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612
Markov Logic Networks
 MACHINE LEARNING
, 2006
"... We propose a simple approach to combining firstorder logic and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. A Markov logic network (MLN) is a firstorder knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with a set of constants representing objects in the ..."
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Cited by 816 (39 self)
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We propose a simple approach to combining firstorder logic and probabilistic graphical models in a single representation. A Markov logic network (MLN) is a firstorder knowledge base with a weight attached to each formula (or clause). Together with a set of constants representing objects in the domain, it specifies a ground Markov network containing one feature for each possible grounding of a firstorder formula in the KB, with the corresponding weight. Inference in MLNs is performed by MCMC over the minimal subset of the ground network required for answering the query. Weights are efficiently learned from relational databases by iteratively optimizing a pseudolikelihood measure. Optionally, additional clauses are learned using inductive logic programming techniques. Experiments with a realworld database and knowledge base in a university domain illustrate the promise of this approach.
Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning
, 2002
"... Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have bee ..."
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Cited by 770 (3 self)
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Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have been used for problems ranging from tracking planes and missiles to predicting the economy. However, HMMs
and KFMs are limited in their “expressive power”. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) generalize HMMs by allowing the state space to be represented in factored form, instead of as a single discrete random variable. DBNs generalize KFMs by allowing arbitrary probability distributions, not just (unimodal) linearGaussian. In this thesis, I will discuss how to represent many different kinds of models as DBNs, how to perform exact and approximate inference in DBNs, and how to learn DBN models from sequential data.
In particular, the main novel technical contributions of this thesis are as follows: a way of representing
Hierarchical HMMs as DBNs, which enables inference to be done in O(T) time instead of O(T 3), where T is the length of the sequence; an exact smoothing algorithm that takes O(log T) space instead of O(T); a simple way of using the junction tree algorithm for online inference in DBNs; new complexity bounds on exact online inference in DBNs; a new deterministic approximate inference algorithm called factored frontier; an analysis of the relationship between the BK algorithm and loopy belief propagation; a way of
applying RaoBlackwellised particle filtering to DBNs in general, and the SLAM (simultaneous localization
and mapping) problem in particular; a way of extending the structural EM algorithm to DBNs; and a variety of different applications of DBNs. However, perhaps the main value of the thesis is its catholic presentation of the field of sequential data modelling.
Mining the Network Value of Customers
 In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
, 2002
"... One of the major applications of data mining is in helping companies determine which potential customers to market to. If the expected pro t from a customer is greater than the cost of marketing to her, the marketing action for that customer is executed. So far, work in this area has considered only ..."
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Cited by 568 (11 self)
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One of the major applications of data mining is in helping companies determine which potential customers to market to. If the expected pro t from a customer is greater than the cost of marketing to her, the marketing action for that customer is executed. So far, work in this area has considered only the intrinsic value of the customer (i.e, the expected pro t from sales to her). We propose to model also the customer's network value: the expected pro t from sales to other customers she may inuence to buy, the customers those may inuence, and so on recursively. Instead of viewing a market as a set of independent entities, we view it as a social network and model it as a Markov random eld. We show the advantages of this approach using a social network mined from a collaborative ltering database. Marketing that exploits the network value of customersalso known as viral marketingcan be extremely eective, but is still a black art. Our work can be viewed as a step towards providing a more solid foundation for it, taking advantage of the availability of large relevant databases. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.2.8 [Database Management]: Database Applications data mining
Discriminative probabilistic models for relational data
, 2002
"... In many supervised learning tasks, the entities to be labeled are related to each other in complex ways and their labels are not independent. For example, in hypertext classification, the labels of linked pages are highly correlated. A standard approach is to classify each entity independently, igno ..."
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Cited by 415 (12 self)
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In many supervised learning tasks, the entities to be labeled are related to each other in complex ways and their labels are not independent. For example, in hypertext classification, the labels of linked pages are highly correlated. A standard approach is to classify each entity independently, ignoring the correlations between them. Recently, Probabilistic Relational Models, a relational version of Bayesian networks, were used to define a joint probabilistic model for a collection of related entities. In this paper, we present an alternative framework that builds on (conditional) Markov networks and addresses two limitations of the previous approach. First, undirected models do not impose the acyclicity constraint that hinders representation of many important relational dependencies in directed models. Second, undirected models are well suited for discriminative training, where we optimize the conditional likelihood of the labels given the features, which generally improves classification accuracy. We show how to train these models effectively, and how to use approximate probabilistic inference over the learned model for collective classification of multiple related entities. We provide experimental results on a webpage classification task, showing that accuracy can be significantly improved by modeling relational dependencies. 1
Learning and inferring transportation routines
, 2004
"... This paper introduces a hierarchical Markov model that can learn and infer a user’s daily movements through the community. The model uses multiple levels of abstraction in order to bridge the gap between raw GPS sensor measurements and high level information such as a user’s mode of transportation ..."
