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Using Bayesian networks to analyze expression data
 Journal of Computational Biology
, 2000
"... DNA hybridization arrays simultaneously measure the expression level for thousands of genes. These measurements provide a “snapshot ” of transcription levels within the cell. A major challenge in computational biology is to uncover, from such measurements, gene/protein interactions and key biologica ..."
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Cited by 1087 (17 self)
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DNA hybridization arrays simultaneously measure the expression level for thousands of genes. These measurements provide a “snapshot ” of transcription levels within the cell. A major challenge in computational biology is to uncover, from such measurements, gene/protein interactions and key biological features of cellular systems. In this paper, we propose a new framework for discovering interactions between genes based on multiple expression measurements. This framework builds on the use of Bayesian networks for representing statistical dependencies. A Bayesian network is a graphbased model of joint multivariate probability distributions that captures properties of conditional independence between variables. Such models are attractive for their ability to describe complex stochastic processes and because they provide a clear methodology for learning from (noisy) observations. We start by showing how Bayesian networks can describe interactions between genes. We then describe a method for recovering gene interactions from microarray data using tools for learning Bayesian networks. Finally, we demonstrate this method on the S. cerevisiae cellcycle measurements of Spellman et al. (1998). Key words: gene expression, microarrays, Bayesian methods. 1.
Qualitative Simulation of Genetic Regulatory Networks Using PiecewiseLinear Models
, 2001
"... In order to cope with the large amounts of data that have become available in genomics, mathematical tools for the analysis of networks of interactions between genes, proteins, and other molecules are indispensable. We present a method for the qualitative simulation of genetic regulatory networks ..."
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Cited by 190 (30 self)
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In order to cope with the large amounts of data that have become available in genomics, mathematical tools for the analysis of networks of interactions between genes, proteins, and other molecules are indispensable. We present a method for the qualitative simulation of genetic regulatory networks, based on a class of piecewiselinear (PL) differential equations that has been wellstudied in mathematical biology. The simulation method is welladapted to stateoftheart measurement techniques in genomics, which often provide qualitative and coarsegrained descriptions of genetic regulatory networks. Given a qualitative model of a genetic regulatory network, consisting of a system of PL differential equations and inequality constraints on the parameter values, the method produces a graph of qualitative states and transitions between qualitative states, summarizing the qualitative dynamics of the system. The qualitative simulation method has been implemented in Java in the computer tool Genetic Network Analyzer.
Sensitivity and specificity of inferring genetic regulatory interactions from microarray experiments with dynamic Bayesian networks
 Bioinformatics
, 2003
"... Motivation: Bayesian networks have been applied to infer genetic regulatory interactions from microarray gene expression data. This inference problem is particularly hard in that interactions between hundreds of genes have to be learned from very small data sets, typically containing only a few doze ..."
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Cited by 174 (5 self)
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Motivation: Bayesian networks have been applied to infer genetic regulatory interactions from microarray gene expression data. This inference problem is particularly hard in that interactions between hundreds of genes have to be learned from very small data sets, typically containing only a few dozen time points during a cell cycle. Most previous studies have assessed the inference results on real gene expression data by comparing predicted genetic regulatory interactions with those known from the biological literature. This approach is controversial due to the absence of known gold standards, which renders the estimation of the sensitivity and specificity, that is, the true and (complementary) false detection rate, unreliable and difficult. The objective of the present study is to test the viability of the Bayesian network paradigm in a realistic simulation study. First, gene expression data are simulated from a realistic biological network involving DNAs, mRNAs, inactive protein monomers and active protein dimers. Then, interaction networks are inferred from these data in a reverse engineering approach, using Bayesian networks and Bayesian learning with Markov chain Monte Carlo.
Results: The simulation results are presented as receiver operator characteristics curves. This allows estimating the proportion of spurious gene interactions incurred for a specified target proportion of recovered true interactions. The findings demonstrate how the network inference performance varies with the training set size, the degree of inadequacy of prior assumptions, the experimental sampling strategy and the inclusion of further, sequencebased information.
From Boolean to Probabilistic Boolean Networks as Models of Genetic Regulatory Networks
 Proc. IEEE
, 2002
"... Mathematical and computational modeling of genetic regulatory networks promises to uncover the fundamental principles governing biological systems in an integrarive and holistic manner. It also paves the way toward the development of systematic approaches for effective therapeutic intervention in di ..."
