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408
The linkprediction problem for social networks
 J. AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
, 2007
"... Given a snapshot of a social network, can we infer which new interactions among its members are likely to occur in the near future? We formalize this question as the linkprediction problem, and we develop approaches to link prediction based on measures for analyzing the “proximity” of nodes in a ne ..."
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Cited by 906 (6 self)
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Given a snapshot of a social network, can we infer which new interactions among its members are likely to occur in the near future? We formalize this question as the linkprediction problem, and we develop approaches to link prediction based on measures for analyzing the “proximity” of nodes in a network. Experiments on large coauthorship networks suggest that information about future interactions can be extracted from network topology alone, and that fairly subtle measures for detecting node proximity can outperform more direct measures.
TopicSensitive PageRank
, 2002
"... In the original PageRank algorithm for improving the ranking of searchquery results, a single PageRank vector is computed, using the link structure of the Web, to capture the relative "importance" of Web pages, independent of any particular search query. To yield more accurate search resu ..."
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Cited by 543 (10 self)
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In the original PageRank algorithm for improving the ranking of searchquery results, a single PageRank vector is computed, using the link structure of the Web, to capture the relative "importance" of Web pages, independent of any particular search query. To yield more accurate search results, we propose computing a set of PageRank vectors, biased using a set of representative topics, to capture more accurately the notion of importance with respect to a particular topic. By using these (precomputed) biased PageRank vectors to generate queryspecific importance scores for pages at query time, we show that we can generate more accurate rankings than with a single, generic PageRank vector. For ordinary keyword search queries, we compute the topicsensitive PageRank scores for pages satisfying the query using the topic of the query keywords. For searches done in context (e.g., when the search query is performed by highlighting words in a Web page), we compute the topicsensitive PageRank scores using the topic of the context in which the query appeared.
Personalizing search via automated analysis of interests and activities
, 2005
"... We formulate and study search algorithms that consider a user’s prior interactions with a wide variety of content to personalize that user’s current Web search. Rather than relying on the unrealistic assumption that people will precisely specify their intent when searching, we pursue techniques that ..."
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Cited by 303 (29 self)
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We formulate and study search algorithms that consider a user’s prior interactions with a wide variety of content to personalize that user’s current Web search. Rather than relying on the unrealistic assumption that people will precisely specify their intent when searching, we pursue techniques that leverage implicit information about the user’s interests. This information is used to rerank Web search results within a relevance feedback framework. We explore rich models of user interests, built from both searchrelated information, such as previously issued queries and previously visited Web pages, and other information about the user such as documents and email the user has read and created. Our research suggests that rich representations of the user and the corpus are important for personalization, but that it is possible to approximate these representations and provide efficient clientside algorithms for personalizing search. We show that such personalization algorithms can significantly improve on current Web search.
Topicsensitive pagerank: A contextsensitive ranking algorithm for web search
 IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
, 2003
"... Abstract—The original PageRank algorithm for improving the ranking of searchquery results computes a single vector, using the link structure of the Web, to capture the relative “importance ” of Web pages, independent of any particular search query. To yield more accurate search results, we propose ..."
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Cited by 237 (2 self)
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Abstract—The original PageRank algorithm for improving the ranking of searchquery results computes a single vector, using the link structure of the Web, to capture the relative “importance ” of Web pages, independent of any particular search query. To yield more accurate search results, we propose computing a set of PageRank vectors, biased using a set of representative topics, to capture more accurately the notion of importance with respect to a particular topic. For ordinary keyword search queries, we compute the topicsensitive PageRank scores for pages satisfying the query using the topic of the query keywords. For searches done in context (e.g., when the search query is performed by highlighting words in a Web page), we compute the topicsensitive PageRank scores using the topic of the context in which the query appeared. By using linear combinations of these (precomputed) biased PageRank vectors to generate contextspecific importance scores for pages at query time, we show that we can generate more accurate rankings than with a single, generic PageRank vector. We describe techniques for efficiently implementing a largescale search system based on the topicsensitive PageRank scheme. Index Terms—Web search, web graph, link analysis, PageRank, search in context, personalized search, ranking algorithm.
Authoritybased keyword search in databases
 TODS
"... The ObjectRank system applies authoritybased ranking to keyword search in databases modeled as labeled graphs. Conceptually, authority originates at the nodes (objects) containing the keywords and flows to objects according to their semantic connections. Each node is ranked according to its authori ..."
