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Structural Operational Semantics
 Handbook of Process Algebra
, 1999
"... Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) provides a framework to give an operational semantics to programming and specification languages, which, because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, has found considerable application in the theory of concurrent processes. Even though SOS is widely use ..."
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Cited by 152 (20 self)
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Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) provides a framework to give an operational semantics to programming and specification languages, which, because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, has found considerable application in the theory of concurrent processes. Even though SOS is widely used in programming language semantics at large, some of its most interesting theoretical developments have taken place within concurrency theory. In particular, SOS has been successfully applied as a formal tool to establish results that hold for whole classes of process description languages. The concept of rule format has played a major role in the development of this general theory of process description languages, and several such formats have been proposed in the research literature. This chapter presents an exposition of existing rule formats, and of the rich body of results that are guaranteed to hold for any process description language whose SOS is within one of these formats. As far as possible, the theory is developed for SOS with features like predicates and negative premises.
The Algebra of Timed Processes ATP: Theory and Application
 INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION
, 1994
"... We study a process algebra ATP for the description and analysis of systems of timed processes. An important feature of the algebra is that its vocabulary of actions contains a distinguished element . An occurrence of is a time event representing progress of time. The algebra has, apart from standar ..."
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Cited by 127 (4 self)
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We study a process algebra ATP for the description and analysis of systems of timed processes. An important feature of the algebra is that its vocabulary of actions contains a distinguished element . An occurrence of is a time event representing progress of time. The algebra has, apart from standard operators of process algebras like CCS or ACP, a primitive binary unitdelay operator. For two arguments, processes P and Q, this operator gives a process which behaves as P if started before the occurrence of a time action and as Q otherwise. From this operator we define dunit delay operators that can model delay constructs of languages, like timeouts or watchdogs. The use of such operators is illustrated by examples. ATP is provided with a complete axiomatisation with respect to strong bisimulation semantics. It is shown that the algebras obtained by adding the various dunit delay operators to ATP are conservative extensions of it.
Algebraic Reasoning for Probabilistic Concurrent Systems
 Proc. IFIP TC2 Working Conference on Programming Concepts and Methods
, 1990
"... We extend Milner's SCCS to obtain a calculus, PCCS, for reasoning about communicating probabilistic processes. In particular, the nondeterministic process summation operator of SCCS is replaced with a probabilistic one, in which the probability of behaving like a particular summand is given exp ..."
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Cited by 115 (6 self)
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We extend Milner's SCCS to obtain a calculus, PCCS, for reasoning about communicating probabilistic processes. In particular, the nondeterministic process summation operator of SCCS is replaced with a probabilistic one, in which the probability of behaving like a particular summand is given explicitly. The operational semantics for PCCS is based on the notion of probabilistic derivation, and is given structurally as a set of inference rules. We then present an equational theory for PCCS based on probabilistic bisimulation, an extension of Milner's bisimulation proposed by Larsen and Skou. We provide the first axiomatization of probabilistic bisimulation, a subset of which is relatively complete for finitestate probabilistic processes. In the probabilistic case, a notion of processes with almost identical behavior (i.e., with probability 1 \Gamma ffl, for ffl sufficiently small) appears to be more useful in practice than a notion of equivalence, since the latter is often too restricti...
Modal and Temporal Logics for Processes
, 1996
"... this paper have been presented at the 4th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information, University of Essex, 1992; at the Tempus Summer School for Algebraic and Categorical Methods in Computer Science, Masaryk University, Brno, 1993; and the Summer School in Logic Methods in Concurrency ..."
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Cited by 91 (2 self)
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this paper have been presented at the 4th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information, University of Essex, 1992; at the Tempus Summer School for Algebraic and Categorical Methods in Computer Science, Masaryk University, Brno, 1993; and the Summer School in Logic Methods in Concurrency, Aarhus University, 1993. I would like to thank the organisers and the participants of these summer schools, and of the Banff higher order workshop. I would also like to thank Julian Bradfield for use of his Tex tree constructor for building derivation trees and Carron Kirkwood, Faron Moller, Perdita Stevens and David Walker for comments on earlier drafts.
The meaning of negative premises in transition system specifications (Extended Abstract)
, 1990
"... We present a general theory for the use of negative premises in the rules of Transition System Specifications (TSS's). We formulate a criterion that should be satisfied by a TSS in order to be meaningful, i.e. to unequivocally define a transition relation. We also provide powerful techniques fo ..."
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Cited by 85 (4 self)
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We present a general theory for the use of negative premises in the rules of Transition System Specifications (TSS's). We formulate a criterion that should be satisfied by a TSS in order to be meaningful, i.e. to unequivocally define a transition relation. We also provide powerful techniques for proving that a TSS satisfies this criterion, meanwhile constructing this transition relation. Both the criterion and the techniques originate from logic programming [8, 7] to which TSS's are close. As in [I0], we show that the bisimulation relation induced by a TSS is a congruence, provided that it is in ntyft/ntyztformat and can be proved meaningful using our techniques. As a running example, we study the combined addition of priorities and abstraction to Basic Process Algebra (BPA). Under some reasonable conditions we show that this TSS is indeed meaningful, which could n t be shown by other methods [2, I0]. Finally, we provide a sound and complete axiomatization for this example. We have omitted most proofs here; they can be found in [3].