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Cited by 124 (23 self)
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Mathematical and computational modeling of genetic regulatory networks promises to uncover the fundamental principles governing biological systems in an integrarive and holistic manner. It also paves the way toward the development of systematic approaches for effective therapeutic intervention in disease. The central theme in this paper is the Boolean formalism as a building block for modeling complex, largescale, and dynamical networks of genetic interactions. We discuss the goals of modeling genetic networks as well as the data requirements. The Boolean formalism is justified from several points of view. We then introduce Boolean networks and discuss their relationships to nonlinear digital filters. The role of Boolean networks in understanding cell differentiation and cellular functional states is discussed. The inference of Boolean networks from real gene expression data is considered from the viewpoints of computational learning theory and nonlinear signal processing, touching on computational complexity of learning and robustness. Then, a discussion of the need to handle uncertainty in a probabilistic framework is presented, leading to an introduction of probabilistic Boolean networks and their relationships to Markov chains. Methods for quantifying the influence of genes on other genes are presented. The general question of the potential effect of individual genes on the global dynamical network behavior is considered using stochastic perturbation analysis. This discussion then leads into the problem of target identification for therapeutic intervention via the development of several computational tools based on firstpassage times in Markov chains. Examples from biology are presented throughout the paper. 1
A comparison of genetic network models
 In Pac. Symp. Biocomputing
, 2001
"... The inference of genetic interactions from measured expression data is one of the most challenging tasks of modern functional genomics. When successful, the learned network of regulatory interactions yields a wealth of useful information. An inferred genetic network contains information about the p ..."
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Cited by 95 (5 self)
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The inference of genetic interactions from measured expression data is one of the most challenging tasks of modern functional genomics. When successful, the learned network of regulatory interactions yields a wealth of useful information. An inferred genetic network contains information about the pathway to which a gene belongs and which genes it interacts with. Furthermore, it explains the gene's function in terms of how it influences other genes and indicates which genes are pathway initiators and therefore potential drug targets. Obviously, such wealth comes at a price and that of genetic network modeling is that it is an extremely complex task. Therefore, it is necessary to develop sophisticated computational tools that are able to extract relevant information from a limited set of microarray measurements and integrate this with different information sources, to come up with reliable hypotheses of a genetic regulatory network. Thus far, a multitude of modeling approaches has been proposed for discovering genetic networks. However, it is unclear what the advantages and disadvantages of each of the different approaches are and how their results can be compared. In this review, genetic network models are put in a historical perspective that explains why certain models were introduced. Various modeling assumptions and their consequences are also highlighted. In addition, an overview of the principal differences and similarities between the approaches is given by considering the qualitative properties of the chosen models and their learning strategies. In pharmacogenomics and related areas, a lot of research is directed towards discovering, understanding and/or controlling the outcome of some particular biological pathway. Numerous examples exist where the manipulation of a key enzyme in such a pathway did not lead to the desired effect We know that the structure of complex genetic and biochemical networks lies hidden in the sequence information of our DNA but it is far from trivial to predict gene expression from the sequence code alone. The current availability of microarray measurements of thousands of gene expression levels during the course of an experiment or after the knockout of a gene provides a wealth of complementary information that may be exploited to unravel the complex interplay between genes. It now becomes possible to start answering some of the truly challenging questions in systems biology. For example, is it possible to model these genetic interactions as a large network of interacting elements and can these interactions be effectively learned from measured expression data? Since Kauffman Although the behavior and properties of artificial networks match the observations made in real biological systems well, the field of genetic network modeling has yet to reach its full maturity. The automatic discovery of genetic networks from expression data alone is far from trivial because of the combinatorial nature of the problem and the poor information content of 1 For reasons of brevity, the authors consistently refer only to the first author of each reference.
Genetic network analyzer: qualitative simulation of genetic regulatory networks
 Bioinformatics
, 2003
"... Motivation: The study of genetic regulatory networks has received a major impetus from the recent development of experimental techniques allowing the measurement of patterns of gene expression in a massively parallel way. This experimental progress calls for the development of appropriate computer ..."
