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A new approach to the maximum flow problem
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1988
"... All previously known efficient maximumflow algorithms work by finding augmenting paths, either one path at a time (as in the original Ford and Fulkerson algorithm) or all shortestlength augmenting paths at once (using the layered network approach of Dinic). An alternative method based on the pre ..."
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Cited by 672 (33 self)
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All previously known efficient maximumflow algorithms work by finding augmenting paths, either one path at a time (as in the original Ford and Fulkerson algorithm) or all shortestlength augmenting paths at once (using the layered network approach of Dinic). An alternative method based on the preflow concept of Karzanov is introduced. A preflow is like a flow, except that the total amount flowing into a vertex is allowed to exceed the total amount flowing out. The method maintains a preflow in the original network and pushes local flow excess toward the sink along what are estimated to be shortest paths. The algorithm and its analysis are simple and intuitive, yet the algorithm runs as fast as any other known method on dense. graphs, achieving an O(n³) time bound on an nvertex graph. By incorporating the dynamic tree data structure of Sleator and Tarjan, we obtain a version of the algorithm running in O(nm log(n²/m)) time on an nvertex, medge graph. This is as fast as any known method for any graph density and faster on graphs of moderate density. The algorithm also admits efticient distributed and parallel implementations. A parallel implementation running in O(n²log n) time using n processors and O(m) space is obtained. This time bound matches that of the ShiloachVishkin algorithm, which also uses n processors but requires O(n²) space.
Energy Conserving Routing in Wireless Adhoc Networks
, 2000
"... An adhoc network of wireless static nodes is considered as it arises in a rapidly deployed, sensor based, monitoring system. Information is generated in certain nodes and needs to reach a set of designated gateway nodes. Each node may adjust its power within a certain range that determines the set ..."
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Cited by 622 (2 self)
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An adhoc network of wireless static nodes is considered as it arises in a rapidly deployed, sensor based, monitoring system. Information is generated in certain nodes and needs to reach a set of designated gateway nodes. Each node may adjust its power within a certain range that determines the set of possible one hop away neighbors. Traffic forwarding through multiple hops is employed when the intended destination is not within immediate reach. The nodes have limited initial amounts of energy that is consumed in different rates depending on the power level and the intended receiver. We propose algorithms to select the routes and the corresponding power levels such that the time until the batteries of the nodes drainout is maximized. The algorithms are local and amenable to distributed implementation. When there is a single power level, the problem is reduced to a maximum flow problem with node capacities and the algorithms converge to the optimal solution. When there are multiple power levels then the achievable lifetime is close to the optimal (that is computed by linear programming) most of the time. It turns out that in order to maximize the lifetime, the traffic should be routed such that the energy consumption is balanced among the nodes in proportion to their energy reserves, instead of routing to minimize the absolute consumed power.
Maximum Lifetime Routing In Wireless Sensor Networks
 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING
, 2000
"... Routing in powercontrolled wireless sensor networks is formulated as an optimization problem with the goal of maximizing the system lifetime. Considering that the information is delivered in the form of packets, we identified the problem as an integer programming problem. It is known that the syste ..."
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Cited by 282 (0 self)
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Routing in powercontrolled wireless sensor networks is formulated as an optimization problem with the goal of maximizing the system lifetime. Considering that the information is delivered in the form of packets, we identified the problem as an integer programming problem. It is known that the system lifetime can be significantly extended by using a link metric that utilizes the information about the residual energy of the sensor nodes as well as the energy expenditure in transmission of a unit information over the wireless links. In this paper, some of the routing algorithms are proposed and examined in order to find the best link cost function and the method of shortest path calculation. The performance comparison is made through simulation in a typical battlefield scenario where sensors detecting a moving target vehicle periodically send a reporting packet to one of the gateway nodes. The results are also compared with the optimal solution obtained by the linear programming relaxation of the problem, which showed closetooptimal performance.
Power management in energy harvesting sensor networks
 Networked and Embedded Systems Laboratory, UCLA
, 2006
"... Power management is an important concern in sensor networks, because a tethered energy infrastructure is usually not available and an obvious concern is to use the available battery energy efficiently. However, in some of the sensor networking applications, an additional facility is available to am ..."
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Cited by 232 (3 self)
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Power management is an important concern in sensor networks, because a tethered energy infrastructure is usually not available and an obvious concern is to use the available battery energy efficiently. However, in some of the sensor networking applications, an additional facility is available to ameliorate the energy problem: harvesting energy from the environment. Certain considerations in using an energy harvesting source are fundamentally different from that in using a battery, because, rather than a limit on the maximum energy, it has a limit on the maximum rate at which the energy can be used. Further, the harvested energy availability typically varies with time in a nondeterministic manner. While a deterministic metric, such as residual battery, suffices to characterize the energy availability in the case of batteries, a more sophisticated characterization may be required for a harvesting source. Another issue that becomes important in networked systems with multiple harvesting nodes is that different nodes may have different harvesting opportunity. In a distributed application, the same enduser performance may be achieved using different workload allocations, and resultant energy consumptions at multiple nodes. In this case, it is important to align the workload allocation with the energy availability at the harvesting nodes. We consider the above issues in power management for energyharvesting sensor networks. We develop abstractions
Concurrent Online Tracking of Mobile Users
 J. ACM
, 1991
"... This paper deals with the problem of maintaining a distributed directory server, that enables us to keep track of mobile users in a distributed network in the presence of concurrent requests. The paper uses the graphtheoretic concept of regional matching for implementing efficient tracking mechanis ..."