An Efficiency Preorder for Processes
"... A simple efficiency preorder for CCS processes is introduced, in which p ! q means that q is at least as fast as p, or more generally, p uses at least as much resources as q. It is shown to be preserved by all CCS contexts except summation and it is used to analyse a nontrivial example: differe ..."
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Cited by 82 (12 self)
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A simple efficiency preorder for CCS processes is introduced, in which p ! q means that q is at least as fast as p, or more generally, p uses at least as much resources as q. It is shown to be preserved by all CCS contexts except summation and it is used to analyse a nontrivial example: different implementations of a bounded buffer. Finally a sound and complete proof system for finite processes is given. This paper appeared earlier in [1] and [2]. This version of the paper has been revised, corrected and extended to include more operators, more examples and some additional remarks and observations by the first author. Hence all errors are entirely his responsiblity. Most of this work was done while the first author was at the University of Sussex and supported by SERC grant GR/D 97368 of the Science and Engineering Research Council of Great Britain. y The second author would like to acknowledge the support of ESPIRIT II. 1 Introduction A large number of behavioural equivale...
A Calculus of Broadcasting Systems
 SCIENCE OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
, 1991
"... CBS is a simple and natural CCSlike calculus where processes speak one at a time and are heard instantaneously by all others. Speech is autonomous, contention between speakers being resolved nondeterministically, but hearing only happens when someone else speaks. Observationally meaningful laws dif ..."
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Cited by 75 (8 self)
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CBS is a simple and natural CCSlike calculus where processes speak one at a time and are heard instantaneously by all others. Speech is autonomous, contention between speakers being resolved nondeterministically, but hearing only happens when someone else speaks. Observationally meaningful laws differ from those of CCS. The change from handshake communication in CCS to broadcast in CBS permits several advances. (1) Priority, which attaches only to autonomous actions, is simply added to CBS in contrast to CCS, where such actions are the result of communication. (2) A CBS simulator runs a process by returning a list of values it broadcasts. This permits a powerful combination, CBS with the host language. It yields several elegant algorithms. Only processes with a unique response to each input are needed in practice, so weak bisimulation is a congruence. (3) CBS subsystems are interfaced by translators; by mapping messages to silence, these can restrict hearing and hide speech. Reversi...
A Process Algebra of Communicating Shared Resources with Dense Time and Priorities
 THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1997
"... ..."
Extended Markovian Process Algebra
, 1996
"... . EMPA enhances the expressiveness of classical process algebras by integrating functional and performance descriptions of concurrent systems. This is achieved by offering, besides passive actions (useful for pure nondeterminism), actions whose duration is exponentially distributed as well as immedi ..."
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Cited by 52 (5 self)
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. EMPA enhances the expressiveness of classical process algebras by integrating functional and performance descriptions of concurrent systems. This is achieved by offering, besides passive actions (useful for pure nondeterminism), actions whose duration is exponentially distributed as well as immediate actions (useful for performance abstraction), parametrized by priority levels (hence prioritized choices) and weights (hence probabilistic choices). In order to analyze an EMPA term, from its integrated semantic model (a transition system labeled on both action types and action durations) we derive a functional semantic model (a transition system labeled on action types only) and a performance semantic model (a Markov chain). We show that an integrated analysis, i.e. a notion of equivalence on the integrated semantic model, is not only convenient but also necessary to achieve compositionality. 1 Introduction The need of integrating the performance modeling and analysis of a concurrent s...
A Timed Concurrent Constraint Language
, 1999
"... We study a timed concurrent constraint language, called tccp, which is obtained by a natural timed interpretation of the usual ccp constructs: actionprefixing is interpreted as the nexttime operator and the parallel execution of agents follows the scheduling policy of maximal parallelism. Addition ..."
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Cited by 48 (3 self)
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We study a timed concurrent constraint language, called tccp, which is obtained by a natural timed interpretation of the usual ccp constructs: actionprefixing is interpreted as the nexttime operator and the parallel execution of agents follows the scheduling policy of maximal parallelism. Additionally, tccp includes a simple primitive which allows one to specify timing constraints. We define the operational semantics of tccp by means of a transition system and we define a denotational model which is fully abstract with respect to the usual notion of observables (that is, the results of terminating computations). Moreover, we study the semantics and expressive power of the notion of maximal parallelism underlying the computational model of tccp: We define a fully abstract semantics for a sublanguage of tccp, called ccpm, which essentially is concurrent constraint programming, provided that we interpret the parallel operator in terms of &quot;maximal parallelism &quot; rather than of interleaving. We show that tccp is strictly more expressive than ccpm which, in its turn, is strictly more expressive than ccp.