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318
The Node Distribution of the Random Waypoint Mobility Model for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
, 2003
"... The random waypoint model is a commonly used mobility model in the simulation of ad hoc networks. It is known that the spatial distribution of network nodes moving according to this model is, in general, nonuniform. However, a closedform expression of this distribution and an indepth investigation ..."
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Cited by 377 (10 self)
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The random waypoint model is a commonly used mobility model in the simulation of ad hoc networks. It is known that the spatial distribution of network nodes moving according to this model is, in general, nonuniform. However, a closedform expression of this distribution and an indepth investigation is still missing. This fact impairs the accuracy of the current simulation methodology of ad hoc networks and makes it impossible to relate simulationbased performance results to corresponding analytical results. To overcome these problems, we present a detailed analytical study of the spatial node distribution generated by random waypoint mobility. More specifically, we consider a generalization of the model in which the pause time of the mobile nodes is chosen arbitrarily in each waypoint and a fraction of nodes may remain static for the entire simulation time. We show that the structure of the resulting distribution is the weighted sum of three independent components: the static, pause, and mobility component. This division enables us to understand how the models parameters influence the distribution. We derive an exact equation of the asymptotically stationary distribution for movement on a line segment and an accurate approximation for a square area. The good quality of this approximation is validated through simulations using various settings of the mobility parameters. In summary, this article gives a fundamental understanding of the behavior of the random waypoint model.
Geographic random forwarding (GeRaF) for ad hoc and sensor networks: Energy and latency performance
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING
, 2003
"... In this paper, we study a novel forwarding technique based on geographical location of the nodes involved and random selection of the relaying node via contention among receivers. We provide a detailed description of a MAC scheme based on these concepts and on collision avoidance and report on its e ..."
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Cited by 368 (15 self)
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In this paper, we study a novel forwarding technique based on geographical location of the nodes involved and random selection of the relaying node via contention among receivers. We provide a detailed description of a MAC scheme based on these concepts and on collision avoidance and report on its energy and latency performance. A simplified analysis is given first, some relevant trade offs are highlighted, and parameter optimization is pursued. Further, a semiMarkov model is developed which provides a more accurate performance evaluation. Simulation results supporting the validity of our analytical approach are also provided.
Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 2005
"... Topology Control (TC) is one of the most important techniques used in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks to reduce energy consumption (which is essential to extend the network operational time) and radio interference (with a positive effect on the network traffic carrying capacity). The goal of thi ..."
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Cited by 304 (4 self)
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Topology Control (TC) is one of the most important techniques used in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks to reduce energy consumption (which is essential to extend the network operational time) and radio interference (with a positive effect on the network traffic carrying capacity). The goal of this technique is to control the topology of the graph representing the communication links between network nodes with the purpose of maintaining some global graph property (e.g., connectivity), while reducing energy consumption and/or interference that are strictly related to the nodes ’ transmitting range. In this article, we state several problems related to topology control in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, and we survey stateoftheart solutions which have been proposed to tackle them. We also outline several directions for further research which we hope will motivate researchers to undertake additional studies in this field.
Impact of Interferences on Connectivity in Ad Hoc Networks
 in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM
, 2003
"... We study the impact of interferences on the connectivity of largescale adhoc networks, using percolation theory. We assume that a bidirectional connection can be set up between two nodes if the signal to noise ratio at the receiver is larger than some threshold. The noise is the sum of the contri ..."
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Cited by 156 (13 self)
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We study the impact of interferences on the connectivity of largescale adhoc networks, using percolation theory. We assume that a bidirectional connection can be set up between two nodes if the signal to noise ratio at the receiver is larger than some threshold. The noise is the sum of the contribution of interferences from all other nodes, weighted by a coefficient gamma, and of a background noise. We find that there is a critical value of gamma above which the network is made of disconnected clusters of nodes. We also prove that if gamma is non zero but small enough, there exist node spatial densities for which the network contains a large (theoretically infinite) cluster of nodes, enabling distant nodes to communicate in multiple hops. Since small values of gamma cannot be achieved without efficient CDMA codes, we investigate the use of a very simple TDMA scheme, where nodes can emit only every nth time slot. We show qualitatively that it even achieves a better connectivity than the previous system with a parameter gamma/n.
The Critical Transmitting Range for Connectivity in Sparse Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
, 2003
"... In this paper, we analyze the critical transmitting range for connectivity in wireless ad hoc networks. More specifically, we consider the following problem: assume n nodes, each capable of communicating with nodes within a radius of r, are randomly and uniformly distributed in a ddimensional re ..."
