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## 2004), A three-dimensional semianalytic viscoelastic model for time-dependent analyses of the earthquake cycle

Venue: | J. Geophys. Res |

Citations: | 13 - 1 self |

### Citations

727 | Surface deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a halfspace,
- Okada
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Cocco, 2001; Zeng, 2001; Kilb et al., 2002; Toda et al., 2002; Anderson et al., 2003; Fialko, 2004b]. Many stress-transfer calculations are based on purely elastic models because analytic solutions [=-=Okada, 1985-=-, 1992] can be computed efficiently in three dimensions for realistic fault geometries and rupture histories. However, layered viscoelastic models are needed to investigate time-dependent deformation ... |

709 | Theory of Elasticity - Timoshenko, Goodier - 1970 |

679 |
A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity
- Love
- 1944
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing the response of the model to vertical loads (Appendix A). To do this, we first compare our solution to the analytic solution for the response of an elastic half-space to an applied vertical load [=-=Love, 1944-=-]. We then qualitatively examine layered half-space models with and without a gravitational restoring force. Finally, we provide a numerical comparison between our 3-D layered model and the flexure mo... |

207 |
Static stress changes and the triggering of earthquakes,
- King, Stein, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on, many studies have focused on the 3-D evolution of the stress field. Coulomb stress change from large earthquakes has been used to explain the triggering of subsequent earthquakes and aftershocks [=-=King et al., 1994-=-; Stein et al., 1994; Kilb et al., 2000; King and Cocco, 2001; Zeng, 2001; Kilb et al., 2002; Toda et al., 2002; Anderson et al., 2003; Fialko, 2004b]. Many stress-transfer calculations are based on p... |

119 |
the dispersion of surface waves on multilayered media.
- Haskell
- 1953
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dary element models [e.g., Crouch and Starfield, 1983; Zang and Chopra, 1991; Thomas, 1993], finite difference models [e.g., Olsen and Schuster, 1992; Frankel, 1993], matrix propagator methods [e.g., =-=Haskell, 1953-=-; Singh, 1970; Sato, 1971; Ward, 1984, 1985; Wang et al., 2003], etc., have been explored more recently in order to efficiently treat large-scale deformation problems with complex boundary conditions.... |

113 |
Introduction to special section: Stress triggers, stress shadows, and implications for seismic hazard:
- Harris
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ty diminishes completely by 10tm following the earthquake. 4.2. Coulomb Stress [45] Coulomb stress provides a measure of the shear loading on faults of a particular azimuth [e.g., Stein et al., 1994; =-=Harris, 1998-=-; Harris and Simpson, 1998], where positive Coulomb stress indicates that a fault plane is brought closer to failure, while negative stress indicates that the fault plane has moved away from failure. ... |

85 |
Silent fault slip following an interplate thrust earthquake at the Japan Trench,
- Heki, Miyazaki, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eodetically measured surface velocities. These models include poroelastic flow of fluids in the upper crust [e.g., Peltzer et al., 1996, 1998; Fialko, 2004a], deep afterslip [e.g., Shen et al., 1994; =-=Heki et al., 1997-=-; Savage and Svarc, 1997; Wdowinski et al., 1997], and fault zone collapse [e.g., Massonnet et al., 1996]. While many efforts are being made to examine these models as possible explanations of postsei... |

65 |
Asthenosphere readjustment and the earthquake cycle,
- Savage, Prescott
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dels as possible explanations of postseismic behavior, in this paper we explore a model based on viscoelastic coupling between an upper elastic plate and a lower linear viscoelastic half-space [e.g., =-=Savage and Prescott, 1978-=-; Thatcher, 1983, 1984; Ivins, 1996; Deng et al., 1998; Pollitz et al., 2001; Hearn et al., 2002]. We also include the restoring force of gravity in our viscoelastic model to ensure sensible vertical ... |

60 |
Body Force Equivalents for Seismic Dislocations,"
- Burridge, Knopoff
- 1964
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... in a fault plane is commonly represented by body force couples. In the case of a horizontal strike-slip fault, a double-couple should be used to ensure local balanced moment in the horizontal plane [=-=Burridge and Knopoff, 1964-=-]. Here we describe the algorithm for generating single- and double-couple body forces for a segmented fault trace mapped onto a regular grid (Figure 1). [77] Consider a grid with cell spacing Dx. The... |

