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## Task assignment algorithms for teams of UAVs in dynamic environments (2004)

Citations: | 24 - 2 self |

### Citations

10595 | Introduction to Algorithms
- Cormen, Leiserson, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [4, 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22]. This includes traditional methods for vehicle routing problems (VRPs) from the operations research (OR) and artificial intelligence (AI) communities =-=[23, 24]-=-. Exact optimization methods such as Branch and Bound, Branch and Cut, Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs), and Dynamic Programming (DP) have been used to solve the problem to optimality. While gu... |

751 |
Dynamic Programming and Optimal Control. Athena Scientific
- Bertsekas
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... large problems. 4.4.1 One-step Lookahead In order to reduce the computation required by DP, an effective way is to reduce the horizon at each stage based on the lookahead of a small number of stages =-=[51]-=-. This idea is very similar to the receding horizon task assignment in which the planning horizon is limited to reduce the computation. The simplest possibility is to use a onestep lookahead where at ... |

736 | Constrained Model Predictive Control: Stability and optimality
- Mayne, Rawlings, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...omputational demands low. 2.3.1 Receding Horizon Task Assignment Receding Horizon Control, used interchangeably with Model Predictive Control (MPC), is a well known methodology in controls literature =-=[35, 36]-=-. When applying an optimal control is not possible due to the complexity or size of the problem, MPC is a good replacement candidate. MPC approximates an infinite horizon optimal feedback control prob... |

735 |
Predictive control with constraints
- Maciejowski
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...omputational demands low. 2.3.1 Receding Horizon Task Assignment Receding Horizon Control, used interchangeably with Model Predictive Control (MPC), is a well known methodology in controls literature =-=[35, 36]-=-. When applying an optimal control is not possible due to the complexity or size of the problem, MPC is a good replacement candidate. MPC approximates an infinite horizon optimal feedback control prob... |

334 | The price of robustness
- Bertsimas, Sim
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he controls literature has been generally viewed as an openloop optimization with deterministic parameters. The optimization is generally done once (possibly made robust to uncertainty in the problem =-=[38, 39, 40]-=-), and task reassignment occurs only when substantial changes in the environment have been observed (e.g., UAV loss or target classification [42, 13]). In reality, these information updates are contin... |

262 |
editors. The vehicle routing problem
- Toth, Vigo
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [4, 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22]. This includes traditional methods for vehicle routing problems (VRPs) from the operations research (OR) and artificial intelligence (AI) communities =-=[23, 24]-=-. Exact optimization methods such as Branch and Bound, Branch and Cut, Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs), and Dynamic Programming (DP) have been used to solve the problem to optimality. While gu... |

238 |
Spectral analysis for physical applications
- Percival, Walden
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ction to any value of k, giving the result that RO,k PTPk > m - kU (3.21) 51 This corresponds to a triangular correlation plot that is of the form of the Bartlett Window typically used in lag windows =-=[44]-=-. Insights into the frequency content of the equivalent controller can be developed by converting the linear correlation plot into the frequency domain via the Fourier transform. This conversion is st... |

153 | Coordinated Target Assignment and Intercept for Unmanned Air Vehicles
- Beard, McLain, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the future implications of a UAV's actions on improving the expected performance of the other UAVs. 1.1 Literature Review Numerous researchers have examined all aspects of the UAV assignment problem =-=[4, 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22]-=-. This includes traditional methods for vehicle routing problems (VRPs) from the operations research (OR) and artificial intelligence (AI) communities [23, 24]. Exact optimization methods such as Bran... |

130 | Robust optimization of large-scale systems
- Mulvey, Vanderbei, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he controls literature has been generally viewed as an openloop optimization with deterministic parameters. The optimization is generally done once (possibly made robust to uncertainty in the problem =-=[38, 39, 40]-=-), and task reassignment occurs only when substantial changes in the environment have been observed (e.g., UAV loss or target classification [42, 13]). In reality, these information updates are contin... |

