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77
Graphsatatime: Query Language and Access Methods for Graph Databases
, 2008
"... With the prevalence of graph data in a variety of domains, there is an increasing need for a language to query and manipulate graphs with heterogeneous attributes and structures. We propose a query language for graph databases that supports arbitrary attributes on nodes, edges, and graphs. In this l ..."
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Cited by 70 (0 self)
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With the prevalence of graph data in a variety of domains, there is an increasing need for a language to query and manipulate graphs with heterogeneous attributes and structures. We propose a query language for graph databases that supports arbitrary attributes on nodes, edges, and graphs. In this language, graphs are the basic unit of information and each query manipulates one or more collections of graphs. To allow for flexible compositions of graph structures, we extend the notion of formal languages from strings to the graph domain. We present a graph algebra extended from the relational algebra in which the selection operator is generalized to graph pattern matching and a composition operator is introduced for rewriting matched graphs. Then, we investigate access methods of the selection operator. Pattern matching over large graphs is challenging due to the NPcompleteness of subgraph isomorphism. We address this by a combination of techniques: use of neighborhood subgraphs and profiles, joint reduction of the search space, and optimization of the search order. Experimental results on real and synthetic large graphs demonstrate that our graph specific optimizations outperform an SQLbased implementation by orders of magnitude.
Mining significant graph patterns by leap search
 in SIGMOD ’08
"... With everincreasing amounts of graph data from disparate sources, there has been a strong need for exploiting significant graph patterns with userspecified objective functions. Most objective functions are not antimonotonic, which could fail all of frequencycentric graph mining algorithms. In thi ..."
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Cited by 69 (17 self)
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With everincreasing amounts of graph data from disparate sources, there has been a strong need for exploiting significant graph patterns with userspecified objective functions. Most objective functions are not antimonotonic, which could fail all of frequencycentric graph mining algorithms. In this paper, we give the first comprehensive study on general mining method aiming to find most significant patterns directly. Our new mining framework, called LEAP(Descending Leap Mine), is developed to exploit the correlation between structural similarity and significance similarity in a way that the most significant pattern could be identified quickly by searching dissimilar graph patterns. Two novel concepts, structural leap search and frequency descending mining, are proposed to support leap search in graph pattern space. Our new mining method revealed that the widely adopted branchandbound search in data mining literature is indeed not the best, thus sketching a new picture on scalable graph pattern discovery. Empirical results show that LEAP achieves orders of magnitude speedup in comparison with the stateoftheart method. Furthermore, graph classifiers built on mined patterns outperform the uptodate graph kernel method in terms of efficiency and accuracy, demonstrating the high promise of such patterns.
Taming Verification Hardness: An Efficient Algorithm for Testing Subgraph Isomorphism
"... Graphs are widely used to model complicated data semantics in many applications. In this paper, we aim to develop efficient techniques to retrieve graphs, containing a given query graph, from a large set of graphs. Considering the problem of testing subgraph isomorphism is generally NPhard, most of ..."
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Cited by 50 (9 self)
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Graphs are widely used to model complicated data semantics in many applications. In this paper, we aim to develop efficient techniques to retrieve graphs, containing a given query graph, from a large set of graphs. Considering the problem of testing subgraph isomorphism is generally NPhard, most of the existing techniques are based on the framework of filteringandverification to reduce the precise computation costs; consequently various novel featurebased indexes have been developed. While the existing techniques work well for small query graphs, the verification phase becomes a bottleneck when the query graph size increases. Motivated by this, in the paper we firstly propose a novel and efficient algorithm for testing subgraph isomorphism, QuickSI. Secondly, we develop a new featurebased index technique to accommodate QuickSI in the filtering phase. Our extensive experiments on real and synthetic data demonstrate the efficiency and scalability of the proposed techniques, which significantly improve the existing techniques. 1.
A novel spectral coding in a large graph database
 In Proceedings of the International Conference on Extending Database Technology
, 2008
"... Retrieving related graphs containing a query graph from a large graph database is a key issue in many graphbased applications, such as drug discovery and structural pattern recognition. Because subgraph isomorphism is a NPcomplete problem [4], we have to employ a filterandverification framework ..."
