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A Fast and Elitist MultiObjective Genetic Algorithm: NSGAII
, 2000
"... Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms which use nondominated sorting and sharing have been mainly criticized for their (i) O(MN computational complexity (where M is the number of objectives and N is the population size), (ii) nonelitism approach, and (iii) the need for specifying a sharing param ..."
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Cited by 1815 (60 self)
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Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms which use nondominated sorting and sharing have been mainly criticized for their (i) O(MN computational complexity (where M is the number of objectives and N is the population size), (ii) nonelitism approach, and (iii) the need for specifying a sharing parameter. In this paper, we suggest a nondominated sorting based multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (we called it the Nondominated Sorting GAII or NSGAII) which alleviates all the above three difficulties. Specifically, a fast nondominated sorting approach with O(MN ) computational complexity is presented. Second, a selection operator is presented which creates a mating pool by combining the parent and child populations and selecting the best (with respect to fitness and spread) N solutions. Simulation results on a number of difficult test problems show that the proposed NSGAII, in most problems, is able to find much better spread of solutions and better convergence near the true Paretooptimal front compared to PAES and SPEA  two other elitist multiobjective EAs which pay special attention towards creating a diverse Paretooptimal front. Moreover, we modify the definition of dominance in order to solve constrained multiobjective problems eciently. Simulation results of the constrained NSGAII on a number of test problems, including a fiveobjective, sevenconstraint nonlinear problem, are compared with another constrained multiobjective optimizer and much better performance of NSGAII is observed. Because of NSGAII's low computational requirements, elitist approach, parameterless niching approach, and simple constrainthandling strategy, NSGAII should find increasing applications in the coming years.
Evolutionary Computing
, 2005
"... Evolutionary computing (EC) is an exciting development in Computer Science. It amounts to building, applying and studying algorithms based on the Darwinian principles of natural selection. In this paper we briefly introduce the main concepts behind evolutionary computing. We present the main compone ..."
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Cited by 624 (35 self)
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Evolutionary computing (EC) is an exciting development in Computer Science. It amounts to building, applying and studying algorithms based on the Darwinian principles of natural selection. In this paper we briefly introduce the main concepts behind evolutionary computing. We present the main components all evolutionary algorithms (EA), sketch the differences between different types of EAs and survey application areas ranging from optimization, modeling and simulation to entertainment.
Evolutionary Algorithms for Multiobjective Optimization
, 2002
"... Multiple, often conflicting objectives arise naturally in most realworld optimization scenarios. As evolutionary algorithms possess several characteristics due to which they are well suited to this type of problem, evolutionbased methods have been used for multiobjective optimization for more than ..."
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Cited by 450 (13 self)
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Multiple, often conflicting objectives arise naturally in most realworld optimization scenarios. As evolutionary algorithms possess several characteristics due to which they are well suited to this type of problem, evolutionbased methods have been used for multiobjective optimization for more than a decade. Meanwhile evolutionary multiobjective optimization has become established as a separate subdiscipline combining the fields of evolutionary computation and classical multiple criteria decision making. In this paper, the basic principles of evolutionary multiobjective optimization are discussed from an algorithm design perspective. The focus is on the major issues such as fitness assignment, diversity preservation, and elitism in general rather than on particular algorithms. Different techniques to implement these strongly related concepts will be discussed, and further important aspects such as constraint handling and preference articulation are treated as well. Finally, two applications will presented and some recent trends in the field will be outlined.
Indicatorbased selection in multiobjective search
 in Proc. 8th International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving from Nature (PPSN VIII
, 2004
"... Abstract. This paper discusses how preference information of the decision maker can in general be integrated into multiobjective search. The main idea is to first define the optimization goal in terms of a binary performance measure (indicator) and then to directly use this measure in the selection ..."
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Cited by 172 (12 self)
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Abstract. This paper discusses how preference information of the decision maker can in general be integrated into multiobjective search. The main idea is to first define the optimization goal in terms of a binary performance measure (indicator) and then to directly use this measure in the selection process. To this end, we propose a general indicatorbased evolutionary algorithm (IBEA) that can be combined with arbitrary indicators. In contrast to existing algorithms, IBEA can be adapted to the preferences of the user and moreover does not require any additional diversity preservation mechanism such as fitness sharing to be used. It is shown on several continuous and discrete benchmark problems that IBEA can substantially improve on the results generated by two popular algorithms, namely NSGAII and SPEA2, with respect to different performance measures. 1
Performance Assessment of Multiobjective Optimizers: An Analysis and Review
 IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation
, 2002
"... An important issue in multiobjective optimization is the quantitative comparison of the performance of di#erent algorithms. In the case of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms, the outcome is usually an approximation of the Paretooptimal front, which is denoted as an approximation set, and the ..."
