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192
On scalability of the similarity search in the world of peers
 In Proceedings of First International Conference on Scalable Information Systems (INFOSCALE 2006), Hong Kong, May 30
"... Due to the increasing complexity of current digital data, similarity search has become a fundamental computational task in many applications. Unfortunately, its costs are still high and the linear scalability of single server implementations prevents from efficient searching in large data volumes. ..."
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Due to the increasing complexity of current digital data, similarity search has become a fundamental computational task in many applications. Unfortunately, its costs are still high and the linear scalability of single server implementations prevents from efficient searching in large data volumes. In this paper, we shortly describe four recent scalable distributed similarity search techniques and study their performance of executing queries on three different datasets. Though all the methods employ parallelism to speed up query execution, different advantages for different objectives have been identified by experiments. The reported results can be exploited for choosing the best implementations for specific applications. They can also be used for designing new and better indexing structures in the future. 1.
Nearest Neighbor Retrieval Using DistanceBased Hashing
"... Abstract — A method is proposed for indexing spaces with arbitrary distance measures, so as to achieve efficient approximate nearest neighbor retrieval. Hashing methods, such as Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH), have been successfully applied for similarity indexing in vector spaces and string space ..."
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Abstract — A method is proposed for indexing spaces with arbitrary distance measures, so as to achieve efficient approximate nearest neighbor retrieval. Hashing methods, such as Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH), have been successfully applied for similarity indexing in vector spaces and string spaces under the Hamming distance. The key novelty of the hashing technique proposed here is that it can be applied to spaces with arbitrary distance measures, including nonmetric distance measures. First, we describe a domainindependent method for constructing a family of binary hash functions. Then, we use these functions to construct multiple multibit hash tables. We show that the LSH formalism is not applicable for analyzing the behavior of these tables as index structures. We present a novel formulation, that uses statistical observations from sample data to analyze retrieval accuracy and efficiency for the proposed indexing method. Experiments on several realworld data sets demonstrate that our method produces good tradeoffs between accuracy and efficiency, and significantly outperforms VPtrees, which are a wellknown method for distancebased indexing. I.
Techniques for Similarity Searching in Multimedia Databases
, 2010
"... Techniques for similarity searching in multimedia databases are reviewed. This includes a discussion of the curse of dimensionality, as well as multidimensional indexing, distancebased indexing, and the actual search process which is realized by nearest neighbor finding. ..."
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Cited by 27 (3 self)
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Techniques for similarity searching in multimedia databases are reviewed. This includes a discussion of the curse of dimensionality, as well as multidimensional indexing, distancebased indexing, and the actual search process which is realized by nearest neighbor finding.
Fully Dynamic Spatial Approximation Trees
 In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on String Processing and Information Retrieval (SPIRE 2002), LNCS 2476
, 2002
"... The Spatial Approximation Tree (satree) is a recently proposed data structure for searching in metric spaces. It has been shown that it compares favorably against alternative data structures in spaces of high dimension or queries with low selectivity. Its main drawbacks are: costly construction ..."
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Cited by 27 (13 self)
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The Spatial Approximation Tree (satree) is a recently proposed data structure for searching in metric spaces. It has been shown that it compares favorably against alternative data structures in spaces of high dimension or queries with low selectivity. Its main drawbacks are: costly construction time, poor performance in low dimensional spaces or queries with high selectivity, and the fact of being a static data structure, that is, once built, one cannot add or delete elements.
Reverse Nearest Neighbor Search in Metric Spaces
 TKDE
"... Abstract—Given a set D of objects, a reverse nearest neighbor (RNN) query returns the objects o in D such that o is closer to a query object q than to any other object in D, according to a certain similarity metric. The existing RNN solutions are not sufficient because they either 1) rely on precomp ..."
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Abstract—Given a set D of objects, a reverse nearest neighbor (RNN) query returns the objects o in D such that o is closer to a query object q than to any other object in D, according to a certain similarity metric. The existing RNN solutions are not sufficient because they either 1) rely on precomputed information that is expensive to maintain in the presence of updates or 2) are applicable only when the data consists of “Euclidean objects ” and similarity is measured using the L2 norm. In this paper, we present the first algorithms for efficient RNN search in generic metric spaces. Our techniques require no detailed representations of objects, and can be applied as long as their mutual distances can be computed and the distance metric satisfies the triangle inequality. We confirm the effectiveness of the proposed methods with extensive experiments. Index Terms—Reverse nearest neighbor, metric space. 1
A Metric Index for Approximate String Matching
 In LATIN
, 2002
"... We present a radically new indexing approach for approximate string matching. The scheme uses the metric properties of the edit distance and can be applied to any other metric between strings. We build a metric space where the sites are the nodes of the suffix tree of the text, and the approxima ..."
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Cited by 25 (0 self)
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We present a radically new indexing approach for approximate string matching. The scheme uses the metric properties of the edit distance and can be applied to any other metric between strings. We build a metric space where the sites are the nodes of the suffix tree of the text, and the approximate query is seen as a proximity query on that metric space. This permits us finding the R occurrences of a pattern of length m in a text of length n in average time O(m log n+m +R), using O(n log n) space and O(n log n) index construction time. This complexity improves by far over all other previous methods. We also show a simpler scheme needing O(n) space.