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Cited by 34 (2 self)
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Retrieving related graphs containing a query graph from a large graph database is a key issue in many graphbased applications, such as drug discovery and structural pattern recognition. Because subgraph isomorphism is a NPcomplete problem [4], we have to employ a filterandverification framework to speed up the search efficiency, that is, using an effective and efficient pruning strategy to filter out the false positives (graphs that are not possible in the results) as many as possible first, then validating the remaining candidates by subgraph isomorphism checking. In this paper, we propose a novel filtering method, a spectral encoding method, i.e. GCoding. Specifically, we assign a signature to each vertex based on its local structures. Then, we generate a spectral graph code by combining all vertex signatures in a graph. Based on spectral graph codes, we derive a necessary condition for subgraph isomorphism. Then we propose two pruning rules for subgraph search problem, and prove that they satisfy the nofalsenegative requirement (no dismissal in answers). Since graph codes are in numerical space, we take this advantage and conduct efficient filtering over graph codes. Extensive experiments show that GCoding outperforms existing counterpart methods. 1.
On Graph Query Optimization in Large Networks
"... The dramatic proliferation of sophisticated networks has resulted in a growing need for supporting effective querying and mining methods over such largescale graphstructured data. At the core of many advanced network operations lies a common and critical graph query primitive: how to search graph ..."
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Cited by 34 (3 self)
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The dramatic proliferation of sophisticated networks has resulted in a growing need for supporting effective querying and mining methods over such largescale graphstructured data. At the core of many advanced network operations lies a common and critical graph query primitive: how to search graph structures efficiently within a large network? Unfortunately, the graph query is hard due to the NPcomplete nature of subgraph isomorphism. It becomes even challenging when the network examined is large and diverse. In this paper, we present a high performance graph indexing mechanism, SPath, to address the graph query problem on large networks. SPath leverages decomposed shortest paths around vertex neighborhood as basic indexing units, which prove to be both effective in graph search space pruning and highly scalable in index construction and deployment. Via SPath, a graph query is processed and optimized beyond the traditional vertexatatime fashion to a more efficient pathatatime way: the query is first decomposed to a set of shortest paths, among which a subset of candidates with good selectivity is picked by a query plan optimizer; Candidate paths are further joined together to help recover the query graph to finalize the graph query processing. We evaluate SPath with the stateoftheart GraphQL on both real and synthetic data sets. Our experimental studies demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of SPath, which proves to be a more practical and efficient indexing method in addressing graph queries on large networks. 1.
Neighborhood based fast graph search in large networks
 in SIGMOD
, 2011
"... Complex social and information network search becomes important with a variety of applications. In the core of these applications, lies a common and critical problem: Given a labeled network and a query graph, how to efficiently search the query graph in the target network. The presence of noise a ..."
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Cited by 26 (1 self)
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Complex social and information network search becomes important with a variety of applications. In the core of these applications, lies a common and critical problem: Given a labeled network and a query graph, how to efficiently search the query graph in the target network. The presence of noise and the incomplete knowledge about the structure and content of the target network make it unrealistic to find an exact match. Rather, it is more appealing to find the topk approximate matches. In this paper, we propose a neighborhoodbased similarity measure that could avoid costly graph isomorphism and edit distance computation. Under this new measure, we prove that subgraph similarity search is NP hard, while graph similarity match is polynomial. By studying the principles behind this measure, we found an information propagation model that is able to convert a large net
GADDI: Distance index based subgraph matching in biological networks
 In Proceedings of the 12th international conference on extending database technology (EDBT’09
, 2009
"... Currently, a huge amount of biological data can be naturally represented by graphs, e.g., protein interaction networks, gene regulatory networks, etc. The need for indexing large graphs is an urgent research problem of great practical importance. The main challenge is size. Each graph may contain ..."
