories (1) physics-driven modeling ofspolishing mechanism and predicting material removal rate (MRR) =-=[4]-=-, (2) experimentalsinvestigation of process parameters’ effects on CMP performance, and (3) data-drivensanalysis of process variables for condition monitoring and diagnosis. Since MRR is ascommonly us... |

32 |
Smoothing and Regression: Approaches, Computation, and Application
- Schimek
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... it is rarely seen in SPC literature,sanalysis of nonstationary multivariate functional data has been investigated in statistics.sThe involved modeling techniques include nonparametric regression [28]=-=[29]-=-, functionalsdata analysis [30], spatial statistics [31], and principal curve [32]. These methodologiesswere mainly proposed for exploratory study and are not directly applicable for processsmonitorin... |

31 |
Feature-preserving data compression of stamping tonnage information using wavelets
- Jin, Shi
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...functional data (e.g., wavelet coefficients [23-25], or slope and intercept [26]) and applysstandard procedures in multivariate statistics (e.g., T2 control charts) to features forsprocess monitoring =-=[24]-=-[26]. The second strategy is nonparametric regression, i.e., tosapproximate curves with functions non-parametrically. Data collected under differentsprocess conditions can then be discriminated by est... |

28 | Identification of Coupling Direction: Application to Cardiorespiratory Interaction,” Phys.
- Rosenblum, Cimponeriu, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n our case study, analyzing interactionsstructures could assist to understand more insights of the polishing mechanisms.s54sFigure 4.1 Interaction structures represented as a networksRosenblum et al. =-=[74]-=- first investigated interaction structure based on mutualsprediction. In their study the canonical structure (three oscillators in a ring) was identifiedsthrough pairwise analysis of coupled oscillato... |

27 | A wavelet-based procedure for process fault detection
- Lada, JC, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... force signals during seat and guide assembly in engine machining processes,sand quadrupole mass spectrometry samples of rapid thermal chemical vapor depositionsprocess in semiconductor manufacturing =-=[21]-=-. Comparing with observations of scalar orsvector characteristics, functional process variables (FPVs) contain richer processsinformation which might potentially provide additionally opportunities for... |

23 |
Material Removal Mechanism in Chemical Mechanical Polishing: Theory and Modeling,’’
- Luo, Dornfeld
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing and diagnosis. Since MRR is ascommonly used criterion to evaluate CMP performance, most research has been focusingson prediction of MRR based on a given set of process variables. Luo and Dornfeld =-=[5]-=-sextended Preston’s Equation and considered additional process parameters such as wafershardness, pad roughness, abrasive size and geometry for better prediction. Consideringsthe pad conditioning, Yi ... |

23 |
Statistical method for detection of phase-locking episodes in neural oscillations.
- Hurtado, Rubchinsky, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Hence, the phase synchronization or phase-locking method has recently receivedsincreasing attention by studying the timing correlation in the phase domain whilesdiscarding the effect of the amplitude =-=[36]-=-. In CMP processes, phase synchronizations8smodeling provides an effective tool to describe the timing correlation among criticalsFPVs such as COF and temperature since they show strong cyclic pattern... |

21 |
Detecting nonlinearity and phase synchronization with surrogate data
- Palus, Hoyer
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...le, the phase coherence of a distribution that hasstwo symmetrical opposing lobes in the circle will be zero, whereas the normalizedsentropy will yield a value closer to 1.s• Mutual Information Index =-=[41]-=-: Similarly to entropy index method, mutualsinformation index is defined as following:s1 log(1/ ) L N j j j h p p = = −∑ 10s(1.4)swhere Pi, Pj is probability of corresponding bin from histogram of the... |

21 | Testing for directed influences among neural signals using partial directed coherence
- Schelter, Winterhalder, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he canonical structure (three oscillators in a ring) was identifiedsthrough pairwise analysis of coupled oscillators. More complex structures weresinvestigated using partial directed coherence method =-=[75]-=-. All these methods examine thesdirectionality of two-way interactions to identify interaction structures. Three-way orshigh order interactions are not considered. Moreover, variables in the interacti... |

20 |
Phase I analysis of linear profiles with calibration applications
- Mahmoud, Woodall
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ies have been deployed for processsmonitoring using functional data. The first strategy is to extract features from curves, e.g.,speak values, wavelet coefficients [49-54], or slope and intercept [53]=-=[54]-=-. Then standardsprocedures developed in multivariate process control (e.g., Hotelling’s T2 control chart)scan be applied to monitor those features. The second strategy is nonparametric regression,si.e... |