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Cited by 168 (6 self)
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An important issue in multiobjective optimization is the quantitative comparison of the performance of di#erent algorithms. In the case of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms, the outcome is usually an approximation of the Paretooptimal front, which is denoted as an approximation set, and therefore the question arises of how to evaluate the quality of approximation sets. Most popular are methods that assign each approximation set a vector of real numbers that reflect different aspects of the quality. Sometimes, pairs of approximation sets are considered too. In this study, we provide a rigorous analysis of the limitations underlying this type of quality assessment.
Combining convergence and diversity in evolutionary multiobjective optimization
 Evolutionary Computation
, 2002
"... Over the past few years, the research on evolutionary algorithms has demonstrated their niche in solving multiobjective optimization problems, where the goal is to �nd a number of Paretooptimal solutions in a single simulation run. Many studies have depicted different ways evolutionary algorithms c ..."
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Cited by 159 (15 self)
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Over the past few years, the research on evolutionary algorithms has demonstrated their niche in solving multiobjective optimization problems, where the goal is to �nd a number of Paretooptimal solutions in a single simulation run. Many studies have depicted different ways evolutionary algorithms can progress towards the Paretooptimal set with a widely spread distribution of solutions. However, none of the multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) has a proof of convergence to the true Paretooptimal solutions with a wide diversity among the solutions. In this paper, we discuss why a number of earlier MOEAs do not have such properties. Based on the concept ofdominance, new archiving strategies are proposed that overcome this fundamental problem and provably lead to MOEAs that have both the desired convergence and distribution properties. A number of modi�cations to the baseline algorithm are also suggested. The concept ofdominance introduced in this paper is practical and should make the proposed algorithms useful to researchers and practitioners alike.
Scalable Test Problems for Evolutionary MultiObjective Optimization
 Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory (TIK), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH
, 2001
"... After adequately demonstrating the ability to solve di#erent twoobjective optimization problems, multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) must now show their e#cacy in handling problems having more than two objectives. In this paper, we have suggested three di#erent approaches for systema ..."
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Cited by 148 (21 self)
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After adequately demonstrating the ability to solve di#erent twoobjective optimization problems, multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) must now show their e#cacy in handling problems having more than two objectives. In this paper, we have suggested three di#erent approaches for systematically designing test problems for this purpose. The simplicity of construction, scalability to any number of decision variables and objectives, knowledge of exact shape and location of the resulting Paretooptimal front, and introduction of controlled di#culties in both converging to the true Paretooptimal front and maintaining a widely distributed set of solutions are the main features of the suggested test problems. Because of the above features, they should be found useful in various research activities on MOEAs, such as testing the performance of a new MOEA, comparing di#erent MOEAs, and better understanding of the working principles of MOEAs.
MOEA/D: A Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Decomposition
"... Abstract—Decomposition is a basic strategy in traditional multiobjective optimization. However, it has not yet been widely used in multiobjective evolutionary optimization. This paper proposes a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D). It decomposes a multiobjective opt ..."
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Cited by 118 (19 self)
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Abstract—Decomposition is a basic strategy in traditional multiobjective optimization. However, it has not yet been widely used in multiobjective evolutionary optimization. This paper proposes a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D). It decomposes a multiobjective optimization problem into a number of scalar optimization subproblems and optimizes them simultaneously. Each subproblem is optimized by only using information from its several neighboring subproblems, which makes MOEA/D have lower computational complexity at each generation than MOGLS and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII). Experimental results have demonstrated that MOEA/D with simple decomposition methods outperforms or performs similarly to MOGLS and NSGAII on multiobjective 0–1 knapsack problems and continuous multiobjective optimization problems. It has been shown that MOEA/D using objective normalization can deal with disparatelyscaled objectives, and MOEA/D with an advanced decomposition method can generate a set of very evenly distributed solutions for 3objective test instances. The ability of MOEA/D with small population, the scalability and sensitivity of MOEA/D have also been experimentally investigated in this paper. Index Terms—Computational complexity, decomposition, evolutionary algorithm, multiobjective optimization, Pareto optimality. I.
MultiObjective Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms: A Tutorial
"... abstract – Multiobjective formulations are a realistic models for many complex engineering optimization problems. Customized genetic algorithms have been demonstrated to be particularly effective to determine excellent solutions to these problems. In many reallife problems, objectives under consid ..."
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Cited by 114 (0 self)
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abstract – Multiobjective formulations are a realistic models for many complex engineering optimization problems. Customized genetic algorithms have been demonstrated to be particularly effective to determine excellent solutions to these problems. In many reallife problems, objectives under consideration conflict with each other, and optimizing a particular solution with respect to a single objective can result in unacceptable results with respect to the other objectives. A reasonable solution to a multiobjective problem is to investigate a set of solutions, each of which satisfies the objectives at an acceptable level without being dominated by any other solution. In this paper, an overview and tutorial is presented describing genetic algorithms developed specifically for these problems with multiple objectives. They differ from traditional genetic algorithms by using specialized fitness functions, introducing methods to promote solution diversity, and other approaches. 1.