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PRISM 4.0: Verification of Probabilistic Realtime Systems
"... Abstract. This paper describes a major new release of the PRISM probabilistic model checker, adding, in particular, quantitative verification of (priced) probabilistic timed automata. These model systems exhibiting probabilistic, nondeterministic and realtime characteristics. In many application do ..."
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Cited by 236 (45 self)
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Abstract. This paper describes a major new release of the PRISM probabilistic model checker, adding, in particular, quantitative verification of (priced) probabilistic timed automata. These model systems exhibiting probabilistic, nondeterministic and realtime characteristics. In many application domains, all three aspects are essential; this includes, for example, embedded controllers in automotive or avionic systems, wireless communication protocols such as Bluetooth or Zigbee, and randomised security protocols. PRISM, which is opensource, also contains several new components that are of independent use. These include: an extensible toolkit for building, verifying and refining abstractions of probabilistic models; an explicitstate probabilistic model checking library; a discreteevent simulation engine for statistical model checking; support for generation of optimal adversaries/strategies; and a benchmark suite. 1
Modelchecking algorithms for continuoustime Markov chains
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
, 2003
"... Continuoustime Markov chains (CTMCs) have been widely used to determine system performance and dependability characteristics. Their analysis most often concerns the computation of steadystate and transientstate probabilities. This paper introduces a branching temporal logic for expressing realt ..."
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Cited by 235 (48 self)
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Continuoustime Markov chains (CTMCs) have been widely used to determine system performance and dependability characteristics. Their analysis most often concerns the computation of steadystate and transientstate probabilities. This paper introduces a branching temporal logic for expressing realtime probabilistic properties on CTMCs and presents approximate model checking algorithms for this logic. The logic, an extension of the continuous stochastic logic CSL of Aziz et al., contains a timebounded until operator to express probabilistic timing properties over paths as well as an operator to express steadystate probabilities. We show that the model checking problem for this logic reduces to a system of linear equations (for unbounded until and the steadystate operator) and a Volterra integral equation system (for timebounded until). We then show that the problem of modelchecking timebounded until properties can be reduced to the problem of computing transient state probabilities for CTMCs. This allows the verification of probabilistic timing properties by efficient techniques for transient analysis for CTMCs such as uniformization. Finally, we show that a variant of lumping equivalence (bisimulation), a wellknown notion for aggregating CTMCs, preserves the validity of all formulas in the logic.
On probabilistic model checking
, 1996
"... Abstract. This tutorial presents an overview of model checking for both discrete and continuoustime Markov chains (DTMCs and CTMCs). Model checking algorithms are given for verifying DTMCs and CTMCs against specifications written in probabilistic extensions of temporal logic, including quantitative ..."
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Cited by 107 (25 self)
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Abstract. This tutorial presents an overview of model checking for both discrete and continuoustime Markov chains (DTMCs and CTMCs). Model checking algorithms are given for verifying DTMCs and CTMCs against specifications written in probabilistic extensions of temporal logic, including quantitative properties with rewards. Example properties include the probability that a fault occurs and the expected number of faults in a given time period. We also describe the practical application of stochastic model checking with the probabilistic model checker PRISM by outlining the main features supported by PRISM and three realworld case studies: a probabilistic security protocol, dynamic power management and a biological pathway. 1
Implementation of Symbolic Model Checking for Probabilistic Systems
, 2002
"... In this thesis, we present ecient implementation techniques for probabilistic model checking, a method which can be used to analyse probabilistic systems such as randomised distributed algorithms, faulttolerant processes and communication networks. A probabilistic model checker inputs a probabilist ..."
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Cited by 72 (21 self)
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In this thesis, we present ecient implementation techniques for probabilistic model checking, a method which can be used to analyse probabilistic systems such as randomised distributed algorithms, faulttolerant processes and communication networks. A probabilistic model checker inputs a probabilistic model and a speci cation, such as \the message will be delivered with probability 1", \the probability of shutdown occurring is at most 0.02" or \the probability of a leader being elected within 5 rounds is at least 0.98", and can automatically verify if the speci cation is true in the model.
Stochastic Hybrid Systems: Application to Communication Networks
 in Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control, ser. Lect. Notes in Comput. Science
, 2004
"... Abstract. We propose a model for Stochastic Hybrid Systems (SHSs) where transitions between discrete modes are triggered by stochastic events much like transitions between states of a continuoustime Markov chains. However, the rate at which transitions occur is allowed to depend both on the continu ..."
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Cited by 68 (14 self)
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Abstract. We propose a model for Stochastic Hybrid Systems (SHSs) where transitions between discrete modes are triggered by stochastic events much like transitions between states of a continuoustime Markov chains. However, the rate at which transitions occur is allowed to depend both on the continuous and the discrete states of the SHS. Based on results available for PiecewiseDeterministic Markov Process (PDPs), we provide a formula for the extended generator of the SHS, which can be used to compute expectations and the overall distribution of the state. As an application, we construct a stochastic model for onoff TCP flows that considers both the congestionavoidance and slowstart modes and takes directly into account the distribution of the number of bytes transmitted. Using the tools derived for SHSs, we model the dynamics of the moments of the sending rate by an infinite system of ODEs, which can be truncated to obtain an approximate finitedimensional model. This model shows that, for transfersize distributions reported in the literature, the standard deviation of the sending rate is much larger than its average. Moreover, the later seems to vary little with the probability of packet drop. This has significant implications for the design of congestion control mechanisms. 1
Model Checking for Probability and Time: From Theory to Practice
 In Proc. Logic in Computer Science
, 2003
"... Probability features increasingly often in software and hardware systems: it is used in distributed coordination and routing problems, to model faulttolerance and performance, and to provide adaptive resource management strategies. Probabilistic model checking is an automatic procedure for establi ..."