57 |
Mantle Flow Beneath a Continental Strike-Slip Fault --Postseismic Deformation After the 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake."
- POLLITZ, WICKS, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... model based on viscoelastic coupling between an upper elastic plate and a lower linear viscoelastic half-space [e.g., Savage and Prescott, 1978; Thatcher, 1983, 1984; Ivins, 1996; Deng et al., 1998; =-=Pollitz et al., 2001-=-; Hearn et al., 2002]. We also include the restoring force of gravity in our viscoelastic model to ensure sensible vertical results. We are particularly concerned with the time-dependent vertical resp... |

52 | Application des Potentiels a L’Etude de L’Equilibre et du Mouvement des Solides Elastiques, GauthierVillars, - Boussinesq - 1885 |

50 | Three-dimensional simulations of ground motions in the San Bernardino valley, California, for hypothetical earthquakes on the San Andreas fault
- Frankel
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Cohen, 1984; Williams and Richardson, 1991], boundary element models [e.g., Crouch and Starfield, 1983; Zang and Chopra, 1991; Thomas, 1993], finite difference models [e.g., Olsen and Schuster, 1992; =-=Frankel, 1993-=-], matrix propagator methods [e.g., Haskell, 1953; Singh, 1970; Sato, 1971; Ward, 1984, 1985; Wang et al., 2003], etc., have been explored more recently in order to efficiently treat large-scale defor... |

50 | Delayed triggering of the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake by viscoelastic stress transfer, - Freed, Lin - 2001 |

49 |
Poly3D: A three-dimensional, polygonal element, displacement discontinuity boundary element computer program with applications to fractures, faults, and cavities in the Earth’s crust [M.S. thesis]:
- Thomas
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dels [e.g., Lysmer and Drake, 1972; Yang and Toksoz, 1981; Melosh, 1983; Cohen, 1984; Williams and Richardson, 1991], boundary element models [e.g., Crouch and Starfield, 1983; Zang and Chopra, 1991; =-=Thomas, 1993-=-], finite difference models [e.g., Olsen and Schuster, 1992; Frankel, 1993], matrix propagator methods [e.g., Haskell, 1953; Singh, 1970; Sato, 1971; Ward, 1984, 1985; Wang et al., 2003], etc., have b... |

48 | Fault interaction by elastic stress changes: New clues from earthquake sequences, Adv - King, Cocco |

47 |
Postseismic rebound in fault step-overs caused by pore fluid flow,
- Peltzer, Rosen, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...m1 and E1 (Appendix D). [5] Several postseismic models have been developed to match geodetically measured surface velocities. These models include poroelastic flow of fluids in the upper crust [e.g., =-=Peltzer et al., 1996-=-, 1998; Fialko, 2004a], deep afterslip [e.g., Shen et al., 1994; Heki et al., 1997; Savage and Svarc, 1997; Wdowinski et al., 1997], and fault zone collapse [e.g., Massonnet et al., 1996]. While many ... |

42 |
The general theory of stresses and Displacements in Layered Systems,”
- Burmister
- 1945
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pace, an approach similar to that of the homogeneous half-space applies [e.g., Steketee, 1958; Smith and Sandwell, 2003]. The major exceptions to this approach are the additional boundary conditions [=-=Burmister, 1943-=-] (note that the following notation uses subscripts 1 and 2 to refer to layer and half-space displacement and stress, respectively, and a lowercase h is used in place of H for the plate thickness, or ... |

41 |
The deformation of the ground around surface faults
- Chinnery
- 1961
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., coseismically responds by lurching forward in the direction of tectonic motion at ±2 m yr 1 at the time of the earthquake. This type of behavior has been established by previous fault models [e.g., =-=Chinnery, 1961-=-; Okada, 1985, 1992; Yang and Toksoz, 1981] for elastic strike-slip deformation of a vertical fault. [44] Deformation continues for several Maxwell times (Figures 9–11) following the earthquake. Note ... |

