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Compressive sampling
, 2006
"... Conventional wisdom and common practice in acquisition and reconstruction of images from frequency data follow the basic principle of the Nyquist density sampling theory. This principle states that to reconstruct an image, the number of Fourier samples we need to acquire must match the desired res ..."
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Cited by 1441 (15 self)
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Conventional wisdom and common practice in acquisition and reconstruction of images from frequency data follow the basic principle of the Nyquist density sampling theory. This principle states that to reconstruct an image, the number of Fourier samples we need to acquire must match the desired resolution of the image, i.e. the number of pixels in the image. This paper surveys an emerging theory which goes by the name of “compressive sampling” or “compressed sensing,” and which says that this conventional wisdom is inaccurate. Perhaps surprisingly, it is possible to reconstruct images or signals of scientific interest accurately and sometimes even exactly from a number of samples which is far smaller than the desired resolution of the image/signal, e.g. the number of pixels in the image. It is believed that compressive sampling has far reaching implications. For example, it suggests the possibility of new data acquisition protocols that translate analog information into digital form with fewer sensors than what was considered necessary. This new sampling theory may come to underlie procedures for sampling and compressing data simultaneously. In this short survey, we provide some of the key mathematical insights underlying this new theory, and explain some of the interactions between compressive sampling and other fields such as statistics, information theory, coding theory, and theoretical computer science.
Signal recovery from random measurements via Orthogonal Matching Pursuit
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 2007
"... This technical report demonstrates theoretically and empirically that a greedy algorithm called Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) can reliably recover a signal with m nonzero entries in dimension d given O(m ln d) random linear measurements of that signal. This is a massive improvement over previous ..."
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Cited by 802 (9 self)
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This technical report demonstrates theoretically and empirically that a greedy algorithm called Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) can reliably recover a signal with m nonzero entries in dimension d given O(m ln d) random linear measurements of that signal. This is a massive improvement over previous results for OMP, which require O(m 2) measurements. The new results for OMP are comparable with recent results for another algorithm called Basis Pursuit (BP). The OMP algorithm is faster and easier to implement, which makes it an attractive alternative to BP for signal recovery problems.
Compressive Sensing and Structured Random Matrices
 RADON SERIES COMP. APPL. MATH XX, 1–95 © DE GRUYTER 20YY
, 2011
"... These notes give a mathematical introduction to compressive sensing focusing on recovery using ℓ1minimization and structured random matrices. An emphasis is put on techniques for proving probabilistic estimates for condition numbers of structured random matrices. Estimates of this type are key to ..."
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Cited by 157 (18 self)
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These notes give a mathematical introduction to compressive sensing focusing on recovery using ℓ1minimization and structured random matrices. An emphasis is put on techniques for proving probabilistic estimates for condition numbers of structured random matrices. Estimates of this type are key to providing conditions that ensure exact or approximate recovery of sparse vectors using ℓ1minimization.
Compressed Sensing and Redundant Dictionaries
"... This article extends the concept of compressed sensing to signals that are not sparse in an orthonormal basis but rather in a redundant dictionary. It is shown that a matrix, which is a composition of a random matrix of certain type and a deterministic dictionary, has small restricted isometry con ..."
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Cited by 137 (13 self)
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This article extends the concept of compressed sensing to signals that are not sparse in an orthonormal basis but rather in a redundant dictionary. It is shown that a matrix, which is a composition of a random matrix of certain type and a deterministic dictionary, has small restricted isometry constants. Thus, signals that are sparse with respect to the dictionary can be recovered via Basis Pursuit from a small number of random measurements. Further, thresholding is investigated as recovery algorithm for compressed sensing and conditions are provided that guarantee reconstruction with high probability. The different schemes are compared by numerical experiments.
Recovery algorithms for vector valued data with joint sparsity constraints
, 2006
"... Vector valued data appearing in concrete applications often possess sparse expansions with respect to a preassigned frame for each vector component individually. Additionally, different components may also exhibit common sparsity patterns. Recently, there were introduced sparsity measures that take ..."
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Cited by 111 (22 self)
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Vector valued data appearing in concrete applications often possess sparse expansions with respect to a preassigned frame for each vector component individually. Additionally, different components may also exhibit common sparsity patterns. Recently, there were introduced sparsity measures that take into account such joint sparsity patterns, promoting coupling of nonvanishing components. These measures are typically constructed as weighted ℓ1 norms of componentwise ℓq norms of frame coefficients. We show how to compute solutions of linear inverse problems with such joint sparsity regularization constraints by fast thresholded Landweber algorithms. Next we discuss the adaptive choice of suitable weights appearing in the definition of sparsity measures. The weights are interpreted as indicators of the sparsity pattern and are iteratively updated after each new application of the thresholded Landweber algorithm. The resulting twostep algorithm is interpreted as a doubleminimization scheme for a suitable target functional. We show its ℓ2norm convergence. An implementable version of the algorithm is also formulated, and its norm convergence is proven. Numerical experiments in color image restoration are presented.
Average Case Analysis of Multichannel Sparse Recovery Using Convex Relaxation
"... In this paper, we consider recovery of jointly sparse multichannel signals from incomplete measurements. Several approaches have been developed to recover the unknown sparse vectors from the given observations, including thresholding, simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (SOMP), and convex relax ..."
