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84
Approximate Policy Iteration with a Policy Language Bias
 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
, 2003
"... We explore approximate policy iteration (API), replacing the usual costfunction learning step with a learning step in policy space. We give policylanguage biases that enable solution of very large relational Markov decision processes (MDPs) that no previous technique can solve. ..."
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Cited by 140 (18 self)
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We explore approximate policy iteration (API), replacing the usual costfunction learning step with a learning step in policy space. We give policylanguage biases that enable solution of very large relational Markov decision processes (MDPs) that no previous technique can solve.
Giving advice about preferred actions to reinforcement learners via knowledgebased kernel regression
 In National Conference on Artificial Intelligence
, 2005
"... All intext references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately. ..."
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Cited by 56 (14 self)
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All intext references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately.
Relating reinforcement learning performance to classification performance
 In 22nd International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML
, 2005
"... We prove a quantitative connection between the expected sum of rewards of a policy and binary classification performance on created subproblems. This connection holds without any unobservable assumptions (no assumption of independence, small mixing time, fully observable states, or even hidden state ..."
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Cited by 39 (4 self)
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We prove a quantitative connection between the expected sum of rewards of a policy and binary classification performance on created subproblems. This connection holds without any unobservable assumptions (no assumption of independence, small mixing time, fully observable states, or even hidden states) and the resulting statement is independent of the number of states or actions. The statement is critically dependent on the size of the rewards and prediction performance of the created classifiers. We also provide some general guidelines for obtaining good classification performance on the created subproblems. In particular, we discuss possible methods for generating training examples for a classifier learning algorithm. 1.
R.: Analysis of a classificationbased policy iteration algorithm
 In: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Machine Learning
, 2010
"... Abstract We present a classificationbased policy iteration algorithm, called Direct Policy Iteration, and provide its finitesample analysis. Our results state a performance bound in terms of the number of policy improvement steps, the number of rollouts used in each iteration, the capacity of the ..."
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Cited by 31 (9 self)
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Abstract We present a classificationbased policy iteration algorithm, called Direct Policy Iteration, and provide its finitesample analysis. Our results state a performance bound in terms of the number of policy improvement steps, the number of rollouts used in each iteration, the capacity of the considered policy space, and a new capacity measure which indicates how well the policy space can approximate policies that are greedy w.r.t. any of its members. The analysis reveals a tradeoff between the estimation and approximation errors in this classificationbased policy iteration setting. We also study the consistency of the method when there exists a sequence of policy spaces with increasing capacity.
Rollout sampling approximate policy iteration
 Machine Learning
, 2008
"... Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions, which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a supe ..."
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Cited by 30 (4 self)
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Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions, which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a supervised learning problem. This paper proposes variants of an improved policy iteration scheme which addresses the core sampling problem in evaluating a policy through simulation as a multiarmed bandit machine. The resulting algorithm offers comparable performance to the previous algorithm achieved, however, with significantly less computational effort. An order of magnitude improvement is demonstrated experimentally in two standard reinforcement learning domains: inverted pendulum and mountaincar. 1
A unifying framework for computational reinforcement learning theory
, 2009
"... Computational learning theory studies mathematical models that allow one to formally analyze and compare the performance of supervisedlearning algorithms such as their sample complexity. While existing models such as PAC (Probably Approximately Correct) have played an influential role in understand ..."
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Cited by 23 (7 self)
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Computational learning theory studies mathematical models that allow one to formally analyze and compare the performance of supervisedlearning algorithms such as their sample complexity. While existing models such as PAC (Probably Approximately Correct) have played an influential role in understanding the nature of supervised learning, they have not been as successful in reinforcement learning (RL). Here, the fundamental barrier is the need for active exploration in sequential decision problems. An RL agent tries to maximize longterm utility by exploiting its knowledge about the problem, but this knowledge has to be acquired by the agent itself through exploring the problem that may reduce shortterm utility. The need for active exploration is common in many problems in daily life, engineering, and sciences. For example, a Backgammon program strives to take good moves to maximize the probability of winning a game, but sometimes it may try novel and possibly harmful moves to discover how the opponent reacts in the hope of discovering a better gameplaying strategy. It has been known since the early days of RL that a good tradeoff between exploration and exploitation is critical for the agent to learn fast (i.e., to reach nearoptimal strategies
Approximate Modified Policy Iteration
"... In this paper, we propose three implementations of AMPI (Sec. 3) that generalize the AVI implementations of Ernst et al. (2005); Antos et al. (2007); Munos & Szepesvári (2008) and the classificationbased API algorithm of Lagoudakis & Parr (2003); Fern et al. (2006); Lazaric et al. (2010); G ..."