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Cited by 25 (2 self)
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Currently, a huge amount of biological data can be naturally represented by graphs, e.g., protein interaction networks, gene regulatory networks, etc. The need for indexing large graphs is an urgent research problem of great practical importance. The main challenge is size. Each graph may contain thousands (or more) vertices. Most of the previous work focuses on indexing a set of small or medium sized database graphs (with only tens of vertices) and finding whether a query graph occurs in any of these. In this paper, we are interested in finding all the matches of a query graph in a given large graph of thousands of vertices, which is a very important task in many biological applications. This increases the complexity significantly. We propose a novel distance measurement which reintroduces the idea of frequent substructures in a single large graph. We devise the novel structure distance based approach (GADDI) to efficiently find matches of the query graph. GADDI is further optimized by the use of a dynamic matching scheme to minimize redundant calculations. Last but not least, a number of real and synthetic data sets are used to evaluate the efficiency and scalability of our proposed method. 1.
Sapper: Subgraph indexing and approximate matching in large graphs
 PVLDB
"... ABSTRACT With the emergence of new applications, e.g., computational biology, new software engineering techniques, social networks, etc., more data is in the form of graphs. Locating occurrences of a query graph in a large database graph is an important research topic. Due to the existence of noise ..."
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Cited by 23 (0 self)
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ABSTRACT With the emergence of new applications, e.g., computational biology, new software engineering techniques, social networks, etc., more data is in the form of graphs. Locating occurrences of a query graph in a large database graph is an important research topic. Due to the existence of noise (e.g., missing edges) in the large database graph, we investigate the problem of approximate subgraph indexing, i.e., finding the occurrences of a query graph in a large database graph with (possible) missing edges. The SAPPER method is proposed to solve this problem. Utilizing the hybrid neighborhood unit structures in the index, SAPPER takes advantage of pregenerated random spanning trees and a carefully designed graph enumeration order. Real and synthetic data sets are employed to demonstrate the efficiency and scalability of our approximate subgraph indexing method.
Correlation Search in Graph Databases
 KDD'07
, 2007
"... Correlation mining has gained great success in many application domains for its ability to capture the underlying dependency between objects. However, the research of correlation mining from graph databases is still lacking despite the fact that graph data, especially in various scientific domains, ..."
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Cited by 20 (7 self)
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Correlation mining has gained great success in many application domains for its ability to capture the underlying dependency between objects. However, the research of correlation mining from graph databases is still lacking despite the fact that graph data, especially in various scientific domains, proliferate in recent years. In this paper, we propose a new problem of correlation mining from graph databases, called Correlated Graph Search (CGS). CGS adopts Pearson’s correlation coefficient as a correlation measure to take into consideration the occurrence distributions of graphs. However, the problem poses significant challenges, since every subgraph of a graph in the database is a candidate but the number of subgraphs is exponential. We derive two necessary conditions which set bounds on the occurrence probability of a candidate in the database. With this result, we design an efficient algorithm that operates on a much smaller projected database and thus we are able to obtain a significantly smaller set of candidates. To further improve the efficiency, we develop three heuristic rules and apply them on the candidate set to further reduce the search space. Our extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on candidate reduction. The results also justify the efficiency of our algorithm in mining correlations from large real and synthetic datasets.
On Incremental Maintenance of 2hop Labeling of Graphs
, 2008
"... ... other topics, have sparked a renewed interest on graphstructured databases. A fundamental query on graphs is the reachability test of nodes. Recently, 2hop labeling has been proposed to index large collections of XML and/or graphs for efficient reachability tests. However, there has been few w ..."
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Cited by 15 (0 self)
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... other topics, have sparked a renewed interest on graphstructured databases. A fundamental query on graphs is the reachability test of nodes. Recently, 2hop labeling has been proposed to index large collections of XML and/or graphs for efficient reachability tests. However, there has been few work on updates of 2hop labeling. This is compounded by the fact that Web data changes over time. In response to these, this paper studies the incremental maintenance of 2hop labeling. We identify the main reason for the inefficiency of updates of existing 2hop labels. We propose two updatable 2hop labelings, hybrids of 2hop labeling, and their incremental maintenance algorithms. The proposed 2hop labeling is derived from graph connectivities, as opposed to SET COVER which is used by all previous work. Our experimental evaluation illustrates the space efficiency and update performance of various kinds of 2hop labeling. The main conclusion is that there is a natural way to spare some index size for update performance in 2hop labeling.