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121
Error and attack tolerance of complex networks
, 2000
"... Many complex systems display a surprising degree of tolerance against errors. For example, relatively simple organisms grow, persist and reproduce despite drastic pharmaceutical or environmental interventions, an error tolerance attributed to the robustness of the underlying metabolic network [1]. C ..."
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Cited by 1013 (7 self)
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Many complex systems display a surprising degree of tolerance against errors. For example, relatively simple organisms grow, persist and reproduce despite drastic pharmaceutical or environmental interventions, an error tolerance attributed to the robustness of the underlying metabolic network [1]. Complex communication networks [2] display a surprising degree of robustness: while key components regularly malfunction, local failures rarely lead to the loss of the global informationcarrying ability of the network. The stability of these and other complex systems is often attributed to the redundant wiring of the functional web defined by the systems’ components. In this paper we demonstrate that error tolerance is not shared by all redundant systems, but it is displayed only by a class of inhomogeneously wired networks, called scalefree networks. We find that scalefree networks, describing a number of systems, such as the World Wide Web (www) [3–5], Internet [6], social networks [7] or a cell [8], display an unexpected degree of robustness, the ability of their nodes to communicate being unaffected by even unrealistically high failure rates. However,
Mining the Network Value of Customers
 In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 2002
"... One of the major applications of data mining is in helping companies determine which potential customers to market to. If the expected pro t from a customer is greater than the cost of marketing to her, the marketing action for that customer is executed. So far, work in this area has considered only ..."
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Cited by 568 (11 self)
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One of the major applications of data mining is in helping companies determine which potential customers to market to. If the expected pro t from a customer is greater than the cost of marketing to her, the marketing action for that customer is executed. So far, work in this area has considered only the intrinsic value of the customer (i.e, the expected pro t from sales to her). We propose to model also the customer's network value: the expected pro t from sales to other customers she may inuence to buy, the customers those may inuence, and so on recursively. Instead of viewing a market as a set of independent entities, we view it as a social network and model it as a Markov random eld. We show the advantages of this approach using a social network mined from a collaborative ltering database. Marketing that exploits the network value of customersalso known as viral marketingcan be extremely eective, but is still a black art. Our work can be viewed as a step towards providing a more solid foundation for it, taking advantage of the availability of large relevant databases. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.2.8 [Database Management]: Database Applications data mining
A Random Graph Model for Massive Graphs
 STOC 2000
, 2000
"... We propose a random graph model which is a special case of sparse random graphs with given degree sequences. This model involves only a small number of parameters, called logsize and loglog growth rate. These parameters capture some universal characteristics of massive graphs. Furthermore, from t ..."
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Cited by 406 (26 self)
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We propose a random graph model which is a special case of sparse random graphs with given degree sequences. This model involves only a small number of parameters, called logsize and loglog growth rate. These parameters capture some universal characteristics of massive graphs. Furthermore, from these parameters, various properties of the graph can be derived. For example, for certain ranges of the parameters, we will compute the expected distribution of the sizes of the connected components which almost surely occur with high probability. We will illustrate the consistency of our model with the behavior of some massive graphs derived from data in telecommunications. We will also discuss the threshold function, the giant component, and the evolution of random graphs in this model.
Mining KnowledgeSharing Sites for Viral Marketing
, 2002
"... Viral marketing takes advantage of networks of influence among customers to inexpensively achieve large changes in behavior. Our research seeks to put it on a firmer footing by mining these networks from data, building probabilistic models of them, and using these models to choose the best viral mar ..."
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Cited by 368 (8 self)
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Viral marketing takes advantage of networks of influence among customers to inexpensively achieve large changes in behavior. Our research seeks to put it on a firmer footing by mining these networks from data, building probabilistic models of them, and using these models to choose the best viral marketing plan. Knowledgesharing sites, where customers review products and advise each other, are a fertile source for this type of data mining. In this paper we extend our previous techniques, achieving a large reduction in computational cost, and apply them to data from a knowledgesharing site. We optimize the amount of marketing funds spent on each customer, rather than just making a binary decision on whether to market to him. We take into account the fact that knowledge of the network is partial, and that gathering that knowledge can itself have a cost. Our results show the robustness and utility of our approach.
Stochastic Models for the Web Graph
, 2000
"... The web may be viewed as a directed graph each of whose vertices is a static HTML web page, and each of whose edges corresponds to a hyperlink from one web page to another. In this paper we propose and analyze random graph models inspired by a series of empirical observations on the web. Our graph m ..."
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Cited by 291 (12 self)
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The web may be viewed as a directed graph each of whose vertices is a static HTML web page, and each of whose edges corresponds to a hyperlink from one web page to another. In this paper we propose and analyze random graph models inspired by a series of empirical observations on the web. Our graph models differ from the traditional Gn;p models in two ways: 1. Independently chosen edges do not result in the statistics (degree distributions, clique multitudes) observed on the web. Thus, edges in our model are statistically dependent on each other. 2. Our model introduces new vertices in the graph as time evolves. This captures the fact that the web is changing with time. Our results are two fold: we show that graphs generated using our model exhibit the statistics observed on the web graph, and additionally, that natural graph models proposed earlier do not exhibit them. This remains true even when these earlier models are generalized to account for the arrival of vertices over time. In particular, the sparse random graphs in our models exhibit properties that do not arise in far denser random graphs generated by ErdosR'enyi models.