117 | Aircraft Trajectory Planning With Collision Avoidance Using Mixed Integer Linear - Richards, How - 2002 |

90 | Mixed integer programming for multi-vehicle path planning
- Schouwenaars, Moor, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the future implications of a UAV's actions on improving the expected performance of the other UAVs. 1.1 Literature Review Numerous researchers have examined all aspects of the UAV assignment problem =-=[4, 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22]-=-. This includes traditional methods for vehicle routing problems (VRPs) from the operations research (OR) and artificial intelligence (AI) communities [23, 24]. Exact optimization methods such as Bran... |

82 | Receding horizon control of autonomous aerial vehicles
- Bellingham, Richards, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hitecture to solve an allocation problem first to determine a sequence of waypoints for each vehicle to visit [8], and then concentrate on designing trajectories to visit these pre-assigned waypoints =-=[10, 11]-=-. The decomposition approach simplifies the coupling between the assignment and trajectory design problems by calculating and communicating only the key information that connects them [8]. The cost ca... |

72 | Coordination and Control of Multiple UAVs - Richards, Bellingham, et al. - 2003 |

65 | Coordination variables, coordination functions, and cooperative-timing missions,”
- McLain, Beard
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the future implications of a UAV's actions on improving the expected performance of the other UAVs. 1.1 Literature Review Numerous researchers have examined all aspects of the UAV assignment problem =-=[4, 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22]-=-. This includes traditional methods for vehicle routing problems (VRPs) from the operations research (OR) and artificial intelligence (AI) communities [23, 24]. Exact optimization methods such as Bran... |

54 |
Task Allocation for Wide Area Search Munitions Via Iterative Network Flow
- Schumacher, Chandler, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...vironment in the task assignment part of the cooperative path planning (CPP) problem for UAVs. For many vehicles, obstacles, and targets, fleet coordination is a very complicated optimization problem =-=[6, 7, 8]-=-, and the computation time increases very rapidly with the problem size. J. Bellingham, et.al. [9] developed an approach to decompose this large problem into assignment and trajectory problems, while ... |

48 |
UAV cooperative path planning
- Chandler, Rasmussen
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a significant interest in extending the capabilities of future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to support ground forces, provide timely intelligence, and execute the "dull, dirty tasks in harm's way" =-=[1, 2, 3, 4]-=-. UAVs can be sent into missions that would endanger the lives of the aircrews of manned vehicles, such as the Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) missions for chemical manufacturing facilities wi... |

48 |
Cooperative path planning for multiple UAVs in dynamic and uncertain environment
- Bellingham, Tillerson, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ibly made robust to uncertainty in the problem [38, 39, 40]), and task reassignment occurs only when substantial changes in the environment have been observed (e.g., UAV loss or target classification =-=[42, 13]-=-). In reality, these information updates are continuously occurring throughout the mission due to vehicle sensing capabilities, adversarial strategies, and communicated updates of situational awarenes... |

47 |
UAV cooperative control
- Chandler, Pachter, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...vironment in the task assignment part of the cooperative path planning (CPP) problem for UAVs. For many vehicles, obstacles, and targets, fleet coordination is a very complicated optimization problem =-=[6, 7, 8]-=-, and the computation time increases very rapidly with the problem size. J. Bellingham, et.al. [9] developed an approach to decompose this large problem into assignment and trajectory problems, while ... |

47 |
Coordination and Control of Multiple UAVs with Timing Constraints and Loitering
- Alighanbardi, Kuwata, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ment algorithm was shown to be much faster than the original formulation, experiments have shown that, with timing constraints, it is still too slow to be considered for use in real-time applications =-=[13]-=-. Thus the goals of the research in this thesis were to address the following key problems: 1. Develop algorithms to perform UAV task assignment (with side constraints) in real-time for dynamic enviro... |