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Cited by 18 (14 self)
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In this paper, we propose three implementations of AMPI (Sec. 3) that generalize the AVI implementations of Ernst et al. (2005); Antos et al. (2007); Munos & Szepesvári (2008) and the classificationbased API algorithm of Lagoudakis & Parr (2003); Fern et al. (2006); Lazaric et al. (2010); Gabillon et al. (2011). We then provide an error propagation analysis of AMPI (Sec. 4), which shows how the Lpnorm of its performance loss can be controlled by the error at each iteration of the algorithm. We show that the error propagation analysis of AMPI is more involved than that of AVI and API. This is due to the fact that neither the contraction nor monotonicity arguments, that the error propagation analysis of these two algorithms rely on, hold for AMPI. The analysis of this section unifies those for AVI and API and is applied to the AMPI implementations presented in Sec. 3. We detail the analysis of the classificationbased implementation of MPI (CBMPI) of Sec. 3 by providing its finite sample analysis in Sec. 5. Our analysis indicates that the parameter m allows us to balance the estimation error of the classifier with the overall quality of the value approximahal00697169,
MultiBandit Best Arm Identification
"... We study the problem of identifying the best arm in each of the bandits in a multibandit multiarmed setting. We first propose an algorithm called Gapbased Exploration (GapE) that focuses on the arms whose mean is close to the mean of the best arm in the same bandit (i.e., small gap). We then intro ..."
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Cited by 16 (3 self)
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We study the problem of identifying the best arm in each of the bandits in a multibandit multiarmed setting. We first propose an algorithm called Gapbased Exploration (GapE) that focuses on the arms whose mean is close to the mean of the best arm in the same bandit (i.e., small gap). We then introduce an algorithm, called GapEV, which takes into account the variance of the arms in addition to their gap. We prove an upperbound on the probability of error for both algorithms. Since GapE and GapEV need to tune an exploration parameter that depends on the complexity of the problem, which is often unknown in advance, we also introduce variations of these algorithms that estimate this complexity online. Finally, we evaluate the performance of these algorithms and compare them to other allocation strategies on a number of synthetic problems. 1
Classificationbased policy iteration with a critic
, 2011
"... In this paper, we study the effect of adding a value function approximation component (critic) to rollout classificationbased policy iteration (RCPI) algorithms. The idea is to use a critic to approximate the return after we truncate the rollout trajectories. This allows us to control the bias and ..."
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Cited by 16 (12 self)
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In this paper, we study the effect of adding a value function approximation component (critic) to rollout classificationbased policy iteration (RCPI) algorithms. The idea is to use a critic to approximate the return after we truncate the rollout trajectories. This allows us to control the bias and variance of the rolloutestimatesofthe actionvaluefunction. Therefore, the introduction of a critic can improve the accuracy of the rollout estimates, and as a result, enhance the performance of the RCPI algorithm. We present a new RCPI algorithm, called direct policy iteration with critic (DPICritic), and provide its finitesample analysis when the critic is based on the LSTD method. We empirically evaluate the performance of DPICritic and compare it with DPI and LSPI in two benchmark reinforcement learning problems. 1.
Reinforcement learning versus model predictive control: a comparison on a power system problem
 IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics  Part B: Cybernetics
, 2009
"... Abstract—This paper compares reinforcement learning (RL) with model predictive control (MPC) in a unified framework and reports experimental results of their application to the synthesis of a controller for a nonlinear and deterministic electrical power oscillations damping problem. Both families of ..."
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Cited by 15 (8 self)
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Abstract—This paper compares reinforcement learning (RL) with model predictive control (MPC) in a unified framework and reports experimental results of their application to the synthesis of a controller for a nonlinear and deterministic electrical power oscillations damping problem. Both families of methods are based on the formulation of the control problem as a discretetime optimal control problem. The considered MPC approach exploits an analytical model of the system dynamics and cost function and computes openloop policies by applying an interiorpoint solver to a minimization problem in which the system dynamics are represented by equality constraints. The considered RL approach infers in a modelfree way closedloop policies from a set of system trajectories and instantaneous cost values by solving a sequence of batchmode supervised learning problems. The results obtained provide insight into the pros and cons of the two approaches and show that RL may certainly be competitive with MPC even in contexts where a good deterministic system model is available. Index Terms—Approximate dynamic programming (ADP), electric power oscillations damping, fitted Q iteration, interior– point method (IPM), model predictive control (MPC), reinforcement learning (RL), treebased supervised learning (SL). I.