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64
From Sparse Solutions of Systems of Equations to Sparse Modeling of Signals and Images
, 2007
"... A fullrank matrix A ∈ IR n×m with n < m generates an underdetermined system of linear equations Ax = b having infinitely many solutions. Suppose we seek the sparsest solution, i.e., the one with the fewest nonzero entries: can it ever be unique? If so, when? As optimization of sparsity is combin ..."
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Cited by 427 (36 self)
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A fullrank matrix A ∈ IR n×m with n < m generates an underdetermined system of linear equations Ax = b having infinitely many solutions. Suppose we seek the sparsest solution, i.e., the one with the fewest nonzero entries: can it ever be unique? If so, when? As optimization of sparsity is combinatorial in nature, are there efficient methods for finding the sparsest solution? These questions have been answered positively and constructively in recent years, exposing a wide variety of surprising phenomena; in particular, the existence of easilyverifiable conditions under which optimallysparse solutions can be found by concrete, effective computational methods. Such theoretical results inspire a bold perspective on some important practical problems in signal and image processing. Several wellknown signal and image processing problems can be cast as demanding solutions of undetermined systems of equations. Such problems have previously seemed, to many, intractable. There is considerable evidence that these problems often have sparse solutions. Hence, advances in finding sparse solutions to underdetermined systems energizes research on such signal and image processing problems – to striking effect. In this paper we review the theoretical results on sparse solutions of linear systems, empirical
A frameletbased image inpainting algorithm
 Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis
"... Abstract. Image inpainting is a fundamental problem in image processing and has many applications. Motivated by the recent tight frame based methods on image restoration in either the image or the transform domain, we propose an iterative tight frame algorithm for image inpainting. We consider the c ..."
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Cited by 87 (40 self)
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Abstract. Image inpainting is a fundamental problem in image processing and has many applications. Motivated by the recent tight frame based methods on image restoration in either the image or the transform domain, we propose an iterative tight frame algorithm for image inpainting. We consider the convergence of this frameletbased algorithm by interpreting it as an iteration for minimizing a special functional. The proof of the convergence is under the framework of convex analysis and optimization theory. We also discuss the relationship of our method with other waveletbased methods. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Key words. Tight frame, inpainting, convex analysis 1. Introduction. The problem of inpainting [2] occurs when part of the pixel data in a picture is missing or overwritten by other means. This arises for example in restoring ancient drawings, where a portion of the picture is missing or damaged due to aging or scratch; or when an image is transmitted through a noisy channel. The task of inpainting is to recover the missing region from the incomplete data observed. Ideally, the restored image should possess shapes and patterns consistent
On the Role of Sparse and Redundant Representations in Image Processing
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE – SPECIAL ISSUE ON APPLICATIONS OF SPARSE REPRESENTATION AND COMPRESSIVE SENSING
, 2009
"... Much of the progress made in image processing in the past decades can be attributed to better modeling of image content, and a wise deployment of these models in relevant applications. This path of models spans from the simple ℓ2norm smoothness, through robust, thus edge preserving, measures of smo ..."
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Cited by 78 (1 self)
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Much of the progress made in image processing in the past decades can be attributed to better modeling of image content, and a wise deployment of these models in relevant applications. This path of models spans from the simple ℓ2norm smoothness, through robust, thus edge preserving, measures of smoothness (e.g. total variation), and till the very recent models that employ sparse and redundant representations. In this paper, we review the role of this recent model in image processing, its rationale, and models related to it. As it turns out, the field of image processing is one of the main beneficiaries from the recent progress made in the theory and practice of sparse and redundant representations. We discuss ways to employ these tools for various image processing tasks, and present several applications in which stateoftheart results are obtained.
Image denoising via learned dictionaries and sparse representation
 In CVPR
, 2006
"... We address the image denoising problem, where zeromean white and homogeneous Gaussian additive noise should be removed from a given image. The approach taken is based on sparse and redundant representations over a trained dictionary. The proposed algorithm denoises the image, while simultaneously tr ..."
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Cited by 71 (8 self)
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We address the image denoising problem, where zeromean white and homogeneous Gaussian additive noise should be removed from a given image. The approach taken is based on sparse and redundant representations over a trained dictionary. The proposed algorithm denoises the image, while simultaneously trainining a dictionary on its (corrupted) content using the KSVD algorithm. As the dictionary training algorithm is limited in handling small image patches, we extend its deployment to arbitrary image sizes by defining a global image prior that forces sparsity over patches in every location in the image. We show how such Bayesian treatment leads to a simple and effective denoising algorithm, with stateoftheart performance, equivalent and sometimes surpassing recently published leading alternative denoising methods. 1.
Inpainting and zooming using sparse representations
 The Computer Journal
"... Representing the image to be inpainted in an appropriate sparse representation dictionary, and combining elements from Bayesian statistics and modern harmonic analysis, we introduce an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for image inpainting and interpolation. From a statistical point of view, t ..."
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Cited by 57 (9 self)
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Representing the image to be inpainted in an appropriate sparse representation dictionary, and combining elements from Bayesian statistics and modern harmonic analysis, we introduce an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for image inpainting and interpolation. From a statistical point of view, the inpainting/interpolation can be viewed as an estimation problem with missing data. Toward this goal, we propose the idea of using the EM mechanism in a Bayesian framework, where a sparsity promoting prior penalty is imposed on the reconstructed coefficients. The EM framework gives a principled way to establish formally the idea that missing samples can be recovered/ interpolated based on sparse representations. We first introduce an easy and efficient sparserepresentationbased iterative algorithm for image inpainting. Additionally, we derive its theoretical convergence properties. Compared to its competitors, this algorithm allows a high degree of flexibility to recover different structural components in the image (piecewise smooth, curvilinear, texture, etc.). We also suggest some guidelines to automatically tune the regularization parameter.