42 |
An Algorithm for the Multidimensional Multiple-Choice Knapsack Problem,”
- Moser, Jokanovic, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r allocating the waypoints to each UAV based on these costs and other constraints. The base of the task allocation problem was formulated as a Multidimensional Multiple-Choice Knapsack Problem (MMKP) =-=[33]-=-. 24 The "knapsack" in this case is the complete mission plan. The V column corresponding to each of the NM permutations makes up the multi-dimensional weight. The "multiple-choice" comes from choosin... |

40 |
Cooperative control of UAV rendezvous
- McLain, Chandler, et al.
- 2001
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Citation Context |

32 |
Target-based weapon target assignment problems
- Murphey
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ssignment The UAV task assignment problem is closely related to the Weapon Target Assignment (WTA) problem, which is a well-known problem that has been addressed in the literature for several decades =-=[45, 47, 48, 49, 50]-=-. The problem consists of N" weapons and Nt targets, and the goal is to assign the weapons to the targets in order to optimize the objective, which is typically the expected accumulated value of the m... |

27 | Exact and heuristic algorithms for the weapon target 631 problem
- Ahuja, Kumar, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ssignment The UAV task assignment problem is closely related to the Weapon Target Assignment (WTA) problem, which is a well-known problem that has been addressed in the literature for several decades =-=[45, 47, 48, 49, 50]-=-. The problem consists of N" weapons and Nt targets, and the goal is to assign the weapons to the targets in order to optimize the objective, which is typically the expected accumulated value of the m... |

26 | Coordination and control experiments on a multi-vehicle testbed
- King, Kuwata, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ent uncertainty and noise. The first set of experiments uses two testbeds that have recently been developed at MIT to demonstrate the coordination and control of teams of multiple autonomous vehicles =-=[52]-=-. The first testbed is comprised of eight rovers and four blimps operated indoors to emulate a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles that can be used to perform search and rescue missions. The second testbe... |

25 |
CPLEX user’s guide
- ILOG
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he new cost is as follows, - a' J3 = t + N E CPXP (2.5) pEM The problem is now a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem that can be solved using commercially available software such as CPLEX =-=[34]-=-. The solution to the task allocation problem is now a set of ordered sequences of waypoints for each vehicle, which ensure that each waypoint is visited the correct number of times while minimizing t... |

24 | Cooperative control of multi-vehicle systems using cost graphs and optimisation, in:
- Olfati-Saber, Dunbar, et al.
- 2003
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Citation Context |

20 |
Dynamic Routing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Reactive Tabu Search.
- O’Rourke, Carlton, et al.
- 2001
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Citation Context ... VRP. These methods, which typically embed a classical heuristic inside them, often give better solutions to the problem than classical heuristic methods, but they also tend to be more time consuming =-=[26, 27, 28]-=-. These approximations help to reduce the computation time compared to the exact methods, but most of these methods are still computationally intractable for real-time replanning. Iterative network fl... |

19 | Real-time Trajectory Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Receding
- Kuwata
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... an action taken in the algorithm and is briefly 93 I I aJ a oi M M - - = - - - - - - M M - - - - M - J Fig. 5.1: Algorithm Architecture. explained here (for a detailed explanation of each action see =-=[53]-=-). * Graph-based Path Planning: The map of the environment is translated into a visible path graph and a distance matrix which then can be used in Task Assignment. e Task Assignment: The distance matr... |

18 |
Cooperative Control for Autonomous Air Vehicles
- Passino, Polycarpou, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

18 |
Simultaneous area search and task assignment for a team of cooperative agents,”
- Curtis, Murphey
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... is continuously responding to new information, it is likely that the integer constrained assignment will vary continuously in time, resulting in a "churning" effect in the assignment, as observed in =-=[41]-=-. The noise tracking and churning features are undesirable both from a control and human operator perspective. A simple example of churning is shown in Figure 3.1, where one vehicle is assigned to vis... |

