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## Hypothetical Reasoning About Actions: From Situation Calculus To Event Calculus (1996)

Venue: | Computational Intelligence |

Citations: | 16 - 2 self |

### Citations

1839 | V.: The stable model semantics for logic programming
- Gelfond, Lifschitz
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l ground atoms in the language of a program \Pi will be denoted by H \Pi . Queries are expressions with the same structure of rules but with an empty head. In this paper, the stable models semantics (=-=Gelfond and Lifschitz 1988-=-) for logic programs is adopted, but we will see that the main results remain independent from this choice. Intuitively, a stable model is a possible view of the world that is compatible with the rule... |

1770 | Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence
- McCarthy, Hayes
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... able to deal with hypothetical actions. Table 1. A short summary of literature on Situation Calculus and Event Calculus. Situation Calculus Event Calculus Authors Contribution Author(s) Contribution =-=McCarthy and Hayes 1969-=- defined SC Kowalski and Sergot 1986 defined EC Hanks and McDermott 1987 showed problems with semantics Gelfond et al. 1991 attracted new interest Kowalski 1992 compared with SC Pinto and Reiter 1993 ... |

1037 | Towards a general theory of action and time - Allen |

761 |
Sergot: A Logic-Based Calculus of Events
- Kowalski, J
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ions. Table 1. A short summary of literature on Situation Calculus and Event Calculus. Situation Calculus Event Calculus Authors Contribution Author(s) Contribution McCarthy and Hayes 1969 defined SC =-=Kowalski and Sergot 1986-=- defined EC Hanks and McDermott 1987 showed problems with semantics Gelfond et al. 1991 attracted new interest Kowalski 1992 compared with SC Pinto and Reiter 1993 ext. to actual actions and dates Mil... |

412 | Representing Action and Change by Logic Programs - Gelfond, Lifschitz - 1993 |

309 | Actions and events in interval temporal logic. - Allen, Ferguson - 2005 |

292 | Splitting a Logic Program
- Lifschitz, Turner
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... j. Lemma 1. from Apt and Bol (1994) Acyclic programs have the same unique model under all the major declarative semantics for logic programming. Now, let us review some definitions and results from (=-=Lifschitz and Turner 1994-=-). These are originally given for the larger class of extended logic programs, but we limit ourselves to the normal programs case. Definition 7. (Splitting set) A splitting set for a program \Pi is an... |

274 |
Nonmonotonic logic and temporal projection
- Hanks, MacDermott
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...terature on Situation Calculus and Event Calculus. Situation Calculus Event Calculus Authors Contribution Author(s) Contribution McCarthy and Hayes 1969 defined SC Kowalski and Sergot 1986 defined EC =-=Hanks and McDermott 1987-=- showed problems with semantics Gelfond et al. 1991 attracted new interest Kowalski 1992 compared with SC Pinto and Reiter 1993 ext. to actual actions and dates Miller and Shanhan 1994 defined narrati... |

271 | R.N.: Logic programming and negation: A survey - Apt, Bol - 1994 |

240 | Logic Programming and Knowledge Representation
- Baral, Gelfond
- 1994
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Citation Context ...Lifschitz (1991) have defined the Answer Sets semantics, a natural extension of stable models. Let us reconsider the assumptions and sketch how extended programs can represent them explicitly. 5 See (=-=Baral and Gelfond 1994-=-) for a discussion of these aspects. Hypothetical Reasoning about Actions: from Situation Calculus to Event Calculus7 1. It is assumed that all the events are time-stamped; This is not strictly a clos... |

182 | Acyclic programs. - Apt, Bezem - 1991 |

155 | Prediction is deduction but explanation is abduction
- Shanahan
- 1989
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Citation Context ...dresses reasoning with partially ordered narratives in a more complex framework of modal interpretations. 7 This is particularly interesting for generating explanations of fluents by abducing events (=-=Shanahan 1989-=-). 8 Computational Intelligence 3. HYPOTHETICAL REASONING IN EC In this section we define an extension of EC for reasoning about the effect of hypothetical sequences of actions. Pinto and Reiter (1993... |

127 | Reasoning about termination of pure Prolog programs
- Apt, Pedreschi
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...-query succeed with substitution, say, f=Clear(A), then not HoldsAt(Clear(A); 12), which is ground, would be interpreted. 5.1. Termination Let us review the characterization of Prolog termination in (=-=Apt and Pedreschi 1993-=-). By the term goal, we intend a query interpreted by Prolog against a program. Definition 11. (LDNF derivation) LDNF derivation differs from standard SLDNF derivation in the use of Prolog firstleftss... |

