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17
A survey of the marching cubes algorithm
, 2006
"... A survey of the development of the marching cubes algorithm [W. Lorensen, H. Cline, Marching cubes: a high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm. Computer Graphics 1987; 21(4):163–9], a wellknown cellbycell method for extraction of isosurfaces from scalar volumetric data sets, is presented ..."
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Cited by 45 (0 self)
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A survey of the development of the marching cubes algorithm [W. Lorensen, H. Cline, Marching cubes: a high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm. Computer Graphics 1987; 21(4):163–9], a wellknown cellbycell method for extraction of isosurfaces from scalar volumetric data sets, is presented. The paper’s primary aim is to survey the development of the algorithm and its computational properties, extensions, and limitations (including the attempts to resolve its limitations). A rich body of publications related to this aim are included. Representative applications and spinoff work are also considered and related techniques are briefly discussed.
Multifragment effects on the gpu using the kbuffer
 In ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games
, 2007
"... Figure 1: Example effects using the kbuffer for multifragment processing. The Lucy model (28,055,742 triangles) is rendered with transparency on the left and with translucency on the right. These effects captured 8 fragments per pixel in a single geometry pass and were rendered with a current hard ..."
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Cited by 24 (2 self)
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Figure 1: Example effects using the kbuffer for multifragment processing. The Lucy model (28,055,742 triangles) is rendered with transparency on the left and with translucency on the right. These effects captured 8 fragments per pixel in a single geometry pass and were rendered with a current hardware implementation that avoids readmodifywrite hazards. With our proposed extension to hardware, these hazards can be automatically avoided and performance improved. Many interactive rendering algorithms require operations on multiple fragments (i.e., ray intersections) at the same pixel location; however, current Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) capture only a single fragment per pixel. Example effects include transparency, translucency, constructive solid geometry, depthoffield, direct volume rendering, and isosurface visualization. With current GPUs, programmers implement these effects using multiple passes over the scene geometry, often substantially limiting performance. This paper introduces a generalization of the Zbuffer, called the kbuffer, that makes it possible to efficiently implement such algorithms with only a single geometry pass, yet requires only a small, fixed amount of additional memory. The kbuffer uses framebuffer memory as a readmodifywrite (RMW) pool of k entries whose use is programmatically defined by a small kbuffer program. We present two proposals for adding kbuffer support to future GPUs and demonstrate numerous multiplefragment, singlepass graphics algorithms running on both a softwaresimulated kbuffer and a kbuffer implemented with current GPUs. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the large number of graphics algorithms that the kbuffer enables and that the efficiency is superior to current multipass approaches.
Coherent Multiresolution Isosurface Ray Tracing
, 2007
"... We implement and evaluate a fast ray tracing method for rendering large structured volumes. Input data is compressed into an octree, enabling residency in CPU main memory. We cast packets of coherent rays through a min/max acceleration structure within the octree, employing a slicebased technique ..."
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Cited by 16 (8 self)
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We implement and evaluate a fast ray tracing method for rendering large structured volumes. Input data is compressed into an octree, enabling residency in CPU main memory. We cast packets of coherent rays through a min/max acceleration structure within the octree, employing a slicebased technique to amortize the higher cost of compressed data access. By employing a multiresolution level of detail scheme in conjunction with packets, coherent ray tracing can efficiently render inherently incoherent scenes of complex data. We achieve higher performance with lesser footprint than previous isosurface ray tracers, and deliver large frame buffers, smooth gradient normals and shadows at relatively lesser cost. In this context, we weigh the strengths of coherent ray tracing against those of the conventional singleray approach.
Edge transformations for improving mesh quality of marching cubes
 IEEE TVCG
"... Abstract—Marching Cubes is a popular choice for isosurface extraction from regular grids due to its simplicity, robustness, and efficiency. One of the key shortcomings of this approach is the quality of the resulting meshes, which tend to have many poorly shaped and degenerate triangles. This issue ..."