41 |
Nonlinear strain buildup and the earthquake cycle on the San Andreas Fault,
- Thatcher
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ns of postseismic behavior, in this paper we explore a model based on viscoelastic coupling between an upper elastic plate and a lower linear viscoelastic half-space [e.g., Savage and Prescott, 1978; =-=Thatcher, 1983-=-, 1984; Ivins, 1996; Deng et al., 1998; Pollitz et al., 2001; Hearn et al., 2002]. We also include the restoring force of gravity in our viscoelastic model to ensure sensible vertical results. We are ... |

38 |
Suppression of large earthquakes by stress shadows: A comparison of Coulomb and rate-and-state failure,
- Harris, Simpson
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...completely by 10tm following the earthquake. 4.2. Coulomb Stress [45] Coulomb stress provides a measure of the shear loading on faults of a particular azimuth [e.g., Stein et al., 1994; Harris, 1998; =-=Harris and Simpson, 1998-=-], where positive Coulomb stress indicates that a fault plane is brought closer to failure, while negative stress indicates that the fault plane has moved away from failure. To calculate Coulomb stres... |

38 |
Postseismic viscoelastic rebound,
- Nur, Mavko
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...isplacement (secular model + coseismic/postseismic) (Figure 3c) achieves a full 4 m step after 20tm of postseismic relaxation. This model shows good qualitative agreement with previous studies [e.g., =-=Nur and Mavko, 1974-=-; Rundle and Jackson, 1977; Savage and Prescott, 1978; Ward, 1985; Cohen, 1999]. [30] An important aspect of this ‘‘plate’’ model is that far-field deformation is partitioned into a secular part and 7... |

38 |
Southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array: spatial filtering of daily positions for estimating coseismic and postseismic displacements induced by the 1992 Landers earthquake
- Wdowinski, Bock, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ese models include poroelastic flow of fluids in the upper crust [e.g., Peltzer et al., 1996, 1998; Fialko, 2004a], deep afterslip [e.g., Shen et al., 1994; Heki et al., 1997; Savage and Svarc, 1997; =-=Wdowinski et al., 1997-=-], and fault zone collapse [e.g., Massonnet et al., 1996]. While many efforts are being made to examine these models as possible explanations of postseismic behavior, in this paper we explore a model ... |

35 |
On crustal flexure.
- Brotchie, Silvester
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s with and without a gravitational restoring force. Finally, we provide a numerical comparison between our 3-D layered model and the flexure model of a thin elastic plate overlying a fluid halfspace [=-=Brotchie and Silvester, 1969-=-; Turcotte and Schubert, 1982]. 3.2.1. Vertical Point Load on an Elastic Half-Space [32] As an initial test, we compare our Boussinesq solution (Appendix A) to the analytic solution for a point load a... |

35 | Probing the mechanical properties of seismically active crust with space geodesy: Study of the coseismic deformation due to the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers (southern California) earthquake - Fialko - 2004 |

35 | Poroelastic rebound along the Landers 1992 earthquake surface rupture - Peltzer, Rosen, et al. - 1992 |

34 | Stress produced in a semi-infinit solid by pressure on part of the boundary. - Love - 1929 |

33 |
A finite element method for seismology
- Lysmer, Drake
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... and Savage and Prescott [1978], and analytic 3-D solutions include those of Rundle and Jackson [1977] and Okada [1985, 1992]. More advanced 3-D numerical methods such as finite element models [e.g., =-=Lysmer and Drake, 1972-=-; Yang and Toksoz, 1981; Melosh, 1983; Cohen, 1984; Williams and Richardson, 1991], boundary element models [e.g., Crouch and Starfield, 1983; Zang and Chopra, 1991; Thomas, 1993], finite difference m... |

33 |
The relationship between bathymetry and gravity in Atlantic
- McKenzie, Bowin
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...itational restoring force; (d) elastic plate overlying a fluid half-space model with a gravitational restoring force; (e) flexural response from the thin plate approximation [Le Pinchon et al., 1973; =-=McKenzie and Bowin, 1976-=-]; (f ) residual difference between (d) and (e). Note that color scale differs for each plot. these models can be found online at http://topex.ucsd.edu/ body_force. 4.1. 3-D Velocity [42] The 3-D velo... |

32 | Evidence from the AD 2000 Izu islands earthquake swarm that stressing rate governs seismicity - Toda, Stein, et al. |