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Cited by 93 (14 self)
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Motivation: The study of genetic regulatory networks has received a major impetus from the recent development of experimental techniques allowing the measurement of patterns of gene expression in a massively parallel way. This experimental progress calls for the development of appropriate computer tools for the modeling and simulation of gene regulation processes. Results: We present Genetic Network Analyzer (GNA), a computer tool for the modeling and simulation of genetic regulatory networks. The tool is based on a qualitative simulation method that employs coarsegrained models of regulatory networks. The use of GNA is illustrated by a case study of the network of genes and interactions regulating the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Availability: GNA and the model of the sporulation network are available at
Validation of qualitative models of genetic regulatory networks by model checking: Analysis of the nutritional stress response in Escherichia coli
 Bioinformatics
, 2005
"... The functioning and development of living organisms is controlled by large and complex networks of genes, proteins, small molecules, and their mutual interactions, socalled genetic regulatory networks. In order to gain an understanding of how the behavior of an organism – e.g., the response of a ..."
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Cited by 84 (18 self)
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The functioning and development of living organisms is controlled by large and complex networks of genes, proteins, small molecules, and their mutual interactions, socalled genetic regulatory networks. In order to gain an understanding of how the behavior of an organism – e.g., the response of a
Modeling and Querying Biomolecular Interaction Networks
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2003
"... We introduce a formalism to represent and analyze proteinprotein and proteinDNA interaction networks. We illustrate the expressivity of this language, by proposing a formal counterpart of Kohn's compilation on the mammalian cell cycle control. This e#ectively turns an otherwise static kno ..."
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Cited by 82 (0 self)
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We introduce a formalism to represent and analyze proteinprotein and proteinDNA interaction networks. We illustrate the expressivity of this language, by proposing a formal counterpart of Kohn's compilation on the mammalian cell cycle control. This e#ectively turns an otherwise static knowledge into a discrete transition system incorporating a qualitative description of the dynamics. We then propose to use the Computation Tree Logic CTL as a query language for querying the possible behaviours of the system. We provide examples of biologically relevant queries expressed in CTL about the mammalian cell cycle control and show the e#ectiveness of symbolic model checking tools to evaluate CTL queries in this context.
Petri Net Modelling of Biological Networks
 Briefings in Bioinformatics, 8(4):210 – 219
, 2007
"... Mathematical modelling is increasingly used to get insights into the functioning of complex biological networks. In this context, Petri nets (PNs) have recently emerged as a promising tool among the various methods employed for the modelling and analysis of molecular networks. PNs come with a series ..."
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Cited by 68 (3 self)
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Mathematical modelling is increasingly used to get insights into the functioning of complex biological networks. In this context, Petri nets (PNs) have recently emerged as a promising tool among the various methods employed for the modelling and analysis of molecular networks. PNs come with a series of extensions, which allow different abstraction levels, from purely qualitative to more complex quantitative models.Noteworthily, each of these models preserves the underlying graph, which depicts the interactions between the biological components. This article intends to present the basics of the approach and to foster the potential role PNs could play in the development of the computational systems biology.
Symbolic model checking of biochemical networks
 Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB’03), volume 2602 of LNCS
, 2003
"... Abstract. Model checking is an automatic method for deciding if a circuit or a program, expressed as a concurrent transition system, satisfies a set of properties expressed in a temporal logic such as CTL. In this paper we argue that symbolic model checking is feasible in systems biology and that it ..."
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Cited by 66 (8 self)
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Abstract. Model checking is an automatic method for deciding if a circuit or a program, expressed as a concurrent transition system, satisfies a set of properties expressed in a temporal logic such as CTL. In this paper we argue that symbolic model checking is feasible in systems biology and that it shows some advantages over simulation for querying and validating formal models of biological processes. We report our experiments on using the symbolic model checker NuSMV and the constraintbased model checker DMC, for the modeling and querying of two biological processes: a qualitative model of the mammalian cell cycle control after Kohn's diagrams, and a quantitative model of gene expression regulation. 1 Introduction In recent years, Biology has clearly engaged an elucidation work of highlevel biological processes in terms of their biochemical basis at the molecular level. The mass production of post genomic data, such as ARN expression, protein production and proteinprotein interaction, raises the need of a strong parallel effort on the formal representation of biological processes. Metabolism networks, extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways, and gene expression regulation networks, are very complex dynamical systems. Annotating data bases with qualitative and quantitative information about the dynamics of biological systems, will not be sufficient to integrate and efficiently use the current knowledge about these systems. The design of formal tools for modeling biomolecular processes and for reasoning about their dynamics seems to be a mandatory research path to which the field of formal verification in computer science may contribute a lot.