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59
Mobileassisted localization in wireless sensor networks
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF IEEE INFOCOM ’05
, 2005
"... The localization problem is to determine an assignment of coordinates to nodes in a wireless adhoc or sensor network that is consistent with measured pairwise node distances. Most previously proposed solutions to this problem assume that the nodes can obtain pairwise distances to other nearby nod ..."
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Cited by 67 (0 self)
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The localization problem is to determine an assignment of coordinates to nodes in a wireless adhoc or sensor network that is consistent with measured pairwise node distances. Most previously proposed solutions to this problem assume that the nodes can obtain pairwise distances to other nearby nodes using some ranging technology. However, for a variety of reasons that include obstructions and lack of reliable omnidirectional ranging, this distance information is hard to obtain in practice. Even when pairwise distances between nearby nodes are known, there may not be enough information to solve the problem uniquely. This paper describes MAL, a mobileassisted localization method which employs a mobile user to assist in measuring distances between node pairs until these distance constraints form a “globally rigid ” structure that guarantees a unique localization. We derive the required constraints on the mobile’s movement and the minimum number of measurements it must collect; these constraints depend on the number of nodes visible to the mobile in a given region. We show how to guide the mobile’s movement to gather a sufficient number of distance samples for node localization. We use simulations and measurements from an indoor deployment using the Cricket location system to investigate the performance of MAL, finding in realworld experiments that MAL’s median pairwise distance error is less than 1.5 % of the true node distance.
Unit Disk Graph Approximation
 In Workshop on Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Communications (DIALM
, 2004
"... Finding a good embedding of a unit disk graph given by its connectivity information is a problem of practical importance in a variety of fields. In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, such an embedding can be used to obtain virtual coordinates. In this paper, we prove a nonapproximability result f ..."
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Cited by 62 (10 self)
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Finding a good embedding of a unit disk graph given by its connectivity information is a problem of practical importance in a variety of fields. In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, such an embedding can be used to obtain virtual coordinates. In this paper, we prove a nonapproximability result for the problem of embedding a given unit disk graph. Particularly, we show that if nonneighboring nodes are not allowed to be closer to each other than distance 1, then two neighbors can be as far apart as #, where # goes to 0 as n goes to infinity, unless P = NP . We further show that finding a realization of a dquasi unit disk graph with 1/ # 2 is NP hard.
An algorithmic approach to geographic routing in ad hoc and sensor networks
 IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw
"... Abstract—The one type of routing in ad hoc and sensor networks that currently appears to be most amenable to algorithmic analysis is geographic routing. This paper contains an introduction to the problem field of geographic routing, presents a specific routing algorithm based on a synthesis of the g ..."
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Cited by 27 (0 self)
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Abstract—The one type of routing in ad hoc and sensor networks that currently appears to be most amenable to algorithmic analysis is geographic routing. This paper contains an introduction to the problem field of geographic routing, presents a specific routing algorithm based on a synthesis of the greedy forwarding and face routing approaches, and provides an algorithmic analysis of the presented algorithm from both a worstcase and an averagecase perspective. Index Terms—Algorithmic analysis, routing, stretch, wireless networks.
Distributed Mobility Management for Target Tracking in Mobile Sensor Networks
"... Abstract—Mobility management is a major challenge in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) due in part to the dynamically changing network topologies. For mobile sensor networks that are deployed for surveillance applications, it is important to use a mobility management scheme that can empower nodes to m ..."
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Cited by 21 (0 self)
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Abstract—Mobility management is a major challenge in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) due in part to the dynamically changing network topologies. For mobile sensor networks that are deployed for surveillance applications, it is important to use a mobility management scheme that can empower nodes to make better decisions regarding their positions such that strategic tasks such as target tracking can benefit from node movement. In this paper, we describe a distributed mobility management scheme for mobile sensor networks. The proposed scheme considers node movement decisions as part of a distributed optimization problem which integrates mobilityenhanced improvement in the quality of target tracking data with the associated negative consequences of increased energy consumption due to locomotion, potential loss of network connectivity, and loss of sensing coverage. Index Terms—Wireless mobile sensor networks, mobility management, target tracking, Bayesian, distributed system. 1
Distributed localization using noisy distance and angle information
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTH ACM INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKING AND COMPUTING
, 2006
"... Localization is an important and extensively studied problem in adhoc wireless sensor networks. Given the connectivity graph of the sensor nodes, along with additional local information (e.g. distances, angles, orientations etc.), the goal is to reconstruct the global geometry of the network. In th ..."