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Cited by 15 (5 self)
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Abstract—Marching Cubes is a popular choice for isosurface extraction from regular grids due to its simplicity, robustness, and efficiency. One of the key shortcomings of this approach is the quality of the resulting meshes, which tend to have many poorly shaped and degenerate triangles. This issue is often addressed through postprocessing operations such as smoothing. As we demonstrate in experiments with several data sets, while these improve the mesh, they do not remove all degeneracies and incur an increased and unbounded error between the resulting mesh and the original isosurface. Rather than modifying the resulting mesh, we propose a method to modify the grid on which Marching Cubes operates. This modification greatly increases the quality of the extracted mesh. In our experiments, our method did not create a single degenerate triangle, unlike any other method we experimented with. Our method incurs minimal computational overhead, requiring at most twice the execution time of the original Marching Cubes algorithm in our experiments. Most importantly, it can be readily integrated in existing Marching Cubes implementations and is orthogonal to many Marching Cubes enhancements (particularly, performance enhancements such as outofcore and acceleration structures). Index Terms—Meshing, marching cubes. Ç 1
Hardwareaccelerated Extraction and Rendering of Point Set Surfaces
, 2006
"... Pointbased models are gaining lately considerable attention as an alternative to traditional surface meshes. In this context, Point Set Surfaces (PSS) were proposed as a modeling and rendering method with important topological and approximation properties. However, raytracing PSS is computationall ..."
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Cited by 7 (4 self)
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Pointbased models are gaining lately considerable attention as an alternative to traditional surface meshes. In this context, Point Set Surfaces (PSS) were proposed as a modeling and rendering method with important topological and approximation properties. However, raytracing PSS is computationally expensive. Therefore, we propose an interactive raytracing algorithm for PSS implemented completely on commodity graphics hardware. We also exploit the advantages of PSS to propose a novel technique for extracting surfaces directly from volumetric data. This technique is based on the well known predictorcorrector principle from the numerical methods for solving ordinary differential equations. Our technique provides good approximations to surfaces defined by a certain property in the volume, such as isosurfaces or surfaces located at regions of high gradient magnitude. Also, local details of the surfaces could be manipulated by changing the local polynomial approximation and the smoothing parameters used. Furthermore, the surfaces generated are smooth and low frequency noise is naturally handled.
Isosurface extraction and spatial filtering using persistent octree
 In IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
, 2006
"... Abstract — We propose a novel Persistent OcTree (POT) indexing structure for accelerating isosurface extraction and spatial filtering from volumetric data. This data structure efficiently handles a wide range of visualization problems such as the generation of viewdependent isosurfaces, ray tracing, ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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Abstract — We propose a novel Persistent OcTree (POT) indexing structure for accelerating isosurface extraction and spatial filtering from volumetric data. This data structure efficiently handles a wide range of visualization problems such as the generation of viewdependent isosurfaces, ray tracing, and isocontour slicing for high dimensional data. POT can be viewed as a hybrid data structure between the interval tree and the BranchOnNeed Octree (BONO) in the sense that it achieves the asymptotic bound of the interval tree for identifying the active cells corresponding to an isosurface and is more efficient than BONO for handling spatial queries. We encode a compact octree for each isovalue. Each such octree contains only the corresponding active cells, in such a way that the combined structure has linear space. The inherent hierarchical structure associated with the active cells enables very fast filtering of the active cells based on spatial constraints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by performing viewdependent isosurfacing on a wide variety of volumetric data sets and 4D isocontour slicing on the timevarying RichtmyerMeshkov instability dataset. Index Terms—scientific visualization, isosurface extraction, indexing. 1
Isosurface Generation for LargeScale Scattered Data Visualization
"... We present an isosurface generation algorithm for largescale volumetric scattered data. Rather than construct a global tessellation of the data points, we define a set of local tetrahedrizations that are guaranteed to cover the domain. Inside each local tetrahedrization, a pointbased isosurface co ..."
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Cited by 6 (1 self)
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We present an isosurface generation algorithm for largescale volumetric scattered data. Rather than construct a global tessellation of the data points, we define a set of local tetrahedrizations that are guaranteed to cover the domain. Inside each local tetrahedrization, a pointbased isosurface contouring algorithm is applied to generate isosurface geometry. Our work differs from previous work in that we make very few assumptions about the density of the point distribution, and we construct visual representations of the data directly without global tessellation or resampling. The merit of such an approach is a fairly general method that produces faithful renderings of largescale scientific data.
