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Mechanical stresses produced by a light beam
 J. Modern Optics
, 2008
"... A circularly polarized electromagnetic beam is considered, which is absorbed by a plane, and the mechanical stress produced in the plane by the beam is calculated. It is shown that the central part of the beam produces a torque at the central region of the plane due to the spin of the beam, and the ..."
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A circularly polarized electromagnetic beam is considered, which is absorbed by a plane, and the mechanical stress produced in the plane by the beam is calculated. It is shown that the central part of the beam produces a torque at the central region of the plane due to the spin of the beam, and the wall of the beam produces an additional torque due to orbital angular momentum of the beam. The total torque acting on the plane equals twice the power of the beam divided by the frequency. This fact contradicts the standard electrodynamics, which predicts the torque equals power of the beam divided by frequency, and means the electrodynamics, as well as the whole classical field theory, is incomplete. Introducing the spin tensor corrects the electrodynamics.
Spin is not a moment of momentum
"... Unambiguous definitions of energymomentum and spin tensors are cited. It is shown that moment of momentum (i.e. angular momentum) and spin are different concepts, but spin is absent in the modern classical electrodynamics. Nevertheless, angular momentum and spin of a rotating dipole radiation is ca ..."
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Unambiguous definitions of energymomentum and spin tensors are cited. It is shown that moment of momentum (i.e. angular momentum) and spin are different concepts, but spin is absent in the modern classical electrodynamics. Nevertheless, angular momentum and spin of a rotating dipole radiation is calculated. We notice Jackson’s and Becker’s mistakes, which convinced them of the similarity between spin and angular momentum, and we show that the equality between these concepts is false. PACS numbers:75.10.Hk, 41.20.Jb
The change
, 2001
"... F. V. Gubarev et al. [4] have argued that the minimum value of the volume integral of the vector potential squared may have physical meaning, in defiance of the equivalence of potentials which are connected by the gauge transformations. Earlier, R. I. Khrapko proposed a gauge noninvariant electrodyn ..."
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F. V. Gubarev et al. [4] have argued that the minimum value of the volume integral of the vector potential squared may have physical meaning, in defiance of the equivalence of potentials which are connected by the gauge transformations. Earlier, R. I. Khrapko proposed a gauge noninvariant electrodynamics spin tensor [1]. The standard electrodynamics spin tensor is zero. Here we point out that the BiotSavarat formula uniquely results in a preferred, “true ” vector potential field which is generated from a given magnetic field. A similar integral formula uniquely permits to find a “true ” scalar potential field generated from a given electric field even in the case of a nonpotential electric field. A conception of differential forms is used. We say that an exterior derivative of a form is the boundary of this form and the integration of a form by the BiotSavarattype formula results in a new form named the generation. Generating from a generation yields zero. The boundary of a boundary is zero. A boundary is closed. A generation is sterile. A conjugation is considered. The conjugation converts closed forms to sterile forms and back. It permits to construct chains of forms. The conjunction differs from the Hodge star operation: the conjugation does not imply the dualization. A circularly polarized wave is considered in view of the electrodynamics spin tensor problem. 1. The gauge equivalence of differential forms It is obvious that in a static case we can add a constant φ0 to an electric scalar potential φ and we can add a gradient ∂if to a magnetic vector potential Ai without changing the corresponding electric Ei and magnetic Bij fields. Indeed,