Solving Inverse Problems with Piecewise Linear Estimators: From Gaussian Mixture Models to Structured Sparsity
, 2010
"... A general framework for solving image inverse problems is introduced in this paper. The approach is based on Gaussian mixture models, estimated via a computationally efficient MAPEM algorithm. A dual mathematical interpretation of the proposed framework with structured sparse estimation is describe ..."
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Cited by 55 (8 self)
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A general framework for solving image inverse problems is introduced in this paper. The approach is based on Gaussian mixture models, estimated via a computationally efficient MAPEM algorithm. A dual mathematical interpretation of the proposed framework with structured sparse estimation is described, which shows that the resulting piecewise linear estimate stabilizes the estimation when compared to traditional sparse inverse problem techniques. This interpretation also suggests an effective dictionary motivated initialization for the MAPEM algorithm. We demonstrate that in a number of image inverse problems, including inpainting, zooming, and deblurring, the same algorithm produces either equal, often significantly better, or very small margin worse results than the best published ones, at a lower computational cost. 1 I.
Convergence analysis of tight framelet approach for missing data recovery
 Adv. Comput. Math. xx
"... How to recover missing data from an incomplete samples is a fundamental problem in mathematics and it has wide range of applications in image analysis and processing. Although many existing methods, e.g. various data smoothing methods and PDE approaches, are available in the literature, there is alw ..."
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Cited by 27 (13 self)
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How to recover missing data from an incomplete samples is a fundamental problem in mathematics and it has wide range of applications in image analysis and processing. Although many existing methods, e.g. various data smoothing methods and PDE approaches, are available in the literature, there is always a need to find new methods leading to the best solution according to various cost functionals. In this paper, we propose an iterative algorithm based on tight framelets for image recovery from incomplete observed data. The algorithm is motivated from our framelet algorithm used in highresolution image reconstruction and it exploits the redundance in tight framelet systems. We prove the convergence of the algorithm and also give its convergence factor. Furthermore, we derive the minimization properties of the algorithm and explore the roles of the redundancy of tight framelet systems. As an illustration of the effectiveness of the algorithm, we give an application of it in impulse noise removal. 1
Image modeling and enhancement via structured sparse model selection. Accepted to ICIP
, 2010
"... An image representation framework based on structured sparse model selection is introduced in this work. The corresponding modeling dictionary is comprised of a family of learned orthogonal bases. For an image patch, a model is first selected from this dictionary through linear approximation in a be ..."
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Cited by 21 (2 self)
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An image representation framework based on structured sparse model selection is introduced in this work. The corresponding modeling dictionary is comprised of a family of learned orthogonal bases. For an image patch, a model is first selected from this dictionary through linear approximation in a best basis, and the signal estimation is then calculated with the selected model. The model selection leads to a guaranteed near optimal denoising estimator. The degree of freedom in the model selection is equal to the number of the bases, typically about 10 for natural images, and is significantly lower than with traditional overcomplete dictionary approaches, stabilizing the representation. For an image patch of size √ N × √ N, the computational complexity of the proposed framework is O(N 2), typically 2 to 3 orders of magnitude faster than estimation in an overcomplete dictionary. The orthogonal bases are adapted to the image of interest and are computed with a simple and fast procedure. Stateoftheart results are shown in image denoising, deblurring, and inpainting. Index Terms — Model selection, structured sparsity, best basis, denoising, deblurring, inpainting 1.
Simultaneously Inpainting in Image and Transformed Domains
"... In this paper, we focus on the restoration of images that have incomplete data in either the image domain or the transformed domain or in both. The transform used can be any orthonormal or tight frame transforms such as orthonormal wavelets, tight framelets, the discrete Fourier transform, the Gabor ..."
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Cited by 15 (8 self)
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In this paper, we focus on the restoration of images that have incomplete data in either the image domain or the transformed domain or in both. The transform used can be any orthonormal or tight frame transforms such as orthonormal wavelets, tight framelets, the discrete Fourier transform, the Gabor transform, the discrete cosine transform, and the discrete local cosine transform. We propose an iterative algorithm that can restore the incomplete data in both domains simultaneously. We prove the convergence of the algorithm and derive the optimal properties of its limit. The algorithm generalizes, unifies, and simplifies the inpainting algorithm in image domains given in [8] and the inpainting algorithms in the transformed domains given in [7,16,19]. Finally, applications of the new algorithm to superresolution image reconstruction with different zooms are presented. 1
Patchbased Video Processing: a Variational Bayesian Approach
"... Abstract—In this paper, we present a patchbased variational Bayesian framework for video processing and demonstrate its potential in denoising, inpainting and deinterlacing. Unlike previous methods based on explicit motion estimation, we propose to embed motionrelated information into the relation ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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Abstract—In this paper, we present a patchbased variational Bayesian framework for video processing and demonstrate its potential in denoising, inpainting and deinterlacing. Unlike previous methods based on explicit motion estimation, we propose to embed motionrelated information into the relationship among video patches and develop a nonlocal sparsitybased prior for typical video sequences. Specifically, we first extend block matching (Nearest Neighbor search) into patch clustering (kNearestNeighbor search), which represents motion in an implicit and distributed fashion. Then we show how to exploit the sparsity constraint by sorting and packing similar patches, which can be better understood from a manifold perspective. Under the Bayesian framework, we treat both patch clustering result and unobservable data as latent variables and solve the inference problem via variational EM algorithms. A weighted averaging strategy of fusing diverse inference results from overlapped patches is also developed. The effectiveness of patchbased video models is demonstrated by extensive experimental results on a wider range of video materials. Index Terms—video processing, patchbased models, sparsitybased priors, variational Bayesian, variational EM, weighted averaging.