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Cited by 220 (13 self)
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The ObjectRank system applies authoritybased ranking to keyword search in databases modeled as labeled graphs. Conceptually, authority originates at the nodes (objects) containing the keywords and flows to objects according to their semantic connections. Each node is ranked according to its authority with respect to the particular
Deeper Inside PageRank
 INTERNET MATHEMATICS
, 2004
"... This paper serves as a companion or extension to the “Inside PageRank” paper by Bianchini et al. [Bianchini et al. 03]. It is a comprehensive survey of all issues associated with PageRank, covering the basic PageRank model, available and recommended solution methods, storage issues, existence, uniq ..."
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Cited by 208 (4 self)
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This paper serves as a companion or extension to the “Inside PageRank” paper by Bianchini et al. [Bianchini et al. 03]. It is a comprehensive survey of all issues associated with PageRank, covering the basic PageRank model, available and recommended solution methods, storage issues, existence, uniqueness, and convergence properties, possible alterations to the basic model, suggested alternatives to the traditional solution methods, sensitivity and conditioning, and finally the updating problem. We introduce a few new results, provide an extensive reference list, and speculate about exciting areas of future research.
Local Graph Partitioning using Pagerank Vectors.
 In Proc. of IEEE FoCS,
, 2006
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Fast random walk with restart and its applications
 In ICDM ’06: Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference on Data Mining
, 2006
"... How closely related are two nodes in a graph? How to compute this score quickly, on huge, diskresident, real graphs? Random walk with restart (RWR) provides a good relevance score between two nodes in a weighted graph, and it has been successfully used in numerous settings, like automatic captionin ..."
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Cited by 179 (19 self)
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How closely related are two nodes in a graph? How to compute this score quickly, on huge, diskresident, real graphs? Random walk with restart (RWR) provides a good relevance score between two nodes in a weighted graph, and it has been successfully used in numerous settings, like automatic captioning of images, generalizations to the “connection subgraphs”, personalized PageRank, and many more. However, the straightforward implementations of RWR do not scale for large graphs, requiring either quadratic space and cubic precomputation time, or slow response time on queries. We propose fast solutions to this problem. The heart of our approach is to exploit two important properties shared by many real graphs: (a) linear correlations and (b) blockwise, communitylike structure. We exploit the linearity by using lowrank matrix approximation, and the community structure by graph partitioning, followed by the ShermanMorrison lemma for matrix inversion. Experimental results on the Corel image and the DBLP dabasets demonstrate that our proposed methods achieve significant savings over the straightforward implementations: they can save several orders of magnitude in precomputation and storage cost, and they achieve up to 150x speed up with 90%+ quality preservation. 1
Extrapolation Methods for Accelerating PageRank Computations
 In Proceedings of the Twelfth International World Wide Web Conference
, 2003
"... We present a novel algorithm for the fast computation of PageRank, a hyperlinkbased estimate of the "importance" of Web pages. The original PageRank algorithm uses the Power Method to compute successive iterates that converge to the principal eigenvector of the Markov matrix representing ..."
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Cited by 167 (12 self)
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We present a novel algorithm for the fast computation of PageRank, a hyperlinkbased estimate of the "importance" of Web pages. The original PageRank algorithm uses the Power Method to compute successive iterates that converge to the principal eigenvector of the Markov matrix representing the Web link graph. The algorithm presented here, called Quadratic Extrapolation, accelerates the convergence of the Power Method by periodically subtracting off estimates of the nonprincipal eigenvectors from the current iterate of the Power Method. In Quadratic Extrapolation, we take advantage of the fact that the first eigenvalueof a Markov matrix is known to be 1 to compute the nonprincipal eigenvectorsusing successiveiterates of the Power Method. Empirically, we show that using Quadratic Extrapolation speeds up PageRank computation by 50300% on a Web graph of 80 million nodes, with minimal overhead.
Exploiting the Block Structure of the Web for Computing PageRank
, 2003
"... The web link graph has a nested block structure: the vast majority of hyperlinks link pages on a host to other pages on the same host, and many of those that do not link pages within the same domain. We show how to exploit this structure to speed up the computation of PageRank by a 3stage alg ..."
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Cited by 158 (4 self)
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The web link graph has a nested block structure: the vast majority of hyperlinks link pages on a host to other pages on the same host, and many of those that do not link pages within the same domain. We show how to exploit this structure to speed up the computation of PageRank by a 3stage algorithm whereby (1) the local PageRanks of pages for each host are computed independently using the link structure of that host, (2) these local PageRanks are then weighted by the "importance" of the corresponding host, and (3) the standard PageRank algorithm is then run using as its starting vector the weighted concatenation of the local PageRanks. Empirically, this algorithm speeds up the computation of PageRank by a factor of 2 in realistic scenarios. Further, we develop a variant of this algorithm that efficiently computes many different "personalized" PageRanks, and a variant that efficiently recomputes PageRank after node updates.