93 |
Database Updates in the Event Calculus,
- Kowalski
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bution Author(s) Contribution McCarthy and Hayes 1969 defined SC Kowalski and Sergot 1986 defined EC Hanks and McDermott 1987 showed problems with semantics Gelfond et al. 1991 attracted new interest =-=Kowalski 1992-=- compared with SC Pinto and Reiter 1993 ext. to actual actions and dates Miller and Shanhan 1994 defined narratives in SC Kowalski and Sadri 1994 ext. to hypothetical actions this work Another point o... |

93 | Temporal reasoning in logic programming: A case for the situation calculus.
- Pinto, Reiter
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cCarthy and Hayes 1969 defined SC Kowalski and Sergot 1986 defined EC Hanks and McDermott 1987 showed problems with semantics Gelfond et al. 1991 attracted new interest Kowalski 1992 compared with SC =-=Pinto and Reiter 1993-=- ext. to actual actions and dates Miller and Shanhan 1994 defined narratives in SC Kowalski and Sadri 1994 ext. to hypothetical actions this work Another point of comparison is the declarative semanti... |

84 |
What are the limitations of the situation calculus?
- Gelfond, Lifschitz, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion Calculus Event Calculus Authors Contribution Author(s) Contribution McCarthy and Hayes 1969 defined SC Kowalski and Sergot 1986 defined EC Hanks and McDermott 1987 showed problems with semantics =-=Gelfond et al. 1991-=- attracted new interest Kowalski 1992 compared with SC Pinto and Reiter 1993 ext. to actual actions and dates Miller and Shanhan 1994 defined narratives in SC Kowalski and Sadri 1994 ext. to hypotheti... |

42 |
The Situation Calculus and Event Calculus compared
- Kowalski, Sadri
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oblems with semantics Gelfond et al. 1991 attracted new interest Kowalski 1992 compared with SC Pinto and Reiter 1993 ext. to actual actions and dates Miller and Shanhan 1994 defined narratives in SC =-=Kowalski and Sadri 1994-=- ext. to hypothetical actions this work Another point of comparison is the declarative semantics. Having stressed that in Event Calculus the use of negation as failure can produce unexpected results, ... |

6 |
Some topics in) logic programming
- Sergot
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e Negation as failure feature of logic programming, whose semantics is not well understood. The argument is rather appropriate: EC has been defined within logic programming (Kowalski and Sergot 1986; =-=Sergot 1990-=-; Kowalski 1992) and the use of negation as failure for implementing default persistence is intrinsic to EC. In this section, it will be shown that, if we restrict ourselves to well-formed domain desc... |

4 | On the Non-monotonic Behaviour of Event Calculus for Deriving Maximal Time Intervals
- Cervesato, Montanari, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lear(A)) : : : Initially(T able(B)) (ECIII) HoldsAt(f; t) / Initially(f); not Clipped(0; f; t) Notice that it is sufficent to leave a fluent undefined to state that is not initially true. 6 Refer to (=-=Cervesato et al. 1993-=-) for a discussion of the problem; also (Chittaro et al. 1994) addresses reasoning with partially ordered narratives in a more complex framework of modal interpretations. 7 This is particularly intere... |

4 | Temporal reasoning in deductive databases. PhD thesis in Computing - Sripada - 1990 |

1 |
Skeptical and Credulos Event Calculi for Supporting Modal Queries
- Chittaro, A, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...itially(f); not Clipped(0; f; t) Notice that it is sufficent to leave a fluent undefined to state that is not initially true. 6 Refer to (Cervesato et al. 1993) for a discussion of the problem; also (=-=Chittaro et al. 1994-=-) addresses reasoning with partially ordered narratives in a more complex framework of modal interpretations. 7 This is particularly interesting for generating explanations of fluents by abducing even... |

1 |
Hypothetical Reasoning about Actions: from Situation Calculus to Event Calculus23
- Miller, Shanahan
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es between Event Calculus and Situation Calculus have been subject of much attention in the knowledge representation literature (Kowalski 1992; Pinto and Reiter 1993a, 1993b; Kowalski and Sadri 1994; =-=Miller and Shanahan 1994-=-). On the one hand, Pinto and Reiter have successfully extended SC to treat time and actual actions; This work, on the other hand, has shown an improved version of EC which performs hypothetical reaso... |

1 |
Adding a Time Line to the Situation Calculus. Working notes of AAAI symposium on logical formalizations of common sense reasoning. Austin(Tx
- Pinto, Reiter
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cCarthy and Hayes 1969 defined SC Kowalski and Sergot 1986 defined EC Hanks and McDermott 1987 showed problems with semantics Gelfond et al. 1991 attracted new interest Kowalski 1992 compared with SC =-=Pinto and Reiter 1993-=- ext. to actual actions and dates Miller and Shanhan 1994 defined narratives in SC Kowalski and Sadri 1994 ext. to hypothetical actions this work Another point of comparison is the declarative semanti... |