20 | Dynamic synchronization between multiple cortical motor areas and muscle activity in phasic voluntary movements. J Neurophysiol 84:2622--2629 - Feige, Aertsen, et al. |

18 |
Equipment Fault Detection Using Spatial Signatures
- Gardner, Lu, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ough it is rarely seen in SPC literature,sanalysis of nonstationary multivariate functional data has been investigated in statistics.sThe involved modeling techniques include nonparametric regression =-=[28]-=-[29], functionalsdata analysis [30], spatial statistics [31], and principal curve [32]. These methodologiesswere mainly proposed for exploratory study and are not directly applicable for processsmonit... |

18 |
Precision manufacturing process monitoring with acoustic emission,
- Lee, Hwang, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... this way might best indicate the averagesprocess temperature [79].sIt should be addressed here that these three process variablesscould properly represent the chemical-mechanical polishing mechanism =-=[80]-=-[0]. Figures10 shows one sample of the original signals collected under each process condition.sDirectly observing original signals provides limited information.sSince the main trend of each FPV would... |

14 | Diagnostic Feature Extraction from Stamping Tonnage Signals Based on
- Jin, Shi
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oyed in process control based on FPVs,sdepending on how the data is summarized. The first one is to extract “features” fromsfunctional data (e.g., wavelet coefficients [23-25], or slope and intercept =-=[26]-=-) and applysstandard procedures in multivariate statistics (e.g., T2 control charts) to features forsprocess monitoring [24][26]. The second strategy is nonparametric regression, i.e., tosapproximate ... |

13 |
On oscillation-hysteresis in a simple triode generator
- Pol
- 1922
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on in node j, then node j has stronger influence on node i.sTo validate the proposed approach for analyzing interaction structures, fourchannel van der Pol oscillator system is simulated using Matlab =-=[78]-=- as follows:s2 2 21 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 4 1 12 2 2 22 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 4 2 2 1 1 2 22 2 2 23 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 1 1 3 3 2 2 3 32 2 (1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) d x dxu ... |

11 | Wavelet-based data reduction techniques for process fault detection - Jeong |

8 |
Chemical–mechanical polishing for fabricating patterned W metal features as chip interconnects.
- Kaufman, Thompson, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Sorooshian et al. [7] studied the effect of padstemperatures, and introduced a new energy parameter into new Preston’s Equation bysemploying an Arrhenius argument. Osseo-Asare [8] and Kaufman et al. =-=[9]-=- considereds4sthe chemical reaction between the slurry chemicals and wafer materials. They proposed asTungsten CMP model by introducing oxidation reduction reaction which occurs in thespassivation lay... |

8 |
On the use and interpretation of crosscorrelation measurements in the mammalian central nervous system
- Kirkwood
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... been reported in the literature to model correlationssamong nonstationary continuous signals. The most commonly used method is the crosscorrelogram which measures the cross-covariance of paired FPVs =-=[33]-=-[34]. This timedomain method is powerful, but if not used carefully can lead to spurious detectionsbecause of artifactual sharp peaks in the signals. Coherence and cross spectrum methodssaim to analyz... |

5 |
Wavelet-based identification of delamination defect in CMP (Cu-low k) using nonstationary acoustic emission signal
- Ganesan, Das, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... forsonline process change detection and diagnosis. Hocheng et al. [16] investigated thesdistribution of the pad temperature and established a regression model to detect the endspoint. Ganesan et al. =-=[17]-=-[18] provided their wavelet-based approaches based onssequential probability ration test to identify the delamination and end point online. Wangset al. [19] first studied the timing correlation betwee... |

3 | On the wafer/pad friction of chemical–mechanical planarization (CMP) processes—Part I: Modeling and analysis, Semiconductor Manufacturing
- Yi
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sextended Preston’s Equation and considered additional process parameters such as wafershardness, pad roughness, abrasive size and geometry for better prediction. Consideringsthe pad conditioning, Yi =-=[6]-=- first investigated the kinematical relationship between wafersand polishing pad. He also employed the distributed LuGre dynamic friction model tosstudy the wafer/pad friction characteristics. Soroosh... |

3 |
Online end point detection in CMP using SPRT of wavelet decomposed sensor data
- Ganesan, Das, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sonline process change detection and diagnosis. Hocheng et al. [16] investigated thesdistribution of the pad temperature and established a regression model to detect the endspoint. Ganesan et al. [17]=-=[18]-=- provided their wavelet-based approaches based onssequential probability ration test to identify the delamination and end point online. Wangset al. [19] first studied the timing correlation between CM... |

