Results 1  10
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32
Regular Model Checking
, 2000
"... . We present regular model checking, a framework for algorithmic verification of infinitestate systems with, e.g., queues, stacks, integers, or a parameterized linear topology. States are represented by strings over a finite alphabet and the transition relation by a regular lengthpreserving re ..."
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Cited by 164 (25 self)
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. We present regular model checking, a framework for algorithmic verification of infinitestate systems with, e.g., queues, stacks, integers, or a parameterized linear topology. States are represented by strings over a finite alphabet and the transition relation by a regular lengthpreserving relation on strings. Major problems in the verification of parameterized and infinitestate systems are to compute the set of states that are reachable from some set of initial states, and to compute the transitive closure of the transition relation. We present two complementary techniques for these problems. One is a direct automatatheoretic construction, and the other is based on widening. Both techniques are incomplete in general, but we give sufficient conditions under which they work. We also present a method for verifying !regular properties of parameterized systems, by computation of the transitive closure of a transition relation. 1 Introduction This paper presents regular ...
Symbolic model checking with rich assertional languages
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 1997
"... Abstract. The paper shows that, by an appropriate choice of a rich assertional language, it is possible to extend the utility of symbolic model checking beyond the realm of bddrepresented nitestate systems into the domain of in nitestate systems, leading to a powerful technique for uniform veri c ..."
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Cited by 120 (4 self)
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Abstract. The paper shows that, by an appropriate choice of a rich assertional language, it is possible to extend the utility of symbolic model checking beyond the realm of bddrepresented nitestate systems into the domain of in nitestate systems, leading to a powerful technique for uniform veri cation of unbounded (parameterized) process networks. The main contributions of the paper are a formulation of a general framework for symbolic model checking of in nitestate systems, a demonstration that many individual examples of uniformly veri ed parameterized designs that appear in the literature are special cases of our general approach, verifying the correctness of the Futurebus+ design for all singlebus con gurations, extending the technique to tree architectures, and establishing that the presented method is a precise dual to the topdown invariant generation method used in deductive veri cation. 1
Automatic Deductive Verification with Invisible Invariants
, 2001
"... The paper presents a method for the automatic verification of a certain class of parameterized systems. These are boundeddata systems consisting of N processes (N being the parameter), where each process is finitestate. First, we show that if we use the standard deductive inv rule for proving inva ..."
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Cited by 103 (11 self)
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The paper presents a method for the automatic verification of a certain class of parameterized systems. These are boundeddata systems consisting of N processes (N being the parameter), where each process is finitestate. First, we show that if we use the standard deductive inv rule for proving invariance properties, then all the generated verification conditions can be automatically resolved by finitestate (bddbased) methods with no need for interactive theorem proving. Next, we show how to use modelchecking techniques over finite (and small) instances of the parameterized system in order to derive candidates for invariant assertions. Combining this automatic computation of invariants with the previously mentioned resolution of the VCs (verification conditions) yields a (necessarily) incomplete but fully automatic sound method for verifying boundeddata parameterized systems. The generated invariants can be transferred to the VCvalidation phase without ever been examined by the user, which explains why we refer to them as "invisible". We illustrate the method on a nontrivial example of a cache protocol, provided by Steve German.
Parameterized Verification with Automatically Computed Inductive Assertions
, 2001
"... The paper presents a method, called the method of verification by invisible invariants, for the automatic verification of a large class of parameterized systems. The method is based on the automatic calculation of candidate inductive assertions and checking for their inductiveness, using symbolic mo ..."