30 |
Boundary Element Methods
- Crouch, Starfied
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ced 3-D numerical methods such as finite element models [e.g., Lysmer and Drake, 1972; Yang and Toksoz, 1981; Melosh, 1983; Cohen, 1984; Williams and Richardson, 1991], boundary element models [e.g., =-=Crouch and Starfield, 1983-=-; Zang and Chopra, 1991; Thomas, 1993], finite difference models [e.g., Olsen and Schuster, 1992; Frankel, 1993], matrix propagator methods [e.g., Haskell, 1953; Singh, 1970; Sato, 1971; Ward, 1984, 1... |

29 | Evidence of fluid-filled upper crust from observations of post-seismic deformation due to the 1992Mw7.3 Landers earthquake - Fialko, 2004b |

28 |
On Volterra’s dislocations in a semi infinite elastic medium
- Steketee
- 1958
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e seismogenic crust can result from different tectonic settings throughout the earthquake cycle. Appendix A: Boussinesq Problem for a Layered Half-Space [55] The Boussinesq problem [Boussinesq, 1885; =-=Steketee, 1958-=-] offers a supplemental solution for removing anomalous vertical normal stress that arises from the method of images [Weertman, 1964], used to partially satisfy the zero-shear surface boundary conditi... |

28 | Computation of deformation induced by earthquakes in a multi-layered elastic crustn – FORTRAN programs EDGRN/EDCMP - Wang, Martín, et al. - 2003 |

27 | Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses, Nature 408 - Kilb, Gomberg, et al. - 2000 |

25 |
Post-seismic deformation following the Landers earthquake,
- Shen
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eveloped to match geodetically measured surface velocities. These models include poroelastic flow of fluids in the upper crust [e.g., Peltzer et al., 1996, 1998; Fialko, 2004a], deep afterslip [e.g., =-=Shen et al., 1994-=-; Heki et al., 1997; Savage and Svarc, 1997; Wdowinski et al., 1997], and fault zone collapse [e.g., Massonnet et al., 1996]. While many efforts are being made to examine these models as possible expl... |

25 |
Stress triggering of the 1994
- Stein, King, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ve focused on the 3-D evolution of the stress field. Coulomb stress change from large earthquakes has been used to explain the triggering of subsequent earthquakes and aftershocks [King et al., 1994; =-=Stein et al., 1994-=-; Kilb et al., 2000; King and Cocco, 2001; Zeng, 2001; Kilb et al., 2002; Toda et al., 2002; Anderson et al., 2003; Fialko, 2004b]. Many stress-transfer calculations are based on purely elastic models... |

22 | 2002), Aftershock triggering by complete Coulomb stress changes - Kilb, Gomberg, et al. |

22 | A rheological layered three-dimensional model of the San Andreas Fault in central and southern California, - Williams, Richardson - 1991 |

21 |
Viscoelastic flow in the lower crust after the
- Deng, Gurnis, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... paper we explore a model based on viscoelastic coupling between an upper elastic plate and a lower linear viscoelastic half-space [e.g., Savage and Prescott, 1978; Thatcher, 1983, 1984; Ivins, 1996; =-=Deng et al., 1998-=-; Pollitz et al., 2001; Hearn et al., 2002]. We also include the restoring force of gravity in our viscoelastic model to ensure sensible vertical results. We are particularly concerned with the time-d... |

21 | Post-1906 stress recovery of the San Andreas fault system from 3-D finite element analysis
- Parsons
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nd a resumption of the earthquake cycle. [51] Realistic models exhibiting similar stress shadowing behaviors and fault interactions have been explored by other workers [e.g., Kenner and Segall, 1999; =-=Parsons, 2002-=-]. A 2-D postseismic shear stress model of Kenner and Segall [1999] demonstrated that an initial stress 13 of 25B12401 SMITH AND SANDWELL: MODEL FOR ANALYSES OF EARTHQUAKE CYCLE B12401 Figure 10. Map... |