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Cited by 20 (5 self)
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Localization is an important and extensively studied problem in adhoc wireless sensor networks. Given the connectivity graph of the sensor nodes, along with additional local information (e.g. distances, angles, orientations etc.), the goal is to reconstruct the global geometry of the network. In this paper, we study the problem of localization with noisy distance and angle information. With no noise at all, the localization problem with both angle (with orientation) and distance information is trivial. However, in the presence of even a small amount of noise, we prove that the localization problem is NPhard. Localization with accurate distance information and relative angle information is also hard. These hardness results motivate our study of approximation schemes. We relax the nonconvex constraints to approximating convex constraints and propose linear programs (LP) for two formulations of the resulting localization problem, which we call the weak deployment and strong deployment problems. These two formulations give upper and lower bounds on the location uncertainty respectively: No sensor is located outside its weak deployment region, and each sensor can be anywhere in its strong deployment region without violating the approximate distance and angle constraints. Though LPbased algorithms are usually solved by centralized methods, we propose distributed, iterative methods, which are provably convergent to the centralized algorithm solutions. We give simulation results for the distributed algorithms, evaluating the convergence rate, dependence on measurement noises, and robustness to link dynamics.
Optimized stateless broadcasting in wireless multihop networks
 In INFOCOM
, 2006
"... Abstract — In this paper we present a simple and stateless ..."
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Cited by 19 (3 self)
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Abstract — In this paper we present a simple and stateless
Wireless Localization Using SelfOrganizing Maps
, 2007
"... Localization is an essential service for many wireless sensor network applications. While several localization schemes rely on anchor nodes and range measurements to achieve finegrained positioning, we propose a rangefree, anchorfree solution that works using connectivity information only. The app ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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Localization is an essential service for many wireless sensor network applications. While several localization schemes rely on anchor nodes and range measurements to achieve finegrained positioning, we propose a rangefree, anchorfree solution that works using connectivity information only. The approach, suitable for deployments with strict cost constraints, is based on the neural network paradigm of SelfOrganizing Maps (SOM). We present a lightweight SOMbased algorithm to compute virtual coordinates that are effective for locationaided routing. This algorithm can also exploit the location information, if available, of few anchor nodes to compute absolute positions. Results of extensive simulations show improvements over the popular MultiDimensional Scaling (MDS) scheme, especially for networks with low connectivity, which are intrinsically harder to localize, and in presence of irregular radio pattern or anisotropic deployment. We analytically demonstrate that the proposed scheme has low computation and communication overheads; hence, making it suitable for resourceconstrained networks.
Guaranteeddelivery geographic routing under uncertain node locations
 In: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM’07) (2007) K.M. Lillis, S.V. Pemmaraju, and I.A. Pirwani
, 2007
"... rely on exact location information at the nodes, because when the greedy routing phase gets stuck at a local minimum, they require, as a fallback, a planar subgraph whose identification, in all existing methods, depends on exact node positions. In practice, however, location information at the netwo ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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rely on exact location information at the nodes, because when the greedy routing phase gets stuck at a local minimum, they require, as a fallback, a planar subgraph whose identification, in all existing methods, depends on exact node positions. In practice, however, location information at the network nodes is hardly precise; be it because the employed location hardware, such as GPS, exhibits an inherent measurement imprecision, or because the localization protocols which estimate positions of the network nodes cannot do so without errors. In this paper we propose a novel naming and routing scheme that can handle the uncertainty in location information. It is based on a macroscopic variant of geographic greedy routing, as well as a macroscopic planarization of the communication graph. If an upper bound on the deviation from true node locations is available, our routing protocol guarantees delivery of messages. Due to its macroscopic view, our routing scheme also produces shorter and more loadbalanced paths than common geographic routing schemes, in particular in sparsely connected networks or in the presence of obstacles. I.
Sensor networks continue to puzzle: Selected open problems
 In Proc. 9th Internat. Conf. Distributed Computing and Networking (ICDCN
, 2008
"... Abstract. While several important problems in the field of sensor networks have already been tackled, there is still a wide range of challenging, open problems that merit further attention. We present five theoretical problems that we believe to be essential to understanding sensor networks. The goa ..."
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Cited by 14 (0 self)
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Abstract. While several important problems in the field of sensor networks have already been tackled, there is still a wide range of challenging, open problems that merit further attention. We present five theoretical problems that we believe to be essential to understanding sensor networks. The goal of this work is both to summarize the current state of research and, by calling attention to these fundamental problems, to spark interest in the networking community to attend to these and related problems in sensor networks.