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Cited by 90 (9 self)
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The paper presents a method, called the method of verification by invisible invariants, for the automatic verification of a large class of parameterized systems. The method is based on the automatic calculation of candidate inductive assertions and checking for their inductiveness, using symbolic modelchecking techniques for both tasks. First, we show how to use modelchecking techniques over finite (and small) instances of the parameterized system in order to derive candidates for invariant assertions. Next, we show that the premises of the standard deductive inv rule for proving invariance properties can be automatically resolved by finitestate (bddbased) methods with no need for interactive theorem proving. Combining the automatic computation of invariants with the automatic resolution of the VCs (verification conditions) yields a (necessarily) incomplete but fully automatic sound method for verifying large classes of parameterized systems. The generated invariants can be transferred to the VCvalidation phase without ever been examined by the user, which explains why we refer to them as "invisible". The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by automatic verification of diverse parameterized systems in a fully automatic and efficient manner.
Control and Data Abstraction: The Cornerstones of Practical Formal Verification.
 Software Tools for Technology Transfer
, 2000
"... ion: The Cornerstones of Practical Formal Verification. Yonit Kesten 1 , Amir Pnueli 2 1 Dept. of Communication Systems Engineering, Ben Gurion University, BeerSheva, Israel, email: ykesten@bgumail.bgu.ac.il 2 Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, the Weizmann Institute of S ..."
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Cited by 33 (9 self)
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ion: The Cornerstones of Practical Formal Verification. Yonit Kesten 1 , Amir Pnueli 2 1 Dept. of Communication Systems Engineering, Ben Gurion University, BeerSheva, Israel, email: ykesten@bgumail.bgu.ac.il 2 Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, email: amir@wisdom.weizmann.ac.il The date of receipt and acceptance will be inserted by the editor Abstract. In spite of the impressive progress in the development of the two main methods for formal verification of reactive systems  Symbolic Model Checking and Deductive Verification, they are still limited in their ability to handle large systems. It is generally recognized that the only way these methods can ever scale up is by the extensive use of abstraction and modularization, which break the task of verifying a large system into several smaller tasks of verifying simpler systems. In this paper, we review the two main tools of compositionality and abstrac...
Liveness with Invisible Ranking
 SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
, 2006
"... The method of Invisible Invariants was developed originally in order to verify safety properties of parameterized systems in a fully automatic manner. The method is based on (1) a project&generalize heuristic to generate auxiliary constructs for parameterized systems, and (2) a small model theor ..."
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Cited by 20 (7 self)
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The method of Invisible Invariants was developed originally in order to verify safety properties of parameterized systems in a fully automatic manner. The method is based on (1) a project&generalize heuristic to generate auxiliary constructs for parameterized systems, and (2) a small model theorem implying that it is sufficient to check the validity of logical assertions of certain syntactic form on small instantiations of a parameterized system. The approach can be generalized to any deductive proof rule that (1) requires auxiliary constructs that can be generated by project&generalize, and (2) the premises resulting when using the constructs are of the form covered by the small model theorem. The method of invisible ranking, presented here, generalizes the approach to liveness properties of parameterized systems. Starting with a proof rule and cases where the method can be applied almost “as is,” the paper progresses to develop deductive proof rules for liveness and extend the small model theorem to cover many intricate families of parameterized systems.
Modularization and Abstraction: The Keys to Practical Formal Verification
 LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1998
"... In spite of the impressive progress in the development of the two main methods for formal verification of reactive systems  Model Checking (in particular symbolic) and Deductive Verification, they are still limited in their ability to handle large systems. It is generally recognized that the only ..."
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Cited by 18 (0 self)
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In spite of the impressive progress in the development of the two main methods for formal verification of reactive systems  Model Checking (in particular symbolic) and Deductive Verification, they are still limited in their ability to handle large systems. It is generally recognized that the only way these methods can ever scale up is by the extensive use of abstraction and modularization, which breaks the task of verifying a large system into several smaller tasks of verifying simpler systems. In this methodological paper, we review the two main tools of compositionality and abstraction in the framework of linear temporal logic. We illustrate the application of these two methods for the reduction of an infinitestate system into a finitestate system that can then be verified using model checking. The modest technical contributions contained in this paper are a full formulation of abstraction when applied to a system with both weak and strong fairness requirements and to a general...
