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51
Gravitational Wave Experiments and Early Universe Cosmology
"... Gravitationalwave experiments with interferometers and with resonant masses can search for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves of cosmological origin. We review both experimental and theoretical aspects of the search for these backgrounds. We give a pedagogical derivation of the various r ..."
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Gravitationalwave experiments with interferometers and with resonant masses can search for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves of cosmological origin. We review both experimental and theoretical aspects of the search for these backgrounds. We give a pedagogical derivation of the various relations that characterize the response of a detector to a stochastic background. We discuss the sensitivities of the large interferometers under constructions (LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600, TAMA300, AIGO) or planned (Avdanced LIGO, LISA) and of the presently operating resonant bars, and we give the sensitivities for various twodetectors correlations. We examine the existing limits on the energy density in gravitational waves from nucleosynthesis, COBE and pulsars, and their effects on theoretical predictions. We discuss general theoretical principles for orderofmagnitude estimates of cosmological production mechanisms, and then we turn to specific theoretical predictions from inflation, string cosmology, phase transitions, cosmic strings and other mechanisms. We finally compare with the stochastic backgrounds of astrophysical origin.
Sensitivity and noise analysis of 4 km laser interferometer gravitational wave antennae
, 2004
"... Around the world, efforts are underway to commission several kilometerscale laser interferometers to detect gravitational radiation. In the United States, there are two collocated interferometers in Hanford, Washington and one interferometer in Livingston, Louisiana. Together, these three interfero ..."
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Around the world, efforts are underway to commission several kilometerscale laser interferometers to detect gravitational radiation. In the United States, there are two collocated interferometers in Hanford, Washington and one interferometer in Livingston, Louisiana. Together, these three interferometers form the Laser Interferometric Gravitationalwave Observatory (LIGO). The core of the work described in this thesis is the modeling and reduction of the noise in the interferometers which limits their ultimate sensitivity. A vital component of the noise reduction is the modeling, design, and implementation of ∼100 feedback control systems. The most critical of these systems are described and motivated. Although improvements are continuously being made to the stability and noise character of these detectors, several months of data have been collected. Various efforts are underway to search through these data for gravitational wave signals. Included here, is a description of a search made through the data for signals from the
GRASP: a data analysis package for gravitational wave detection
, 1992
"... GRASP (Gravitational Radiation Analysis & Simulation Package) is a publicdomain software toolkit designed for analysis and simulation of data from gravitational wave detectors. This users manual describes the use and features of this package. Note: an uptodate version of this manual may be ..."
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Cited by 17 (3 self)
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GRASP (Gravitational Radiation Analysis & Simulation Package) is a publicdomain software toolkit designed for analysis and simulation of data from gravitational wave detectors. This users manual describes the use and features of this package. Note: an uptodate version of this manual may be obtained at: http://www.ligo.caltech.edu/LIGO web/Collaboration/manual.pdf,orat http://www.ligo.caltech.edu/LIGO web/Collaboration/lsc interm.html.The software package is available on request. USERS MANUAL Copyright 1997 c #Bruce Allen GRASP RELEASE 1.5 manual version 1.5.0 # ballen@dirac.phys.uwm.edu 1 Contents 1 Acknowledgements 6 2
LIGO: the laser interferometer gravitationalwave observatory Rep.
 Prog. Phys.
, 2009
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Spectrum of Relic Gravitational Waves in String Cosmology
, 1997
"... . We compute the spectrum of relic gravitons in a model of string cosmology. In the low and in the highfrequency limits we reproduce known results. The full spectrum, however, also displays a series of oscillations which could give a characteristic signature at the planned LIGO/VIRGO detectors ..."
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Cited by 9 (0 self)
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. We compute the spectrum of relic gravitons in a model of string cosmology. In the low and in the highfrequency limits we reproduce known results. The full spectrum, however, also displays a series of oscillations which could give a characteristic signature at the planned LIGO/VIRGO detectors. For special values of the parameters of the model the signal reaches its maximum already at frequencies accessible to LIGO and VIRGO and it is close to the sensitivity of first generation experiments. 1 Introduction In the next few years a number of detectors for gravitational waves, and in particular the LIGO and VIRGO interferometers, are expected to start operating in a range of frequencies between 10 Hz and 1 kHz. One of the possible signals which could be searched, correlating the output of two detectors, is a stochastic background of gravitational waves. This background is expected to have different components, with different origin: it will get contributions from a large number...
GravitationalWave Data Analysis. Formalism and Sample Applications: The Gaussian Case
 Living Rev. Relativity
, 2005
"... on leave of absence from: ..."
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Relic Gravitational Waves from Cosmic Strings: Updated Constraints and Opportunities for Detection”, Phys
 Rev. D
, 1996
"... We examine the spectrum of gravitational radiation emitted by a network of cosmic strings, with emphasis on the observational constraints and the opportunities for detection. The analysis improves over past work, as we use a phenomenological model for the radiation spectrum emitted by a cosmic strin ..."
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We examine the spectrum of gravitational radiation emitted by a network of cosmic strings, with emphasis on the observational constraints and the opportunities for detection. The analysis improves over past work, as we use a phenomenological model for the radiation spectrum emitted by a cosmic string loop. This model attempts to include the effect of the gravitational backreaction on the radiation emission by an individual loop with a high frequency cutoff in the spectrum. Comparison of the total spectrum due to a network of strings with the recently improved bound on the amplitude of a stochastic gravitational wave background, due to measurements of noise in pulsar signal arrival times, allows us to exclude a range of values of µ, the cosmic string linear mass density, for certain values of cosmic string and cosmological parameters. We find the conservative bound Gµ/c 2 < 5.4(±1.1)×10 −6 which is consistent with all other limits. We consider variations of the standard cosmological scenario, finding that an under dense, Ω0 < 1 universe has little effect on the spectrum, whereas the portion of the spectrum probed by gravitational wave detectors is strongly sensitive to the thermal history of the cosmological fluid. We discuss the opportunity for the observation of this stochastic background by resonant mass and laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors.
Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves
 LIVING REVIEWS IN RELATIVITY
, 2009
"... Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers), and how these detectors oper ..."
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Cited by 5 (1 self)
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Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers), and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.
Ekpyrotic and Cyclic Cosmology
, 806
"... Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w = P ρ ..."
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Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w = P ρ ≫ 1 (where P is the average pressure and ρ the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scaleinvariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant nongaussian component. At the same time it produces smallamplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the presentday cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in Mtheory and their viability, with