17 |
Classical Heuristics for the Capacitated VRP,” in The Vehicle Routing Problem,
- Laporte, Semet
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ght line approximation of the feasible paths around the "obstacles" (e.g., buildings, no-fly-zones) in the environment. These costs are then used in the assignment problem solved by a petal algorithm =-=[12, 8]-=-, which is a heuristic that significantly decreases the computation time of the task assignment by reducing the problem size. This reduction is accomplished by enumerating the plans (petals) for each ... |

16 |
Multi-task assignment and path planning for cooperating UAVs
- Bellingham, Tillerson, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...vironment in the task assignment part of the cooperative path planning (CPP) problem for UAVs. For many vehicles, obstacles, and targets, fleet coordination is a very complicated optimization problem =-=[6, 7, 8]-=-, and the computation time increases very rapidly with the problem size. J. Bellingham, et.al. [9] developed an approach to decompose this large problem into assignment and trajectory problems, while ... |

16 |
Floudas. Nonlinear and Mixed-Integer Programming - Fundamentals and Applications
- A
- 1995
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Citation Context ...roblem to optimality. While guaranteed to yield optimal results, these methods are computationally intensive, and this complexity becomes an important issue when the problem has hard side constraints =-=[25]-=-. 17 These complexity issues make the exact methods intractable for many problems, either because they are too large or they take too long to solve. As a result, several approximation methods have bee... |

16 |
Reactive tabu Search in Unmanned Aerial Reconnaissance Simulations
- Ryan, Bailey, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... VRP. These methods, which typically embed a classical heuristic inside them, often give better solutions to the problem than classical heuristic methods, but they also tend to be more time consuming =-=[26, 27, 28]-=-. These approximations help to reduce the computation time compared to the exact methods, but most of these methods are still computationally intractable for real-time replanning. Iterative network fl... |

16 |
Coordination and control of UAV fleets using mixedinteger linear programming,” in Masters, Aeronautics, and Astronautics.
- Bellingham
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... using a piecewise linear function that can be included into a MILP accurately using 3 binary variables. The exact function is nearly linear in the range of interest where probabilities are above 0.3 =-=[42, 46]-=-. The expectation of the mission value is then found by summing waypoint values multiplied by the probability of reaching that waypoint. If the value of the dth way68 point visited by vehicle v in its... |

13 |
The Dynamic Weapon-Target Assignment Problem
- Hosein, Athans
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ssignment The UAV task assignment problem is closely related to the Weapon Target Assignment (WTA) problem, which is a well-known problem that has been addressed in the literature for several decades =-=[45, 47, 48, 49, 50]-=-. The problem consists of N" weapons and Nt targets, and the goal is to assign the weapons to the targets in order to optimize the objective, which is typically the expected accumulated value of the m... |

11 | Stable receding horizon trajectory control for complex environments
- Bellingham, Kuwata, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hitecture to solve an allocation problem first to determine a sequence of waypoints for each vehicle to visit [8], and then concentrate on designing trajectories to visit these pre-assigned waypoints =-=[10, 11]-=-. The decomposition approach simplifies the coupling between the assignment and trajectory design problems by calculating and communicating only the key information that connects them [8]. The cost ca... |

10 | On the Sensitivity of Incremental Algorithms for Combinatorial Auctions," WECWIS 2002
- Kastner, Hsieh, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...change in the SA is to reassign the vehicles based on the most recent information. The problem of reassigning due to the effect of changes in the optimization has been addressed by R. Kastner, et.al. =-=[30]-=- in their use of incremental algorithms for combinatorial auctions. The authors propose that the perturbed optimization problem should also include a term in the objective function that penalizes chan... |

8 |
Metaheuristics for the capacitated vrp. The Vehicle Routing Problem
- Gendreau, Laporte, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... VRP. These methods, which typically embed a classical heuristic inside them, often give better solutions to the problem than classical heuristic methods, but they also tend to be more time consuming =-=[26, 27, 28]-=-. These approximations help to reduce the computation time compared to the exact methods, but most of these methods are still computationally intractable for real-time replanning. Iterative network fl... |