20 |
The elastic residual field of a very long strike-slip fault in the presence of a discontinuity,
- Rybicki
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...5 Uk; ð zÞ Usðk; z aÞ4 WðkÞ Fx Fy Fz 3 2 7 5þ Uiðk; z 6 aÞ4 Fx Fy Fz 3 7 5: [18] 5. Introduce a layer of thickness H into the system through an infinite summation of image sources [Weertman, 1964; =-=Rybicki, 1971-=-], reflected both above and below the surface z = 0 (Appendix B): 2 3 2 3 2 3 UðkÞ Fx Fx 6 7 6 7 6 7 4 VðkÞ 5 Usðk; z aÞ4Fy5þUiðk; z aÞ4Fy5 WðkÞ Fz Fz þ X1 2 3 Uiðk; z a 2mHÞ 2 3 m Fx m1 m 2 þ Uiðk;... |

20 | Coulomb stress accumulation along the San Andreas Fault system, - Smith, Sandwell - 2003 |

19 | Bürgmann (2000), Mobility of continental mantle: Evidence from postseismic geodetic observations following the 1992 Landers earthquake - Pollitz, Peltzer, et al. |

17 | Fault interactions and large complex earthquakes - Anderson, Aagaard, et al. - 2003 |

17 |
Numericalmodels of crustal deformation in seismic zones,
- Cohen
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ep after 20tm of postseismic relaxation. This model shows good qualitative agreement with previous studies [e.g., Nur and Mavko, 1974; Rundle and Jackson, 1977; Savage and Prescott, 1978; Ward, 1985; =-=Cohen, 1999-=-]. [30] An important aspect of this ‘‘plate’’ model is that far-field deformation is partitioned into a secular part and 7of25B12401 SMITH AND SANDWELL: MODEL FOR ANALYSES OF EARTHQUAKE CYCLE B12401 ... |

17 |
Time-dependent changes in failure stress following thrust earthquakes,
- Freed, Lin
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... timescales comparable to the recurrence interval. Consequently, several realistic viscoelastic models have been developed and applied to stress relaxation problems following large earthquakes [e.g., =-=Freed and Lin, 1998-=-; Deng et al., 1999; Kenner and Segall, 1999; Freed and Lin, 2001; Zeng, 2001; E. H. Hearn et al., manuscript in preparation, 2004]. However, because of computer speed and memory limitations, most of ... |

13 |
Time-dependence of the stress shadowing effect and its relation to the structure of the lower crust
- Kenner, Segall
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... interval. Consequently, several realistic viscoelastic models have been developed and applied to stress relaxation problems following large earthquakes [e.g., Freed and Lin, 1998; Deng et al., 1999; =-=Kenner and Segall, 1999-=-; Freed and Lin, 2001; Zeng, 2001; E. H. Hearn et al., manuscript in preparation, 2004]. However, because of computer speed and memory limitations, most of these numerical models are limited to a sing... |

12 |
Transient creep of a composite lower crust
- Ivins, Sammis
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...vior, in this paper we explore a model based on viscoelastic coupling between an upper elastic plate and a lower linear viscoelastic half-space [e.g., Savage and Prescott, 1978; Thatcher, 1983, 1984; =-=Ivins, 1996-=-; Deng et al., 1998; Pollitz et al., 2001; Hearn et al., 2002]. We also include the restoring force of gravity in our viscoelastic model to ensure sensible vertical results. We are particularly concer... |

11 |
Postseismic deformation associated with the 1992
- Savage, Svarc
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d surface velocities. These models include poroelastic flow of fluids in the upper crust [e.g., Peltzer et al., 1996, 1998; Fialko, 2004a], deep afterslip [e.g., Shen et al., 1994; Heki et al., 1997; =-=Savage and Svarc, 1997-=-; Wdowinski et al., 1997], and fault zone collapse [e.g., Massonnet et al., 1996]. While many efforts are being made to examine these models as possible explanations of postseismic behavior, in this p... |

8 | Stress loading from viscous flow in the lower crust and triggering of aftershocks following the
- Deng, Hudnut, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e to the recurrence interval. Consequently, several realistic viscoelastic models have been developed and applied to stress relaxation problems following large earthquakes [e.g., Freed and Lin, 1998; =-=Deng et al., 1999-=-; Kenner and Segall, 1999; Freed and Lin, 2001; Zeng, 2001; E. H. Hearn et al., manuscript in preparation, 2004]. However, because of computer speed and memory limitations, most of these numerical mod... |

