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Seam carving for contentaware image resizing
 ACM Trans. Graph
, 2007
"... Figure 1: A seam is a connected path of low energy pixels in an image. On the left is the original image with one horizontal and one vertical seam. In the middle the energy function used in this example is shown (the magnitude of the gradient), along with the vertical and horizontal path maps used t ..."
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Cited by 323 (11 self)
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Figure 1: A seam is a connected path of low energy pixels in an image. On the left is the original image with one horizontal and one vertical seam. In the middle the energy function used in this example is shown (the magnitude of the gradient), along with the vertical and horizontal path maps used to calculate the seams. By automatically carving out seams to reduce image size, and inserting seams to extend it, we achieve contentaware resizing. The example on the top right shows our result of extending in one dimension and reducing in the other, compared to standard scaling on the bottom right. Effective resizing of images should not only use geometric constraints, but consider the image content as well. We present a simple image operator called seam carving that supports contentaware image resizing for both reduction and expansion. A seam is an optimal 8connected path of pixels on a single image from top to bottom, or left to right, where optimality is defined by an image energy function. By repeatedly carving out or inserting seams in one direction we can change the aspect ratio of an image. By applying these operators in both directions we can retarget the image to a new size. The selection and order of seams protect the content of the image, as defined by the energy function. Seam carving can also be used for image content enhancement and object removal. We support various visual saliency measures for defining the energy of an image, and can also include user input to guide the process. By storing the order of seams in an image we create multisize images, that are able to continuously change in real time to fit a given size.
Faster scaling algorithms for network problems
 SIAM J. COMPUT
, 1989
"... This paper presents algorithms for the assignment problem, the transportation problem, and the minimumcost flow problem of operations research. The algorithms find a minimumcost solution, yet run in time close to the bestknown bounds for the corresponding problems without costs. For example, the ..."
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Cited by 163 (5 self)
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This paper presents algorithms for the assignment problem, the transportation problem, and the minimumcost flow problem of operations research. The algorithms find a minimumcost solution, yet run in time close to the bestknown bounds for the corresponding problems without costs. For example, the assignment problem (equivalently, minimumcost matching in a bipartite graph) can be solved in O(v/’rn log(nN)) time, where n, m, and N denote the number of vertices, number of edges, and largest magnitude of a cost; costs are assumed to be integral. The algorithms work by scaling. As in the work of Goldberg and Tarjan, in each scaled problem an approximate optimum solution is found, rather than an exact optimum.
Iterative Combinatorial Auctions: Achieving Economic and Computational Efficiency
 DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER AND INFORMATION SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
, 2001
"... This thesis presents new auctionbased mechanisms to coordinate systems of selfinterested and autonomous agents, and new methods to design such mechanisms and prove their optimality... ..."
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Cited by 159 (19 self)
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This thesis presents new auctionbased mechanisms to coordinate systems of selfinterested and autonomous agents, and new methods to design such mechanisms and prove their optimality...
Coordinated MultiRobot Exploration
 IEEE Transactions on Robotics
, 2005
"... In this paper, we consider the problem of exploring an unknown environment with a team of robots. As in singlerobot exploration the goal is to minimize the overall exploration time. The key problem to be solved in the context of multiple robots is to choose appropriate target points for the individu ..."
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Cited by 158 (10 self)
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In this paper, we consider the problem of exploring an unknown environment with a team of robots. As in singlerobot exploration the goal is to minimize the overall exploration time. The key problem to be solved in the context of multiple robots is to choose appropriate target points for the individual robots so that they simultaneously explore different regions of the environment. We present an approach for the coordination of multiple robots, which simultaneously takes into account the cost of reaching a target point and its utility. Whenever a target point is assigned to a specific robot, the utility of the unexplored area visible from this target position is reduced. In this way, different target locations are assigned to the individual robots. We furthermore describe how our algorithm can be extended to situations in which the communication range of the robots is limited. Our technique has been implemented and tested extensively in realworld experiments and simulation runs. The results demonstrate that our technique effectively distributes the robots over the environment and allows them to quickly accomplish their mission.