3 | Online Multi-Channel Forging Tonnage Monitoring and Fault Pattern Classification using Principal Curve
- Kim, Huang, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ome sensing data collected throughsmultiple sensors simultaneously from manufacturing processes, often arise themselves insthe functional form. Examples include tonnage signals from forging processes =-=[20]-=-,s6sassembly force signals during seat and guide assembly in engine machining processes,sand quadrupole mass spectrometry samples of rapid thermal chemical vapor depositionsprocess in semiconductor ma... |

3 | Automatic Feature Extraction for In-process Diagnostic Performance Improvement,” - Jin, Shi - 2000 |

3 |
Process characterization and statistical analysis of oxide CMP on a silicon wafer with sparse data
- Bukkapatnam, Rao, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...52stemperature is another important FPV that depicts heat variations generated throughsfriction and chemical reaction. Previous studies have investigated FPVs bothsexperimentally and analytically [60]=-=[61]-=-. Our experience suggested that certain processschanges may not be easily detected without collectively studying these FPVs.sSimultaneously analyzing these FPVs and their interaction patterns could br... |

3 |
Statistical and experimental analysis of correlated time-varying process variables for conditions diagnosis in chemical-mechanical planarization
- Zhang, Wang, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tudying these FPVs.sSimultaneously analyzing these FPVs and their interaction patterns could bring additionalsinsights into process condition changes and new opportunities for process improvements[62]=-=[63]-=-.sIn [62][63] we have shown that the complex interaction patterns among FPVs inssemiconductor manufacturing processes could indicate process condition changes. Wesdeveloped a nonlinear dynamics model ... |

2 |
Arrhenius characterization of ILD and copper CMP processes
- Sorooshian, DeNardis, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...stigated the kinematical relationship between wafersand polishing pad. He also employed the distributed LuGre dynamic friction model tosstudy the wafer/pad friction characteristics. Sorooshian et al. =-=[7]-=- studied the effect of padstemperatures, and introduced a new energy parameter into new Preston’s Equation bysemploying an Arrhenius argument. Osseo-Asare [8] and Kaufman et al. [9] considereds4sthe c... |

2 |
situ endpoint detection by pad temperature in chemical-mechanical polishing of copper overlay
- Hocheng, Huang, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rate increases at a fixed relative rotating velocity.sThe least studied area is the data-driven analysis of sensing process variables forsonline process change detection and diagnosis. Hocheng et al. =-=[16]-=- investigated thesdistribution of the pad temperature and established a regression model to detect the endspoint. Ganesan et al. [17][18] provided their wavelet-based approaches based onssequential pr... |

2 | Nonlinear dynamics modeling of correlated functional process variables for condition monitoring in chemical mechanical planarization
- Wang, Zhang, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...del to detect the endspoint. Ganesan et al. [17][18] provided their wavelet-based approaches based onssequential probability ration test to identify the delamination and end point online. Wangset al. =-=[19]-=- first studied the timing correlation between CMP process variables based on asnew phase nonlinear dynamics model and used the model for process change detection.s5sIt is known that factors such as ap... |

2 | Slow covariations in neural resting potential can lead to artificially fast cross-correlations in their spike trains - Brody |

2 |
Neural coding: higher-order temporal patterns in the neurostatistics of cell assemblies
- Martgnon, Laskey, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ode 2. Ifs59sthree-way interaction effects are weak in all the other FPVs, a hidden FPV mightsinteract with the network through node 2. Similar idea for identifying hiddensvariables could be found in =-=[77]-=-.sFigure 4.7 Hidden FPVs interact with the network through Node 2sThe last issue is to determine the directionality of interaction. If the strength ofstwo-way interaction in node i is stronger than th... |

1 |
A new nonlinear dynamics model to analyze synchronization patterns for physiologic condition monitoring”, submitted to
- Wang, Huang, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uch a science base lies in the complexity of the interaction phenomenon.sThe term of interaction, often vaguely defined, has been used interchangeably withs“correlation”, “dependence” and “synchrony” =-=[1]-=-, which reflects the different aspects orsunderstanding of the interaction phenomenon. For example in statistics, term interaction 2smeans effects of various changes operate simultaneously, which is d... |

1 |
Getting an Edge with
- Witt, Cook
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... interaction mechanism for process improvement becauses3sfurther reduction of surface finish variations can affect 20% of wafer yield and impact asrevenue stream of $2.8 billion in a single wafer fab =-=[3]-=-.sIn semiconductor manufacturing, usually many process factors are involved tosaffect product quality. One of the important procedures in semiconductor manufacturingsprocesses is chemical-mechanical p... |