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Cited by 231 (7 self)
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This paper deals with the problem of maintaining a distributed directory server, that enables us to keep track of mobile users in a distributed network in the presence of concurrent requests. The paper uses the graphtheoretic concept of regional matching for implementing efficient tracking mechanisms. The communication overhead of our tracking mechanism is within a polylogarithmic factor of the lower bound. 1 Introduction Since the primary function of a communication network is to provide communication facilities between users and processes in the system, one of the key problems such a network faces is the need to be able to Department of Mathematics and Lab. for Computer Science, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Email: baruch@theory.lcs.mit.edu. Supported by Air Force Contract TNDGAFOSR860078, ARO contract DAAL0386K0171, NSF contract CCR8611442, DARPA contract N0001489J 1988, and a special grant from IBM. y Departmentof Applied Mathematicsand Computer Science, The Weizm...
Information Theory and Communication Networks: An Unconsummated Union
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 1998
"... Information theory has not yet had a direct impact on networking, although there are similarities in concepts and methodologies that have consistently attracted the attention of researchers from both fields. In this paper, we review several topics that are related to communication networks and that ..."
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Cited by 187 (7 self)
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Information theory has not yet had a direct impact on networking, although there are similarities in concepts and methodologies that have consistently attracted the attention of researchers from both fields. In this paper, we review several topics that are related to communication networks and that have an information theoretic flavor, including multiaccess protocols, timing channels, effective bandwidth of bursty data sources, deterministic constraints on datastreams, queueing theory, and switching networks. Keywords Communication networks, multiaccess, effective bandwidth, switching I. INTRODUCTION Information theory is the conscience of the theory of communication; it has defined the "playing field" within which communication systems can be studied and understood. It has provided the spawning grounds for the fields of coding, compression, encryption, detection, and modulation and it has enabled the design and evaluation of systems whose performance is pushing the limits of wha...
A Scalable Method for Multiagent Constraint Optimization
"... We present in this paper a new, complete method for distributed constraint optimization, based on dynamic programming. It is a utility propagation method, inspired by the sumproduct algorithm, which is correct only for treeshaped constraint networks. In this paper, we show how to extend that algor ..."
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Cited by 179 (18 self)
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We present in this paper a new, complete method for distributed constraint optimization, based on dynamic programming. It is a utility propagation method, inspired by the sumproduct algorithm, which is correct only for treeshaped constraint networks. In this paper, we show how to extend that algorithm to arbitrary topologies using a pseudotree arrangement of the problem graph. Our algorithm requires a linear number of messages, whose maximal size depends on the induced width along the particular pseudotree chosen. We compare our algorithm with backtracking algorithms, and present experimental results. For some problem types we report orders of magnitude fewer messages, and the ability to deal with arbitrarily large problems. Our algorithm is formulated for optimization problems, but can be easily applied to satisfaction problems as well.
Minimumenergy broadcast in allwireless networks: Npcompleteness and distribution
 In Proc. of ACM MobiCom
, 2002
"... In allwireless networks a crucial problem is to minimize energy consumption, as in most cases the nodes are batteryoperated. We focus on the problem of poweroptimal broadcast, for which it is well known that the broadcast nature of the radio transmission can be exploited to optimize energy consump ..."
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Cited by 177 (2 self)
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In allwireless networks a crucial problem is to minimize energy consumption, as in most cases the nodes are batteryoperated. We focus on the problem of poweroptimal broadcast, for which it is well known that the broadcast nature of the radio transmission can be exploited to optimize energy consumption. Several authors have conjectured that the problem of poweroptimal broadcast is NPcomplete. We provide here a formal proof, both for the general case and for the geometric one; in the former case, the network topology is represented by a generic graph with arbitrary weights, whereas in the latter a Euclidean distance is considered. We then describe a new heuristic, Embedded Wireless Multicast Advantage. We show that it compares well with other proposals and we explain how it can be distributed. Categories and Subject Descriptors
Distributed topology construction of bluetooth personal area networks,”
 in INFOCOM,
, 2001
"... AbstractIn recent years, wireless ad hoc networks have been a growing area of research. While there has been considerable research on the topic of routing in such networks, the topic of topology creation has not received due attention. This is because almost all ad hoc networks to date have been ..."
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Cited by 149 (0 self)
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AbstractIn recent years, wireless ad hoc networks have been a growing area of research. While there has been considerable research on the topic of routing in such networks, the topic of topology creation has not received due attention. This is because almost all ad hoc networks to date have been built on top of a single channel, broadcast based wireless media, such as 802.11 or IR LANs. For such networks the distance relationship between the nodes implicitly (and uniquely) determines the topology of the ad hoc network. Bluetooth is a promising new wireless technology, which enables portable devices to form shortrange wireless ad hoc networks and is based on a frequency hopping physical layer. This fact implies that hosts are not able to communicate unless they have previously discovered each other by synchronizing their frequency hopping patterns. Thus, even if all nodes are within direct communication range of each other, only those nodes which are synchronized with the transmitter can hear the transmission. To support anytoany communication, nodes must be synchronized so that the pairs of nodes (which can communicate with each other) together form a connected graph. Using Bluetooth as an example, this paper first provides deeper insights into the issue to link establishment in frequency hopping wireless systems. It then introduces the Bluetooth Topology Costruction Protocol (BTCP), an asynchronous distributed protocol for constructing scatternets which starts with nodes that have no knowledge of their surroundings and terminates with the formation of a connected network satisfying all connectivity constraints posed by the Bluetooth technology. To the best of our knowledge, the work presented in this paper is the first attempt at building Bluetooth scatternets using distributed logic and is quite "practical" in the sense that it can be implemented using the communication primitives offered by the Bluetooth 1.0 specifications.