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Cited by 312 (22 self)
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This paper introduces a hierarchical Markov model that can learn and infer a user’s daily movements through the community. The model uses multiple levels of abstraction in order to bridge the gap between raw GPS sensor measurements and high level information such as a user’s mode of transportation or her goal. We apply RaoBlackwellised particle filters for efficient inference both at the low level and at the higher levels of the hierarchy. Significant locations such as goals or locations where the user frequently changes mode of transportation are learned from GPS data logs without requiring any manual labeling. We show how to detect abnormal behaviors (e.g. taking a wrong bus) by concurrently tracking his activities with a trained and a prior model. Experiments show that our model is able to accurately predict the goals of a person and to recognize situations in which the user performs unknown activities.
Learning Bayesian network structure from massive datasets: the “sparse candidate” algorithm
 In Proceedings of the 15th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI
, 1999
"... Learning Bayesian networks is often cast as an optimization problem, where the computational task is to find a structure that maximizes a statistically motivated score. By and large, existing learning tools address this optimization problem using standard heuristic search techniques. Since the sear ..."
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Cited by 247 (7 self)
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Learning Bayesian networks is often cast as an optimization problem, where the computational task is to find a structure that maximizes a statistically motivated score. By and large, existing learning tools address this optimization problem using standard heuristic search techniques. Since the search space is extremely large, such search procedures can spend most of the time examining candidates that are extremely unreasonable. This problem becomes critical when we deal with data sets that are large either in the number of instances, or the number of attributes. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that achieves faster learning by restricting the search space. This iterative algorithm restricts the parents of each variable to belong to a small subset of candidates. We then search for a network that satisfies these constraints. The learned network is then used for selecting better candidates for the next iteration. We evaluate this algorithm both on synthetic and reallife data. Our results show that it is significantly faster than alternative search procedures without loss of quality in the learned structures. 1
The Missing Link  A Probabilistic Model of Document Content and Hypertext Connectivity
, 2001
"... We describe a joint probabilistic model for modeling the contents and interconnectivity of document collections such as sets of web pages or research paper archives. The model is based on a probabilistic factor decomposition and allows identifying principal topics of the collection as well as autho ..."
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Cited by 218 (3 self)
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We describe a joint probabilistic model for modeling the contents and interconnectivity of document collections such as sets of web pages or research paper archives. The model is based on a probabilistic factor decomposition and allows identifying principal topics of the collection as well as authoritative documents within those topics. Furthermore, the relationships between topics is mapped out in order to build a predictive model of link content. Among the many applications of this approach are information retrieval and search, topic identification, query disambiguation, focused web crawling, web authoring, and bibliometric analysis.
Classification in Networked Data: A toolkit and a univariate case study
, 2006
"... This paper is about classifying entities that are interlinked with entities for which the class is known. After surveying prior work, we present NetKit, a modular toolkit for classification in networked data, and a casestudy of its application to networked data used in prior machine learning resear ..."
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Cited by 200 (10 self)
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This paper is about classifying entities that are interlinked with entities for which the class is known. After surveying prior work, we present NetKit, a modular toolkit for classification in networked data, and a casestudy of its application to networked data used in prior machine learning research. NetKit is based on a nodecentric framework in which classifiers comprise a local classifier, a relational classifier, and a collective inference procedure. Various existing nodecentric relational learning algorithms can be instantiated with appropriate choices for these components, and new combinations of components realize new algorithms. The case study focuses on univariate network classification, for which the only information used is the structure of class linkage in the network (i.e., only links and some class labels). To our knowledge, no work previously has evaluated systematically the power of classlinkage alone for classification in machine learning benchmark data sets. The results demonstrate that very simple networkclassification models perform quite well—well enough that they should be used regularly as baseline classifiers for studies of learning with networked data. The simplest method (which performs remarkably well) highlights the close correspondence between several existing methods introduced for different purposes—i.e., Gaussianfield classifiers, Hopfield networks, and relationalneighbor classifiers. The case study also shows that there are two sets of techniques that are preferable in different situations, namely when few versus many labels are known initially. We also demonstrate that link selection plays an important role similar to traditional feature selection.
Blog: Probabilistic models with unknown objects
 In IJCAI
, 2005
"... This paper introduces and illustrates BLOG, a formal language for defining probability models over worlds with unknown objects and identity uncertainty. BLOG unifies and extends several existing approaches. Subject to certain acyclicity constraints, every BLOG model specifies a unique probability di ..."
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Cited by 185 (10 self)
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This paper introduces and illustrates BLOG, a formal language for defining probability models over worlds with unknown objects and identity uncertainty. BLOG unifies and extends several existing approaches. Subject to certain acyclicity constraints, every BLOG model specifies a unique probability distribution over firstorder model structures that can contain varying and unbounded numbers of objects. Furthermore, complete inference algorithms exist for a large fragment of the language. We also introduce a probabilistic form of Skolemization for handling evidence. 1
Collective classification in network data
, 2008
"... Numerous realworld applications produce networked data such as web data (hypertext documents connected via hyperlinks) and communication networks (people connected via communication links). A recent focus in machine learning research has been to extend traditional machine learning classification te ..."
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Cited by 178 (32 self)
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Numerous realworld applications produce networked data such as web data (hypertext documents connected via hyperlinks) and communication networks (people connected via communication links). A recent focus in machine learning research has been to extend traditional machine learning classification techniques to classify nodes in such data. In this report, we attempt to provide a brief introduction to this area of research and how it has progressed during the past decade. We introduce four of the most widely used inference algorithms for classifying networked data and empirically compare them on both synthetic and realworld data.