Querysensitive embeddings
 In ACM International Conference on Management of Data (SIGMOD). 706–717. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. ?, No. ?, ? 20?. · Vassilis Athitsos et al
"... A common problem in many types of databases is retrieving the most similar matches to a query object. Finding those matches in a large database can be too slow to be practical, especially in domains where objects are compared using computationally expensive similarity (or distance) measures. Embeddi ..."
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Cited by 24 (11 self)
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A common problem in many types of databases is retrieving the most similar matches to a query object. Finding those matches in a large database can be too slow to be practical, especially in domains where objects are compared using computationally expensive similarity (or distance) measures. Embedding methods can significantly speed up retrieval by mapping objects into a vector space, where distances can be measured rapidly using a Minkowski metric. In this paper we present a novel way to improve embedding quality. In particular, we propose to construct embeddings that use a “querysensitive ” distance measure for the target space of the embedding. This distance measure is used to compare the vectors that the query and database objects are mapped to. The term “querysensitive ” means that the distance measure changes depending on the current query object. We demonstrate theoretically that using a querysensitive distance measure increases the modeling power of embeddings and allows them to capture more of the structure of the original space. We also demonstrate experimentally that querysensitive embeddings can significantly improve retrieval performance. In experiments with an image database of handwritten digits and a timeseries database, the proposed method outperforms existing stateoftheart nonEuclidean indexing methods, meaning that it provides significantly better tradeoffs between efficiency and retrieval accuracy.
Metric Space Similarity Joins
"... Similarity join algorithms find pairs of objects that lie within a certain distance ɛ of each other. Algorithms that are adapted from spatial join techniques are designed primarily for data in a vector space and often employ some form of a multidimensional index. For these algorithms, when the data ..."
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Similarity join algorithms find pairs of objects that lie within a certain distance ɛ of each other. Algorithms that are adapted from spatial join techniques are designed primarily for data in a vector space and often employ some form of a multidimensional index. For these algorithms, when the data lies in a metric space, the usual solution is to embed the data in vector space and then make use of a multidimensional index. Such an approach has a number of drawbacks when the data is high dimensional as we must eventually find the most discriminating dimensions, which is not trivial. In addition, although the maximum distance between objects increases with dimension, the ability to discriminate between objects in each dimension does not. These drawbacks are overcome via the introduction of a new method called Quickjoin that does not require a multidimensional index and instead adapts techniques used in distancebased indexing for use in a method that is conceptually similar to the Quicksort algorithm. A formal analysis is provided of the Quickjoin method. Experiments show that the Quickjoin method significantly outperforms two existing techniques.
BoostMap: An Embedding Method for Efficient Nearest Neighbor Retrieval
, 2008
"... This paper describes BoostMap, a method for efficient nearest neighbor retrieval under computationally expensive distance measures. Database and query objects are embedded into a vector space in which distances can be measured efficiently. Each embedding is treated as a classifier that predicts for ..."
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Cited by 23 (5 self)
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This paper describes BoostMap, a method for efficient nearest neighbor retrieval under computationally expensive distance measures. Database and query objects are embedded into a vector space in which distances can be measured efficiently. Each embedding is treated as a classifier that predicts for any three objects X, A, B whether X is closer to A or to B. It is shown that a linear combination of such embeddingbased classifiers naturally corresponds to an embedding and a distance measure. Based on this property, the BoostMap method reduces the problem of embedding construction to the classical boosting problem of combining many weak classifiers into an optimized strong classifier. The classification accuracy of the resulting strong classifier is a direct measure of the amount of nearest neighbor structure preserved by the embedding. An important property of BoostMap is that the embedding optimization criterion is equally valid in both metric and nonmetric spaces. Performance is evaluated in databases of hand images, handwritten digits, and time series. In all cases, BoostMap significantly improves retrieval efficiency with small losses in accuracy compared to bruteforce search. Moreover, BoostMap significantly outperforms existing nearest neighbor retrieval methods such as Lipschitz embeddings, FastMap, and VPtrees.
Approximate embeddingbased subsequence matching of time series
 In SIGMOD ’08: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM SIGMOD international conference on Management of data
, 2008
"... A method for approximate subsequence matching is introduced, that significantly improves the efficiency of subsequence matching in large time series data sets under the dynamic time warping (DTW) distance measure. Our method is called EBSM, shorthand for EmbeddingBased Subsequence Matching. The key ..."
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Cited by 21 (6 self)
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A method for approximate subsequence matching is introduced, that significantly improves the efficiency of subsequence matching in large time series data sets under the dynamic time warping (DTW) distance measure. Our method is called EBSM, shorthand for EmbeddingBased Subsequence Matching. The key idea is to convert subsequence matching to vector matching using an embedding. This embedding maps each database time series into a sequence of vectors, so that every step of every time series in the database is mapped to a vector. The embedding is computed by applying full dynamic time warping between reference objects and each database time series. At runtime, given a query object, an embedding of that object is computed in the same manner, by running dynamic time warping between the reference objects and the query. Comparing the embedding of the query with the database vectors is used to efficiently identify relatively few areas of interest in the database sequences. Those areas of interest are then fully explored using the exact DTWbased subsequence matching algorithm. Experiments on a large, public time series data set produce speedups of over one order of magnitude compared to bruteforce search, with very small losses (< 1%) in retrieval accuracy.