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Cited by 102 (22 self)
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In this paper, we consider recovery of jointly sparse multichannel signals from incomplete measurements. Several approaches have been developed to recover the unknown sparse vectors from the given observations, including thresholding, simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (SOMP), and convex relaxation based on a mixed matrix norm. Typically, worstcase analysis is carried out in order to analyze conditions under which the algorithms are able to recover any jointly sparse set of vectors. However, such an approach is not able to provide insights into why joint sparse recovery is superior to applying standard sparse reconstruction methods to each channel individually. Previous work considered an average case analysis of thresholding and SOMP by imposing a probability model on the measured signals. In this paper, our main focus is on analysis of convex relaxation techniques. In particular, we focus on the mixed ℓ2,1 approach to multichannel recovery. We show that under a very mild condition on the sparsity and on the dictionary characteristics, measured for example by the coherence, the probability of recovery failure decays exponentially in the number of channels. This demonstrates that most of the time, multichannel sparse recovery is indeed superior to single channel methods. Our probability bounds are valid and meaningful even for a small number of signals. Using the tools we develop to analyze the convex relaxation method, we also tighten the previous bounds for thresholding and SOMP.
A Probabilistic and RIPless Theory of Compressed Sensing
, 2010
"... This paper introduces a simple and very general theory of compressive sensing. In this theory, the sensing mechanism simply selects sensing vectors independently at random from a probability distribution F; it includes all models — e.g. Gaussian, frequency measurements — discussed in the literature, ..."
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Cited by 95 (3 self)
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This paper introduces a simple and very general theory of compressive sensing. In this theory, the sensing mechanism simply selects sensing vectors independently at random from a probability distribution F; it includes all models — e.g. Gaussian, frequency measurements — discussed in the literature, but also provides a framework for new measurement strategies as well. We prove that if the probability distribution F obeys a simple incoherence property and an isotropy property, one can faithfully recover approximately sparse signals from a minimal number of noisy measurements. The novelty is that our recovery results do not require the restricted isometry property (RIP) — they make use of a much weaker notion — or a random model for the signal. As an example, the paper shows that a signal with s nonzero entries can be faithfully recovered from about s log n Fourier coefficients that are contaminated with noise.
Accelerated Projected Gradient Method for Linear Inverse Problems with Sparsity Constraints
 THE JOURNAL OF FOURIER ANALYSIS AND APPLICATIONS
, 2004
"... Regularization of illposed linear inverse problems via ℓ1 penalization has been proposed for cases where the solution is known to be (almost) sparse. One way to obtain the minimizer of such an ℓ1 penalized functional is via an iterative softthresholding algorithm. We propose an alternative implem ..."
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Cited by 79 (11 self)
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Regularization of illposed linear inverse problems via ℓ1 penalization has been proposed for cases where the solution is known to be (almost) sparse. One way to obtain the minimizer of such an ℓ1 penalized functional is via an iterative softthresholding algorithm. We propose an alternative implementation to ℓ1constraints, using a gradient method, with projection on ℓ1balls. The corresponding algorithm uses again iterative softthresholding, now with a variable thresholding parameter. We also propose accelerated versions of this iterative method, using ingredients of the (linear) steepest descent method. We prove convergence in norm for one of these projected gradient methods, without and with acceleration.
Analysis of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit using the restricted isometry property
, 2009
"... Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) is the canonical greedy algorithm for sparse approximation. In this paper we demonstrate that the restricted isometry property (RIP) can be used for a very straightforward analysis of OMP. Our main conclusion is that the RIP of order K +1 (with isometry constant δ & ..."
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Cited by 78 (6 self)
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Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) is the canonical greedy algorithm for sparse approximation. In this paper we demonstrate that the restricted isometry property (RIP) can be used for a very straightforward analysis of OMP. Our main conclusion is that the RIP of order K +1 (with isometry constant δ < 1 3 √ ) is sufficient for OMP to exactly recover any Ksparse sigK nal. Our analysis relies on simple and intuitive observations about OMP and matrices which satisfy the RIP. For restricted classes of Ksparse signals (those that are highly compressible), a relaxed bound on the isometry constant is also established. A deeper understanding of OMP may benefit the analysis of greedy algorithms in general. To demonstrate this, we also briefly revisit the analysis of the Regularized OMP (ROMP) algorithm.
Stability results for random sampling of sparse trigonometric polynomials
, 2006
"... Recently, it has been observed that a sparse trigonometric polynomial, i.e. having only a small number of nonzero coefficients, can be reconstructed exactly from a small number of random samples using Basis Pursuit (BP) and Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP). In the present article it is shown that ..."
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Cited by 65 (17 self)
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Recently, it has been observed that a sparse trigonometric polynomial, i.e. having only a small number of nonzero coefficients, can be reconstructed exactly from a small number of random samples using Basis Pursuit (BP) and Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP). In the present article it is shown that recovery both by a BP variant and by OMP is stable under perturbation of the samples values by noise. For BP in addition, the stability result is extended to (nonsparse) trigonometric polynomials that can be wellapproximated by sparse ones. The theoretical findings are illustrated by numerical experiments. Key Words: random sampling, trigonometric polynomials, Orthogonal Matching Pursuit, Basis Pursuit, compressed sensing, stability under noise, fast Fourier transform, nonequispaced