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The Economic Content of
 Indicators of Developing Country Creditworthiness.” IMF Staff Papers 43
, 1996
"... DISCLAIMER: The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and should not be attributed to the IMF, its Executive Board, or its management. JEL Classification Numbers: Keywords: Authors ’ Email Addresses: ..."
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DISCLAIMER: The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and should not be attributed to the IMF, its Executive Board, or its management. JEL Classification Numbers: Keywords: Authors ’ Email Addresses:
Three little pieces for computer and relativity
"... Abstract. Numerical relativity has made big strides over the last decade. A number of problems that have plagued the field for years have now been mostly solved. This progress has transformed numerical relativity into a powerful tool to explore fundamental problems in physics and astrophysics, and I ..."
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Abstract. Numerical relativity has made big strides over the last decade. A number of problems that have plagued the field for years have now been mostly solved. This progress has transformed numerical relativity into a powerful tool to explore fundamental problems in physics and astrophysics, and I present here three representative examples. These “three little pieces ” reflect a personal choice and describe work that I am particularly familiar with. However, many more examples could be made. 1.
THE KINETIC STRUCTURE OF COLLISIONLESS SLOW SHOCKS AND RECONNECTION EXHAUSTS
, 2011
"... A 2D Riemann problem is designed to study the development and dynamics of the slow shocks that are thought to form at the boundaries of reconnection exhausts. Simulations are carried out for various ratios of normal magnetic field to the transverse upstream magnetic field (i.e., propagation angle ..."
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A 2D Riemann problem is designed to study the development and dynamics of the slow shocks that are thought to form at the boundaries of reconnection exhausts. Simulations are carried out for various ratios of normal magnetic field to the transverse upstream magnetic field (i.e., propagation angle with respect to the upstream magnetic field). When the angle is sufficiently oblique, the simulations reveal a large firehosesense (P ‖> P⊥) temperature anisotropy in the downstream region, accompanied by a transition from a coplanar slow shock to a noncoplanar rotational mode. In the downstream region the firehose stability parameter ε = 1 − µ0(P ‖ − P⊥)/B2 tends to plateau at 0.25. This balance arises from the competition between counterstreaming ions, which drives ε down, and the scattering due to ion inertial scale waves, which are driven unstable by the downstream rotational wave. At very oblique propagating angles, 2D turbulence also develops in the downstream region. An explanation for the critical value 0.25 is proposed by examining anisotropic fluid theories, in particular the Anisotropic Derivative NonlinearSchrödingerBurgers equations, with an intuitive model of the energy closure for the downstream counterstreaming ions. The anisotropy value of 0.25 is significant because it is closely related to the degeneracy point of the slow and intermediate modes, and corresponds to the lower bound of the transition point in a compound slow shock(SS)/rotational discontinuity(RD) wave. This work implies that it is a pair of compound SS/RD waves that bounds the reconnection outflow, instead of a pair of switchoff slow shocks as in Petschek’s model.