8 |
A 3-D Viscoelastic Model of a Strike-slip Fault,"
- Rundle, Jackson
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...model + coseismic/postseismic) (Figure 3c) achieves a full 4 m step after 20tm of postseismic relaxation. This model shows good qualitative agreement with previous studies [e.g., Nur and Mavko, 1974; =-=Rundle and Jackson, 1977-=-; Savage and Prescott, 1978; Ward, 1985; Cohen, 1999]. [30] An important aspect of this ‘‘plate’’ model is that far-field deformation is partitioned into a secular part and 7of25B12401 SMITH AND SAND... |

7 |
Static deformation of a multilayered half-space by internal sources;
- Singh
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dels [e.g., Crouch and Starfield, 1983; Zang and Chopra, 1991; Thomas, 1993], finite difference models [e.g., Olsen and Schuster, 1992; Frankel, 1993], matrix propagator methods [e.g., Haskell, 1953; =-=Singh, 1970-=-; Sato, 1971; Ward, 1984, 1985; Wang et al., 2003], etc., have been explored more recently in order to efficiently treat large-scale deformation problems with complex boundary conditions. Numerical me... |

7 |
Quasi‐static propagator matrices: Creep on strike‐slip faults
- Ward
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... full 4 m step after 20tm of postseismic relaxation. This model shows good qualitative agreement with previous studies [e.g., Nur and Mavko, 1974; Rundle and Jackson, 1977; Savage and Prescott, 1978; =-=Ward, 1985-=-; Cohen, 1999]. [30] An important aspect of this ‘‘plate’’ model is that far-field deformation is partitioned into a secular part and 7of25B12401 SMITH AND SANDWELL: MODEL FOR ANALYSES OF EARTHQUAKE ... |

7 |
Continuum distribution of dislocations on faults with finite friction,
- Weertman
- 1964
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rce is applied at x = y =0,z = a. Note that z is positive upward, and a has a value less than zero. To partially satisfy the boundary condition of zero shear traction at the surface, an image source [=-=Weertman, 1964-=-] is applied at a mirror location at x = y =0,z = a: rðx; y; zÞ FdðÞd x ðyÞdðz ð1Þ aÞþFdðÞd x ðyÞdðzþaÞ: ð2Þ [15] 2. Take the 3-D Fourier transform of equations (1) and (2) to reduce the partial dif... |

7 |
Time-dependent deformation and stress relaxation after strike slip earthquakes
- Yang, Toksoz
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [1978], and analytic 3-D solutions include those of Rundle and Jackson [1977] and Okada [1985, 1992]. More advanced 3-D numerical methods such as finite element models [e.g., Lysmer and Drake, 1972; =-=Yang and Toksoz, 1981-=-; Melosh, 1983; Cohen, 1984; Williams and Richardson, 1991], boundary element models [e.g., Crouch and Starfield, 1983; Zang and Chopra, 1991; Thomas, 1993], finite difference models [e.g., Olsen and ... |

6 |
Crustal Deformation Due to Dislocations in the Multilayered Medium,"
- Sato
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rouch and Starfield, 1983; Zang and Chopra, 1991; Thomas, 1993], finite difference models [e.g., Olsen and Schuster, 1992; Frankel, 1993], matrix propagator methods [e.g., Haskell, 1953; Singh, 1970; =-=Sato, 1971-=-; Ward, 1984, 1985; Wang et al., 2003], etc., have been explored more recently in order to efficiently treat large-scale deformation problems with complex boundary conditions. Numerical methods such a... |

4 |
Postseismic deformation due to subcrustal viscoelastic relaxation following dip-slip earthquakes
- Cohen
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nclude those of Rundle and Jackson [1977] and Okada [1985, 1992]. More advanced 3-D numerical methods such as finite element models [e.g., Lysmer and Drake, 1972; Yang and Toksoz, 1981; Melosh, 1983; =-=Cohen, 1984-=-; Williams and Richardson, 1991], boundary element models [e.g., Crouch and Starfield, 1983; Zang and Chopra, 1991; Thomas, 1993], finite difference models [e.g., Olsen and Schuster, 1992; Frankel, 19... |

3 | Reilinger (2002). Viscoelastic deformation from North Anatolian Fault zone earthquakes and the eastern Mediterranean GPS velocity field - Hearn, Hager, et al. |

