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50
A brief history of process algebra
 THEOR. COMPUT. SCI
, 2004
"... This note addresses the history of process algebra as an area of research in concurrency theory, the theory of parallel and distributed systems in computer science. Origins are traced back to the early seventies of the twentieth century, and developments since that time are sketched. The author giv ..."
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Cited by 84 (1 self)
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This note addresses the history of process algebra as an area of research in concurrency theory, the theory of parallel and distributed systems in computer science. Origins are traced back to the early seventies of the twentieth century, and developments since that time are sketched. The author gives his personal views on these matters. He also considers the present situation, and states some challenges for the future.
Metrics for Labelled Markov Processes
, 2003
"... The notion of process equivalence of probabilistic processes is sensitive to the exact probabilities of transitions. Thus, a slight change in the transition probabilities will result in two equivalent processes being deemed no longer equivalent. This instability is due to the quantitative nature ..."
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Cited by 74 (14 self)
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The notion of process equivalence of probabilistic processes is sensitive to the exact probabilities of transitions. Thus, a slight change in the transition probabilities will result in two equivalent processes being deemed no longer equivalent. This instability is due to the quantitative nature of probabilistic processes. In a situation where the process behaviour has a quantitative aspect there should be a more robust approach to process equivalence. This paper studies a metric between labelled Markov processes. This metric has the property that processes are at zero distance if and only if they are bisimilar. The metric is inspired by earlier work on logics for characterizing bisimulation and is related, in spirit, to the Kantorovich metric.
Discounting the future in systems theory
 In Automata, Languages, and Programming, LNCS 2719
, 2003
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Better quality in synthesis through quantitative objectives
 In CoRR, abs/0904.2638
, 2009
"... Abstract. Most specification languages express only qualitative constraints. However, among two implementations that satisfy a given specification, one may be preferred to another. For example, if a specification asks that every request is followed by a response, one may prefer an implementation tha ..."
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Cited by 57 (18 self)
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Abstract. Most specification languages express only qualitative constraints. However, among two implementations that satisfy a given specification, one may be preferred to another. For example, if a specification asks that every request is followed by a response, one may prefer an implementation that generates responses quickly but does not generate unnecessary responses. We use quantitative properties to measure the “goodness ” of an implementation. Using games with corresponding quantitative objectives, we can synthesize “optimal ” implementations, which are preferred among the set of possible implementations that satisfy a given specification. In particular, we show how automata with lexicographic meanpayoff conditions can be used to express many interesting quantitative properties for reactive systems. In this framework, the synthesis of optimal implementations requires the solution of lexicographic meanpayoff games (for safety requirements), and the solution of games with both lexicographic meanpayoff and parity objectives (for liveness requirements). We present algorithms for solving both kinds of novel graph games. 1
Continuous Stochastic Logic Characterizes Bisimulation of Continuoustime Markov Processes
 J. of Logic and Alg. Progr
, 2002
"... In a recent paper Baier, Haverkort, Hermanns and Katoen [BHHK00], analyzed a new way of modelchecking formulas of a logic for continuoustime processes  called Continuous Stochastic Logic (henceforth CSL) { against continuoustime Markov chains { henceforth CTMCs. One of the important results o ..."
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Cited by 31 (3 self)
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In a recent paper Baier, Haverkort, Hermanns and Katoen [BHHK00], analyzed a new way of modelchecking formulas of a logic for continuoustime processes  called Continuous Stochastic Logic (henceforth CSL) { against continuoustime Markov chains { henceforth CTMCs. One of the important results of that paper was the proof that if two CTMCs were bisimilar then they would satisfy exactly the same formulas of CSL. This raises the converse question { does satisfaction of the same collection of CSL formulas imply bisimilarity? In other words, given two CTMCs which are known to satisfy exactly the same formulas of CSL does it have to be the case that they are bisimilar? We prove that the answer to the question just raised is \yes". In fact we prove a signi cant extension, namely that a subset of CSL suces even for systems where the statespace may be a continuum. Along the way we prove a result to the eect that the set of Zeno paths has measure zero provided that the transition rates are bounded.
Linear and Branching Metrics for Quantitative Transition Systems
 In Proceedings of the 31st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming
, 2004
"... We extend the basic system relations of trace inclusion, trace equivalence, simulation, and bisimulation to a quantitative setting in which propositions are interpreted not as boolean values, but as real values in the interval [0; 1]. Trace inclusion and equivalence give rise to asymmetrical and ..."