Rapid Parameterized Model Checking of Snoopy Cache Coherence Protocols
 In 9th International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for Construction and Analysis of Systems (TACAS
, 2003
"... Abstract. A new method is proposed for parameterized reasoning about snoopy cache coherence protocols. The method is distinctive for being exact (sound and complete), fully automatic (algorithmic), and tractably efficient. The states of most cache coherence protocols can be organized into a hierarch ..."
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Cited by 15 (2 self)
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Abstract. A new method is proposed for parameterized reasoning about snoopy cache coherence protocols. The method is distinctive for being exact (sound and complete), fully automatic (algorithmic), and tractably efficient. The states of most cache coherence protocols can be organized into a hierarchy reflecting how tightly a memory block in a given cache state is bound to the processor. A broad framework encompassing snoopy cache coherence protocols is proposed where the hierarchy implicit in the design of protocols is captured as a preorder. This history graph where a global concrete state is represented by an abstract state reflecting the occupied local states. The abstract graph also takes into account the history of local transitions of the protocol that were fired along the computation to get to the global state. This permits the abstract history graph to exactly capture the behaviour of systems with an arbitrary number of homogeneous processes. Although the worst case size of the abstract history graph can be exponential in the size of the transition diagram describing the protocol, the actual size of the abstract history graph is small for standard cache protocols. The method is applicable to all 8 of the most common snoopy cache protocols described in Handy’s book [19] from IllinoisMESI to Dragon. The experimental results for parameterized verification of each of those 8 protocols document the efficiency of this new method in practice, with each protocol being verified in just a fraction of a second. It is emphasized that this is parameterized verification. 1
Verification of Communication Protocols Using Abstract Interpretation of FIFO queues
 in &quot;Algebraic Methodology and Software Technology, AMAST ’06&quot;, LNCS
, 2006
"... Abstract. We address the verification of communication protocols or distributed systems that can be modeled by Communicating Finite State Machines (CFSMs), i.e. a set of sequential machines communicating via unbounded FIFO channels. Unlike recent related works based on acceleration techniques, we pr ..."
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Cited by 13 (5 self)
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Abstract. We address the verification of communication protocols or distributed systems that can be modeled by Communicating Finite State Machines (CFSMs), i.e. a set of sequential machines communicating via unbounded FIFO channels. Unlike recent related works based on acceleration techniques, we propose to apply the Abstract Interpretation approach to such systems, which consists in using approximated representations of sets of configurations. We show that the use of regular languages together with an extrapolation operator provides a simple and elegant method for the analysis of CFSMs, which is moreover often as accurate as acceleration techniques, and in some cases more expressive. Last, when the system has several queues, our method can be implemented either as an attributeindependent analysis or as a more precise (but also more costly) attributedependent analysis. 1
Automatic Verification of Parameterized Networks of Processes by Abstraction
 Electronic Notes of Theoretical Computer Science (ENTCS
, 1997
"... In this paper we are interested in the verification of safety properties of parameterized networks. A network is defined as a parallel composition of an arbitrary but finite number of identical sequential processes, where we consider parallel composition by interleaving and synchronization by shared ..."
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Cited by 12 (2 self)
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In this paper we are interested in the verification of safety properties of parameterized networks. A network is defined as a parallel composition of an arbitrary but finite number of identical sequential processes, where we consider parallel composition by interleaving and synchronization by shared variables. Using abstraction techniques, a process, called an abstract network, encoding the behavior of the entire network is constructed. The property is then checked on this process. Our verification method has the following advantages: the construction of the abstract network is fully automatic; the obtained process is generally a simple process on which the property can be easily verified. Of course, if the property cannot be verified on the abstract network, another more precise abstraction has to be computed. The construction requires to discharge a set of first order verification conditions (VCs). The PVS theorem prover is used to discharge the generated VCs. This allows us to consider processes with arbitrary data types. The effectiveness of our verification method is illustrated on two examples including a parameterized version of the Fischer's protocol.