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Cited by 63 (1 self)
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Probability features increasingly often in software and hardware systems: it is used in distributed coordination and routing problems, to model faulttolerance and performance, and to provide adaptive resource management strategies. Probabilistic model checking is an automatic procedure for establishing if a desired property holds in a probabilistic model, aimed at verifying probabilistic specifications such as "leader election is eventually resolved with probability 1", "the chance of shutdown occurring is at most 0.01%", and "the probability that a message will be delivered within 30ms is at least 0.75". A probabilistic model checker calculates the probability of a given temporal logic property being satisfied, as opposed to validity. In contrast to conventional model checkers, which rely on reachability analysis of the underlying transition system graph, probabilistic model checking additionally involves numerical solutions of linear equations and linear programming problems. This paper reports our experience with implementing PRISM (www.cs.bham.ac.uk/dxp/ prism/), a Probabilistic Symbolic Model Checker, demonstrates its usefulness in analysing realworld probabilistic protocols, and outlines future challenges for this research direction.
Probabilistic model checking of the IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network protocol
 Proc. 2nd Joint International Workshop on Process Algebra and Probabilistic Methods, Performance Modeling and Verification (PAPM/PROBMIV’02), volume 2399 of LNCS
, 2002
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Quantitative Verification: Models, Techniques and Tools
, 2007
"... Automated verification is a technique for establishing if certain properties, usually expressed in temporal logic, hold for a system model. The model can be defined using a highlevel formalism or extracted directly from software using methods such as abstract interpretation. The verification procee ..."
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Cited by 35 (15 self)
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Automated verification is a technique for establishing if certain properties, usually expressed in temporal logic, hold for a system model. The model can be defined using a highlevel formalism or extracted directly from software using methods such as abstract interpretation. The verification proceeds through exhaustive exploration of the statetransition graph of the model and is therefore more powerful than testing. Quantitative verification is an analogous technique for establishing quantitative properties of a system model, such as the probability of battery power dropping below minimum, the expected time for message delivery and the expected number of messages lost before protocol termination. Models analysed through this method are typically variants of Markov chains, annotated with costs and rewards that describe resources and their usage during execution. Properties are expressed in temporal logic extended with probabilistic and reward operators. Quantitative verification involves a combination of a traversal of the statetransition graph of the model and numerical computation. This paper gives a brief overview of current research in quantitative verification, concentrating on the potential of the method and outlining future challenges. The modelling approach is described and the usefulness of the methodology illustrated with an example of a realworld protocol standard – Bluetooth device discovery – that has been analysed using the PRISM model checker (www.prismmodelchecker.org).
Stochastic hybrid models: An overview
 In Proceedings IFAC Conference on Analysis and Design of Hybrid Systems
, 2003
"... Abstract: An overview of Stochastic Hybrid Models developed in the literature is presented. Attention is concentrated on three classes of models: Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes, Switching Diffusion Processes and Stochastic Hybrid Systems. The descriptive power of the three classes is compa ..."
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Cited by 31 (1 self)
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Abstract: An overview of Stochastic Hybrid Models developed in the literature is presented. Attention is concentrated on three classes of models: Piecewise Deterministic Markov Processes, Switching Diffusion Processes and Stochastic Hybrid Systems. The descriptive power of the three classes is compared and conditions under which the classes coincide are developed. The theoretical analysis is motivated by modelling problems in Air Traffic Management. Copyright, 2003, IFAC
Model checking probabilistic timed automata with one or two clocks
 In TACAS 2007, volume 4424 of LNCS
, 2007
"... Abstract. Probabilistic timed automata are an extension of timed automata with discrete probability distributions. We consider modelchecking algorithms for the subclasses of probabilistic timed automata which have one or two clocks. Firstly, we show that PCTL probabilistic modelchecking problems ( ..."
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Cited by 27 (7 self)
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Abstract. Probabilistic timed automata are an extension of timed automata with discrete probability distributions. We consider modelchecking algorithms for the subclasses of probabilistic timed automata which have one or two clocks. Firstly, we show that PCTL probabilistic modelchecking problems (such as determining whether a set of target states can be reached with probability at least 0.99 regardless of how nondeterminism is resolved) are PTIMEcomplete for one clock probabilistic timed automata, and are EXPTIMEcomplete for probabilistic timed automata with two clocks. Secondly, we show that the modelchecking problem for the probabilistic timed temporal logic PTCTL is EXPTIMEcomplete for one clock probabilistic timed automata. However, the corresponding modelchecking problem for the subclass of PTCTL which does not permit both (1) punctual timing bounds, which require the occurrence of an event at an exact time point, and (2) comparisons with probability bounds other than 0 or 1, is PTIMEcomplete. 1