Combining Point Clouds and Volume Objects in Volume Scene Graphs
, 2005
"... This paper describes an extension to the technical framework of Constructive Volume Geometry (CVG) in order to accommodate point clouds in volume scene graphs. It introduces the notion of pointbased volume object (PBVO) that is characterized by the opacity, rather than the geometry, of a point clou ..."
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Cited by 4 (3 self)
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This paper describes an extension to the technical framework of Constructive Volume Geometry (CVG) in order to accommodate point clouds in volume scene graphs. It introduces the notion of pointbased volume object (PBVO) that is characterized by the opacity, rather than the geometry, of a point cloud. It examines and compares several radial basis functions (RBFs), including the one proposed in this paper, for constructing scalar fields from point clouds. It applies basic CVG operators to PBVOs and demonstrates the interoperability of PBVOs with conventional volume objects including those procedurally defined and those constructed from volume datasets. It presents an octreebased algorithm for reducing the complexity in rendering a PBVO with a large number of points, and a set of testing results showing a significant speedup when an octree is deployed for rendering PBVOs.
Worldspace sample caching for efficient ray tracing of highly complex scenes
, 2006
"... Ray traced images of geometrically and optically highly complex natural environments: All scenes contain massive amounts of geometry (more than 1.5 billion triangles). Caching samples onthefly in worldspace spatial index structures that are already present for efficient ray tracing allows for eff ..."
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Cited by 1 (0 self)
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Ray traced images of geometrically and optically highly complex natural environments: All scenes contain massive amounts of geometry (more than 1.5 billion triangles). Caching samples onthefly in worldspace spatial index structures that are already present for efficient ray tracing allows for efficiently reusing samples without any precomputation, and thus significantly increasing image quality as well as rendering performance in both offline and online applications. Ray tracing is known for its photorealistic image quality and logarithmic scalability with scene size. In particular, ray tracing is considered output sensitive and only weakly dependent on scene complexity, because only (indirectly) visible parts of the scene are considered in the computations. However, ray tracing is still tightly coupled to the complexity of the visible parts of the scene, including their geometric complexity, which might require high oversampling to avoid spatial and temporal aliasing. Additionally, photorealistic images often require highly complex and costly shading and lighting computations that can dramatically increase the cost of each ray. We propose a novel worldspace sample cache that leverages spatial index structures already present for ray tracing for temporarily storing the results of expensive visibility, shading, and illumination computations. By creating and adaptively updating the cache during rendering, no preprocessing is required. Reusing these samples in later frames minimizes these costly computations, and allows for significantly increasing image quality as well as rendering performance in both offline and interactive applications.
1 MultiFragment Effects on the GPU using the kBuffer
, 2006
"... Many interactive rendering algorithms require operations on multiple fragments (i.e., ray intersections) at the same pixel location; however, current Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) capture only a single fragment per pixel. Example effects include transparency, translucency, constructive solid geom ..."
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Many interactive rendering algorithms require operations on multiple fragments (i.e., ray intersections) at the same pixel location; however, current Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) capture only a single fragment per pixel. Example effects include transparency, translucency, constructive solid geometry, depthoffield, direct volume rendering, and isosurface visualization. With current GPUs, programmers implement these effects using multiple passes over the scene geometry, often substantially limiting performance. This paper introduces a generalization of the Zbuffer, called the kbuffer, that makes it possible to efficiently implement such algorithms with only a single geometry pass, yet requires only a small, fixed amount of additional memory. The kbuffer uses framebuffer memory as a readmodifywrite (RMW) pool of k entries whose use is programmatically defined by a small kbuffer program. We present two proposals for adding kbuffer support to future GPUs and demonstrate numerous multiplefragment, singlepass graphics algorithms running on both a softwaresimulated kbuffer and a kbuffer implemented with current GPUs. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the large number of graphics algorithms that the kbuffer enables and that the efficiency is superior to current multipass approaches. MultiFragment Effects on the GPU using the kBuffer