8 |
An approximate algorithm for a weapon target assignment stochastic program
- Murphey
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to cause failure. The simulations presented show that ignoring the probability of UAV loss results in mission plans that are quite likely to fail. Furthermore, techniques that model this probability =-=[45, 28]-=-, but ignore its coupling to each UAV's mission can result in very poor performance of the entire fleet. Clearly, a UAV mission planning formulation must recognize the importance of managing UAV attri... |

5 |
the Secretary of Defense, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Roadmap, technical report
- of
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a significant interest in extending the capabilities of future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to support ground forces, provide timely intelligence, and execute the "dull, dirty tasks in harm's way" =-=[1, 2, 3, 4]-=-. UAVs can be sent into missions that would endanger the lives of the aircrews of manned vehicles, such as the Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) missions for chemical manufacturing facilities wi... |

5 |
Frequency Domain Control Synthesis For TimeCritical Planning
- Tierno, Khalak
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...The authors propose that the perturbed optimization problem should also include a term in the objective function that penalizes changes from the original solution. The work of J. Tierno and A. Khalak =-=[31]-=- also investigates the impact of replanning, with the objective function being a weighted sum of the current objective function and the plan difference from the previous op19 timization to the current... |

5 |
Robust Planning for Heterogeneous UAVs
- Bertuccelli
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he controls literature has been generally viewed as an openloop optimization with deterministic parameters. The optimization is generally done once (possibly made robust to uncertainty in the problem =-=[38, 39, 40]-=-), and task reassignment occurs only when substantial changes in the environment have been observed (e.g., UAV loss or target classification [42, 13]). In reality, these information updates are contin... |

5 |
An Asymptotic Result for the Multi-Stage Weapon-Target Allocation Problem
- Hosein, Athans
- 1990
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Citation Context |

4 | Cooperative, dynamic mission control for uncertain, multi-vehicle autonomous systems, in: - Wohletz - 2002 |

4 | Cooperative Real-Time Task Allocation Among Groups of UAVs
- Jin, Polycarpou, et al.
- 2004
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4 |
Constellation 3D-i Error Budget and Specifications
- ArcSecond
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...EX. A direct wireless Ethernet connection provides a fast and reliable network between the laptops, so this is equivalent to having all computation performed onboard. The ArcSecond Constellation 3D-i =-=[54]-=- indoor positioning system is used to measure the vehicle position indoors. This sensor has been verified to give ±4mm position accuracy at 20Hz. The 2.1m diameter blimps in Figure 5.3 were scaled to ... |

3 |
UAV Technologies and combat operations
- Board
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a significant interest in extending the capabilities of future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to support ground forces, provide timely intelligence, and execute the "dull, dirty tasks in harm's way" =-=[1, 2, 3, 4]-=-. UAVs can be sent into missions that would endanger the lives of the aircrews of manned vehicles, such as the Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) missions for chemical manufacturing facilities wi... |

2 |
Task Assignment in the Cooperative Control of Multiple UAVs
- Kang, Sparks
- 2003
(Show Context)
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2 |
OEP user Guide, Boeing Company, Revision 10
- MICA
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ther illustrates that a good solution (close to optimal) can be achieved in a reasonable amount of time, suitable for real-time applications. Simulations using Boeing's Open Experiment Platform (OEP) =-=[29]-=- and results from a hardware testbed are presented in Chapter 5 to demonstrate the effectiveness of RHTA in dynamic and real-world environments. Task assignment in the controls literature has been gen... |

1 |
Churning: Repeated Optimization and Cooperative Stability," Recent Development in Cooperative Control and Optimization
- Curtis
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ainty on feedback control has been analyzed in detail in the controls literature, equivalent formulations to analyze this impact on the high-level planning processes have only recently been developed =-=[31, 37]-=-. Uncertainty will inherently propagate down from the high-level decisions to the lower-level ones, and thus it is very important to extend these tools and algorithms to provide new insights on the be... |