3 |
Vertical movements following a dip-slip earthquake
- Melosh
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...-D solutions include those of Rundle and Jackson [1977] and Okada [1985, 1992]. More advanced 3-D numerical methods such as finite element models [e.g., Lysmer and Drake, 1972; Yang and Toksoz, 1981; =-=Melosh, 1983-=-; Cohen, 1984; Williams and Richardson, 1991], boundary element models [e.g., Crouch and Starfield, 1983; Zang and Chopra, 1991; Thomas, 1993], finite difference models [e.g., Olsen and Schuster, 1992... |

2 |
In the shadow of 1857: An evaluation of the static stress changes generated by the M8 Ft
- Harris, Simpson
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e in displacement in the negative x direction. The velocity for the U component slowly decreases after the earthquake and diminishes completely by approximately 10tm. agreement with previous studies [=-=Harris and Simpson, 1993-=-, 1996; Zeng, 2001]. Following an earthquake, a stress shadow develops. This stress shadow should, in theory, inhibit the occurrence of subsequent seismic events such as aftershocks and large triggere... |

2 |
Radar interferometry detects two mechanism of postseismic relaxation following the Landers, California earthquake
- Massonnet, Thatcher, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er crust [e.g., Peltzer et al., 1996, 1998; Fialko, 2004a], deep afterslip [e.g., Shen et al., 1994; Heki et al., 1997; Savage and Svarc, 1997; Wdowinski et al., 1997], and fault zone collapse [e.g., =-=Massonnet et al., 1996-=-]. While many efforts are being made to examine these models as possible explanations of postseismic behavior, in this paper we explore a model based on viscoelastic coupling between an upper elastic ... |

2 |
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Spatially Varying Ground Motion around a Uniform Canyon in a Homogeneous Half-Space, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics
- Zhang, Chopra
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ch as finite element models [e.g., Lysmer and Drake, 1972; Yang and Toksoz, 1981; Melosh, 1983; Cohen, 1984; Williams and Richardson, 1991], boundary element models [e.g., Crouch and Starfield, 1983; =-=Zang and Chopra, 1991-=-; Thomas, 1993], finite difference models [e.g., Olsen and Schuster, 1992; Frankel, 1993], matrix propagator methods [e.g., Haskell, 1953; Singh, 1970; Sato, 1971; Ward, 1984, 1985; Wang et al., 2003]... |

1 | In the shadow of 1857: The effect of the great Fort Tejon earthquake on subsequent earthquakes - Harris, Simpson - 1996 |

1 |
Elasticity
- Jaeger
- 1956
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the viscoelastic behavior of a Maxwell body made up of an elastic element and a viscous element, connected in series [Cohen, 1999]. The elastic and viscous element can be represented mathematically [=-=Jaeger, 1956-=-] by stress, s, and stress rate, s 0 , respectively: s me s 0 he 0 : ðD1Þ ðD2Þ The elastic element (D1) describes a relationship between strain, e, and the shear modulus, m, while the viscous elem... |

1 |
Site amplification in the Salt Lake Valley by three-dimensional elastic wave propagation, Eos Trans
- Olsen, Schuster
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ksoz, 1981; Melosh, 1983; Cohen, 1984; Williams and Richardson, 1991], boundary element models [e.g., Crouch and Starfield, 1983; Zang and Chopra, 1991; Thomas, 1993], finite difference models [e.g., =-=Olsen and Schuster, 1992-=-; Frankel, 1993], matrix propagator methods [e.g., Haskell, 1953; Singh, 1970; Sato, 1971; Ward, 1984, 1985; Wang et al., 2003], etc., have been explored more recently in order to efficiently treat la... |

1 | The earthquake cycle at the Nankai Trough, southwest - Thatcher - 1984 |

1 |
A note on lithospheric bending calculations, Geophys
- Ward
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...arfield, 1983; Zang and Chopra, 1991; Thomas, 1993], finite difference models [e.g., Olsen and Schuster, 1992; Frankel, 1993], matrix propagator methods [e.g., Haskell, 1953; Singh, 1970; Sato, 1971; =-=Ward, 1984-=-, 1985; Wang et al., 2003], etc., have been explored more recently in order to efficiently treat large-scale deformation problems with complex boundary conditions. Numerical methods such as these prov... |