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Cited by 27 (2 self)
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We extend the basic system relations of trace inclusion, trace equivalence, simulation, and bisimulation to a quantitative setting in which propositions are interpreted not as boolean values, but as real values in the interval [0; 1]. Trace inclusion and equivalence give rise to asymmetrical and symmetrical linear distances, while simulation and bisimulation give rise to asymmetrical and symmetrical branching distances. We study the relationships among these distances, and we provide a full logical characterization of the distances in terms of quantitative versions of LTL and calculus. We show that, while trace inclusion (resp. equivalence) coincides with simulation (resp. bisimulation) for deterministic boolean transition systems, linear and branching distances do not coincide for deterministic quantitative transition systems. Finally, we provide algorithms for computing the distances, together with matching lower and upper complexity bounds.
Measuring and synthesizing systems in probabilistic environments
 CoRR
"... Abstract. Often one has a preference order among the different systems that satisfy a given specification. Under a probabilistic assumption about the possible inputs, such a preference order is naturally expressed by a weighted automaton, which assigns to each word a value, such that a system is pre ..."
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Cited by 22 (11 self)
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Abstract. Often one has a preference order among the different systems that satisfy a given specification. Under a probabilistic assumption about the possible inputs, such a preference order is naturally expressed by a weighted automaton, which assigns to each word a value, such that a system is preferred if it generates a higher expected value. We solve the following optimalsynthesis problem: given an omegaregular specification, a Markov chain that describes the distribution of inputs, and a weighted automaton that measures how well a system satisfies the given specification under the given input assumption, synthesize a system that optimizes the measured value. For safety specifications and measures that are defined by meanpayoff automata, the optimalsynthesis problem amounts to finding a strategy in a Markov decision process (MDP) that is optimal for a longrun average reward objective, which can be done in polynomial time. For general omegaregular specifications, the solution rests on a new, polynomialtime algorithm for computing optimal strategies in MDPs with meanpayoff parity objectives. We present some experimental results showing optimal systems that were automatically generated in this way. 1
The probabilistic powerdomain for stably compact spaces
 Theoretical Computer Science
"... This paper reviews the onetoone correspondence between stably compact spaces (a topological concept covering most classes of semantic domains) and compact ordered Hausdorff spaces. The correspondence is extended to certain classes of realvalued functions on these spaces. This is the basis for tra ..."
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Cited by 20 (2 self)
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This paper reviews the onetoone correspondence between stably compact spaces (a topological concept covering most classes of semantic domains) and compact ordered Hausdorff spaces. The correspondence is extended to certain classes of realvalued functions on these spaces. This is the basis for transferring methods and results from functional analysis to the nonHausdorff setting. As an application of this, the Riesz Representation Theorem is used for a straightforward proof of the (known) fact that every valuation on a stably compact space extends uniquely to a Radon measure on the Borel algebra of the corresponding compact Hausdorff space. The view of valuations and measures as certain linear functionals on function spaces suggests considering a weak topology for the space of all valuations. If these are restricted to the probabilistic or subprobabilistic case, then another stably compact space is obtained. The corresponding compact ordered space can be viewed as the set of (probability or subprobability) measures together with their natural weak topology. 1
An Intrinsic Characterization of Approximate Probabilistic Bisimilarity
 In: Proceedings of FOSSACS 03. LNCS
, 2003
"... Abstract. In previous work we have investigated a notion of approximate bisimilarity for labelled Markov processes. We argued that such a notion is more realistic and more feasible to compute than (exact) bisimilarity. The main technical tool used in the underlying theory was the Hutchinson metric o ..."
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Abstract. In previous work we have investigated a notion of approximate bisimilarity for labelled Markov processes. We argued that such a notion is more realistic and more feasible to compute than (exact) bisimilarity. The main technical tool used in the underlying theory was the Hutchinson metric on probability measures. This paper gives a more fundamental characterization of approximate bisimilarity in terms of the notion of (exact) similarity. In particular, we show that the topology of approximate bisimilarity is the Lawson topology with respect to the simulation preorder. To complement this abstract characterization we give a statistical account of similarity, and by extension, of approximate bisimilarity, in terms of the process testing formalism of Larsen and Skou. 1
Metrics for Markov Decision Processes with Infinite State Spaces
, 2005
"... We present metrics for measuring state similarity in Markov decision processes (MDPs) with infinitely many states, including MDPs with continuous state spaces. Such metrics provide a stable quantitative analogue of the notion of bisimulation for MDPs, and are suitable for use in MDP approximation. W ..."
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Cited by 15 (4 self)
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We present metrics for measuring state similarity in Markov decision processes (MDPs) with infinitely many states, including MDPs with continuous state spaces. Such metrics provide a stable quantitative analogue of the notion of bisimulation for MDPs, and are suitable for use in MDP approximation. We show that the optimal value function associated with a discounted infinite horizon planning task varies continuously with respect to our metric distances.