1 |
Surface chemical processes in chemical mechanical polishing: relationship between silica material removal rate and the point of zero charge of the abrasive material
- Osseo-Asare
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...iction characteristics. Sorooshian et al. [7] studied the effect of padstemperatures, and introduced a new energy parameter into new Preston’s Equation bysemploying an Arrhenius argument. Osseo-Asare =-=[8]-=- and Kaufman et al. [9] considereds4sthe chemical reaction between the slurry chemicals and wafer materials. They proposed asTungsten CMP model by introducing oxidation reduction reaction which occurs... |

1 |
Effect of temperature on tribological, electrochemical, and surface properties during copper CMP
- Mudhivarthi, Zantye, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ayer.sIn experimental investigation of CMP, process parameters such as slurryscharacteristics, pad temperature, polishing velocity, COF, and their effects on MRR havesbeen studied. Mudhivarthi et al. =-=[10]-=- found that COF decreases with a rise of pressuresand platen velocity, and MRR and COF increase when slurry temperature increases.sSorooshina et al. [11] investigated the effect of slurry temperature ... |

1 |
Effect of process temperature on coefficient of friction during
- Sorooshian, Hetherington, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s on MRR havesbeen studied. Mudhivarthi et al. [10] found that COF decreases with a rise of pressuresand platen velocity, and MRR and COF increase when slurry temperature increases.sSorooshina et al. =-=[11]-=- investigated the effect of slurry temperature on COF, and theysfound that COF shows an increasing trend as polishing temperature rises. Seal et al. [12]sand Du et al. [13] concluded that the COF incr... |

1 |
Effect of glycine and hydrogen peroxide on chemical mechanical planarization of copper
- Seal, Kuiry, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lurry temperature increases.sSorooshina et al. [11] investigated the effect of slurry temperature on COF, and theysfound that COF shows an increasing trend as polishing temperature rises. Seal et al. =-=[12]-=-sand Du et al. [13] concluded that the COF increases with increased peroxidesconcentration in the slurry and they interpreted this phenomenon as the cause of surfaceschemical decomposition of polyuret... |

1 |
Effect of hydrogen peroxide on oxidation of copper in CMP slurries containing glycine and Cu ions
- Du, Vijayakumar, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ncreases.sSorooshina et al. [11] investigated the effect of slurry temperature on COF, and theysfound that COF shows an increasing trend as polishing temperature rises. Seal et al. [12]sand Du et al. =-=[13]-=- concluded that the COF increases with increased peroxidesconcentration in the slurry and they interpreted this phenomenon as the cause of surfaceschemical decomposition of polyurethane material. Li e... |

1 |
Determining the effects of slurry surfactant, abrasive size, and abrasive content on the tribology and kinetics of copper CMP
- Li, Ina, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uded that the COF increases with increased peroxidesconcentration in the slurry and they interpreted this phenomenon as the cause of surfaceschemical decomposition of polyurethane material. Li et al. =-=[14]-=-[15] studied the effect ofsslurry characteristics on friction mechanism and they found slurry with differentssurfactants and abrasive sizes can significantly alter COF profile. They also found MRRsdec... |

1 |
Effect of slurry flow rate on tribological, thermal, and removal rate attributes of copper CMP
- Li, Borucki, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... that the COF increases with increased peroxidesconcentration in the slurry and they interpreted this phenomenon as the cause of surfaceschemical decomposition of polyurethane material. Li et al. [14]=-=[15]-=- studied the effect ofsslurry characteristics on friction mechanism and they found slurry with differentssurfactants and abrasive sizes can significantly alter COF profile. They also found MRRsdecreas... |

1 |
reliability and integration issues in chemical mechanical planarization”, dissertation of doctor of philosophy
- Zantye, “Processing
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...estribological property at the interface. Changes in COF indicate variations in abrasivesperformance due to pad failure, large particles on the pads, or underlying barrier layersexposure on the wafer =-=[42]-=-. The thermal distribution over the polishing area is anothersindicator of process conditions and reflects heat generated through friction and chemicalsreactions. Figure 1 shows thermal imaging snapsh... |

1 | Effect of hydrogen peroxide on oxidation of copper in CMP slurries containing glycine - Aksu, Wang, et al. - 2003 |

1 | Advances in characterization of CMP consumables”, Material Research Society Bulletin - Moinpour, Tregub, et al. - 2002 |