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Cited by 149 (12 self)
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In this paper, we analyze the critical transmitting range for connectivity in wireless ad hoc networks. More specifically, we consider the following problem: assume n nodes, each capable of communicating with nodes within a radius of r, are randomly and uniformly distributed in a ddimensional region with a side of length l; how large must the transmitting range r be to ensure that the resulting network is connected with high probability? First, we consider this problem for stationary networks, and we provide tight upper and lower bounds on the critical transmitting range for onedimensional networks, and nontight bounds for two and threedimensional networks. Due to the presence of the geometric parameter l in the model, our results can be applied to dense as well as sparse ad hoc networks, contrary to existing theoretical results that apply only to dense networks. We also investigate several related questions through extensive simulations. First, we evaluate the relationship between the critical transmitting range and the minimum transmitting range that ensures formation of a connected component containing a large fraction (e.g. 90%) of the nodes. Then, we consider the mobile version of the
Connectivity of wireless multihop networks in a shadow fading environment
, 2003
"... Authors ’ preprint of an article accepted for ACM/Kluwer Wireless Networks, special issue on selected papers from ACM MSWiM 2003, to be published 2005. Abstract. This article analyzes the connectivity of multihop radio networks in a lognormal shadow fading environment. Assuming the nodes have equal ..."
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Cited by 146 (6 self)
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Authors ’ preprint of an article accepted for ACM/Kluwer Wireless Networks, special issue on selected papers from ACM MSWiM 2003, to be published 2005. Abstract. This article analyzes the connectivity of multihop radio networks in a lognormal shadow fading environment. Assuming the nodes have equal transmission capabilities and are randomly distributed according to a homogeneous Poisson process, we give a tight lower bound for the minimum node density that is necessary to obtain an almost surely connected subnetwork on a bounded area of given size. We derive an explicit expression for this bound, compute it in a variety of scenarios, and verify its tightness by simulation. The numerical results can be used for the practical design and simulation of wireless sensor and ad hoc networks. In addition, they give insight into how fading affects the topology of multihop networks. It is explained why a high fading variance helps the network to become connected.
Exploiting Mobility for Energy Efficient Data Collection
 in Sensor Networks,‖ Mobile Networks and Applications
, 2006
"... Abstract. We analyze an architecture based on mobility to address the problem of energy efficient data collection in a sensor network. Our approach exploits mobile nodes present in the sensor field as forwarding agents. As a mobile node moves in close proximity to sensors, data is transferred to the ..."
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Cited by 113 (1 self)
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Abstract. We analyze an architecture based on mobility to address the problem of energy efficient data collection in a sensor network. Our approach exploits mobile nodes present in the sensor field as forwarding agents. As a mobile node moves in close proximity to sensors, data is transferred to the mobile node for later depositing at the destination. We present an analytical model to understand the key performance metrics such as data transfer, latency to the destination, and power. Parameters for our model include: sensor buffer size, data generation rate, radio characteristics, and mobility patterns of mobile nodes. Through simulation we verify our model and show that our approach can provide substantial savings in energy as compared to the traditional adhoc network approach.
Wireless sensor networks: A survey on the state of the art and the 802.15.4 and ZigBee standards
, 2007
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A Topology Control Approach for Utilizing Multiple Channels in MultiRadio Wireless Mesh Networks
 In Proc. IEEE International Conference on Broadband Networks (BroadNets
, 2005
"... We consider the channel assignment problem in a multiradio wireless mesh network that involves assigning channels to radio interfaces for achieving efficient channel utilization. We present a graphtheoretic formulation of the channel assignment guided by a novel topology control perspective, and s ..."
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Cited by 102 (3 self)
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We consider the channel assignment problem in a multiradio wireless mesh network that involves assigning channels to radio interfaces for achieving efficient channel utilization. We present a graphtheoretic formulation of the channel assignment guided by a novel topology control perspective, and show that the resulting optimization problem is NPcomplete. We also present an ILP formulation that is used for obtaining a lower bound for the optimum. We then develop a new greedy heuristic channel assignment algorithm (termed CLICA) for finding connected, low interference topologies by utilizing multiple channels. Our evaluations show that the proposed CLICA algorithm exhibits similar behavior and comparable performance relative to the optimum bound with respect to interference and capacity measures. Moreover, our extensive simulation studies show that it can provide a large reduction in interference even with a small number of radios per node, which in turn leads to significant gains in both link layer and multihop performance in 802.11based multiradio mesh networks.