RMAT: A recursive model for graph mining
 In Fourth SIAM International Conference on Data Mining (SDM’ 04
, 2004
"... How does a ‘normal ’ computer (or social) network look like? How can we spot ‘abnormal ’ subnetworks in the Internet, or web graph? The answer to such questions is vital for outlier detection (terrorist networks, or illegal moneylaundering rings), forecasting, and simulations (“how will a computer ..."
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Cited by 245 (17 self)
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How does a ‘normal ’ computer (or social) network look like? How can we spot ‘abnormal ’ subnetworks in the Internet, or web graph? The answer to such questions is vital for outlier detection (terrorist networks, or illegal moneylaundering rings), forecasting, and simulations (“how will a computer virus spread?”). The heart of the problem is finding the properties of real graphs that seem to persist over multiple disciplines. We list such “laws ” and, more importantly, we propose a simple, parsimonious model, the “recursive matrix ” (RMAT) model, which can quickly generate realistic graphs, capturing the essence of each graph in only a few parameters. Contrary to existing generators, our model can trivially generate weighted, directed and bipartite graphs; it subsumes the celebrated ErdősRényi model as a special case; it can match the power law behaviors, as well as the deviations from them (like the “winner does not take it all ” model of Pennock et al. [21]). We present results on multiple, large real graphs, where we show that our parameter fitting algorithm (AutoMATfast) fits them very well. 1
Connected Components in Random Graphs with Given Expected Degree Sequences
 ANNALS OF COMBINATORICS
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Graphscope: parameterfree mining of large timeevolving graphs
 In KDD ’07: Proceedings of the 13th ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining
, 2007
"... How can we find communities in dynamic networks of social interactions, such as who calls whom, who emails whom, or who sells to whom? How can we spot discontinuity timepoints in such streams of graphs, in an online, anytime fashion? We propose GraphScope, that addresses both problems, using inf ..."
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Cited by 155 (14 self)
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How can we find communities in dynamic networks of social interactions, such as who calls whom, who emails whom, or who sells to whom? How can we spot discontinuity timepoints in such streams of graphs, in an online, anytime fashion? We propose GraphScope, that addresses both problems, using information theoretic principles. Contrary to the majority of earlier methods, it needs no userdefined parameters. Moreover, it is designed to operate on large graphs, in a streaming fashion. We demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our GraphScope on real datasets from several diverse domains. In all cases it produces meaningful timeevolving patterns that agree with human intuition.
Graph mining: laws, generators, and algorithms
 ACM COMPUT SURV (CSUR
, 2006
"... How does the Web look? How could we tell an abnormal social network from a normal one? These and similar questions are important in many fields where the data can intuitively be cast as a graph; examples range from computer networks to sociology to biology and many more. Indeed, any M: N relation in ..."
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Cited by 132 (7 self)
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How does the Web look? How could we tell an abnormal social network from a normal one? These and similar questions are important in many fields where the data can intuitively be cast as a graph; examples range from computer networks to sociology to biology and many more. Indeed, any M: N relation in database terminology can be represented as a graph. A lot of these questions boil down to the following: “How can we generate synthetic but realistic graphs? ” To answer this, we must first understand what patterns are common in realworld graphs and can thus be considered a mark of normality/realism. This survey give an overview of the incredible variety of work that has been done on these problems. One of our main contributions is the integration of points of view from physics, mathematics, sociology, and computer science. Further, we briefly describe recent advances on some related and interesting graph problems.
Kronecker Graphs: An Approach to Modeling Networks
 JOURNAL OF MACHINE LEARNING RESEARCH 11 (2010) 9851042
, 2010
"... How can we generate realistic networks? In addition, how can we do so with a mathematically tractable model that allows for rigorous analysis of network properties? Real networks exhibit a long list of surprising properties: Heavy tails for the in and outdegree distribution, heavy tails for the ei ..."
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Cited by 123 (3 self)
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How can we generate realistic networks? In addition, how can we do so with a mathematically tractable model that allows for rigorous analysis of network properties? Real networks exhibit a long list of surprising properties: Heavy tails for the in and outdegree distribution, heavy tails for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, small diameters, and densification and shrinking diameters over time. Current network models and generators either fail to match several of the above properties, are complicated to analyze mathematically, or both. Here we propose a generative model for networks that is both mathematically tractable and can generate networks that have all the above mentioned structural properties. Our main idea here is to use a nonstandard matrix operation, the Kronecker product, to generate graphs which we refer to as “Kronecker graphs”. First, we show that Kronecker graphs naturally obey common network properties. In fact, we rigorously prove that they do so. We also provide empirical evidence showing that Kronecker graphs can effectively model the structure of real networks. We then present KRONFIT, a fast and scalable algorithm for fitting the Kronecker graph generation model to large real networks. A naive approach to fitting would take superexponential