Monocular Pedestrian Detection: Survey and Experiments
, 2008
"... Pedestrian detection is a rapidly evolving area in computer vision with key applications in intelligent vehicles, surveillance and advanced robotics. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of the art from both methodological and experimental perspective. The first ..."
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Cited by 153 (13 self)
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Pedestrian detection is a rapidly evolving area in computer vision with key applications in intelligent vehicles, surveillance and advanced robotics. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of the art from both methodological and experimental perspective. The first part of the paper consists of a survey. We cover the main components of a pedestrian detection system and the underlying models. The second (and larger) part of the paper contains a corresponding experimental study. We consider a diverse set of stateoftheart systems: waveletbased AdaBoost cascade [74], HOG/linSVM [11], NN/LRF [75] and combined shapetexture detection [23]. Experiments are performed on an extensive dataset captured onboard a vehicle driving through urban environment. The dataset includes many thousands of training samples as well as a 27 minute test sequence involving more than 20000 images with annotated pedestrian locations. We consider a generic evaluation setting and one specific to pedestrian detection onboard a vehicle. Results indicate a clear advantage of HOG/linSVM at higher image resolutions and lower processing speeds, and a superiority of the waveletbased AdaBoost cascade approach at lower image resolutions and (near) realtime processing speeds. The dataset (8.5GB) is made public for benchmarking purposes.
Useful metrics for modular robot motion planning
 IEEE TRANS ROBOT AUTOMAT
, 1997
"... In this paper the problem of dynamic selfreconfiguration of a class of modular robotic systems referred to as metamorphic systems is examined. A metamorphic robotic system is a collection of mechatronic modules, each of which has the ability to connect, disconnect, and climb over adjacent modules. ..."
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Cited by 138 (6 self)
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In this paper the problem of dynamic selfreconfiguration of a class of modular robotic systems referred to as metamorphic systems is examined. A metamorphic robotic system is a collection of mechatronic modules, each of which has the ability to connect, disconnect, and climb over adjacent modules. We examine the nearoptimal reconfiguration of a metamorphic robot from an arbitrary initial configuration to a desired final configuration. Concepts of distance between metamorphic robot configurations are defined, and shown to satisfy the formal properties of a metric. These metrics, called configuration metrics, are then applied to the automatic selfreconfiguration of metamorphic systems in the case when one module is allowed to move at a time. There is no simple method for computing the optimal sequence of moves required to reconfigure. As a result, heuristics which can give a near optimal solution must be used. We use the technique of Simulated Annealing to drive the reconfiguration process with configuration metrics as cost functions. The relative performance of simulated annealing with different cost functions is compared and the usefulness of the metrics developed in this paper is demonstrated.
The primaldual method for approximation algorithms and its application to network design problems.
, 1997
"... Abstract In this survey, we give an overview of a technique used to design and analyze algorithms that provide approximate solutions to N P hard problems in combinatorial optimization. Because of parallels with the primaldual method commonly used in combinatorial optimization, we call it the prim ..."
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Cited by 137 (5 self)
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Abstract In this survey, we give an overview of a technique used to design and analyze algorithms that provide approximate solutions to N P hard problems in combinatorial optimization. Because of parallels with the primaldual method commonly used in combinatorial optimization, we call it the primaldual method for approximation algorithms. We show how this technique can be used to derive approximation algorithms for a number of different problems, including network design problems, feedback vertex set problems, and facility location problems.
Market Equilibrium via a PrimalDual Algorithm for a Convex Program
"... We give the first polynomial time algorithm for exactly computing an equilibrium for the linear utilities case of the market model defined by Fisher. Our algorithm uses the primaldual paradigm in the enhanced setting of KKT conditions and convex programs. We pinpoint the added difficulty raised by ..."
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Cited by 127 (27 self)
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We give the first polynomial time algorithm for exactly computing an equilibrium for the linear utilities case of the market model defined by Fisher. Our algorithm uses the primaldual paradigm in the enhanced setting of KKT conditions and convex programs. We pinpoint the added difficulty raised by this setting and the manner in which our algorithm circumvents it.