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Resilient Network Coding in the Presence of Byzantine Adversaries
"... Network coding substantially increases network throughput. But since it involves mixing of information inside the network, a single corrupted packet generated by a malicious node can end up contaminating all the information reaching a destination, preventing decoding. This paper introduces distribu ..."
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Cited by 169 (32 self)
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Network coding substantially increases network throughput. But since it involves mixing of information inside the network, a single corrupted packet generated by a malicious node can end up contaminating all the information reaching a destination, preventing decoding. This paper introduces distributed polynomialtime rateoptimal network codes that work in the presence of Byzantine nodes. We present algorithms that target adversaries with different attacking capabilities. When the adversary can eavesdrop on all links and jam zO links, our first algorithm achieves a rate of C − 2zO, where C is the network capacity. In contrast, when the adversary has limited eavesdropping capabilities, we provide algorithms that achieve the higher rate of C − zO. Our algorithms attain the optimal rate given the strength of the adversary. They are informationtheoretically secure. They operate in a distributed manner, assume no knowledge of the topology, and can be designed and implemented in polynomialtime. Furthermore, only the source and destination need to be modified; nonmalicious nodes inside the network are oblivious to the presence of adversaries and implement a classical distributed network code. Finally, our algorithms work over wired and wireless networks.
A rankmetric approach to error control in random network coding
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
"... It is shown that the error control problem in random network coding can be reformulated as a generalized decoding problem for rankmetric codes. This result allows many of the tools developed for rankmetric codes to be applied to random network coding. In the generalized decoding problem induced by ..."
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Cited by 159 (11 self)
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It is shown that the error control problem in random network coding can be reformulated as a generalized decoding problem for rankmetric codes. This result allows many of the tools developed for rankmetric codes to be applied to random network coding. In the generalized decoding problem induced by random network coding, the channel may supply partial information about the error in the form of erasures (knowledge of an error location but not its value) and deviations (knowledge of an error value but not its location). For Gabidulin codes, an important family of maximum rank distance codes, an efficient decoding algorithm is proposed that can fully exploit the correction capability of the code; namely, it can correct any pattern of ǫ errors, µ erasures and δ deviations provided 2ǫ+ µ + δ ≤ d − 1, where d is the minimum rank distance of the code. Our approach is based on the coding theory for subspaces introduced by Koetter and Kschischang and can be seen as a practical way to construct codes in that context. I.
Byzantine Modification Detection in Multicast Networks using Randomized Network Coding
 IN IEEE PROC. INTL. SYM. INFORM. THEORY
, 2004
"... We show how distributed randomized network coding, a robust approach to multicasting in distributed network settings, can be extended to provide Byzantine modification detection without the use of cryptographic functions. ..."
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Cited by 118 (12 self)
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We show how distributed randomized network coding, a robust approach to multicasting in distributed network settings, can be extended to provide Byzantine modification detection without the use of cryptographic functions.
Symbollevel Network Coding for Wireless Mesh Networks
"... This paper describes MIXIT, a system that improves the throughput of wireless mesh networks. MIXIT exploits a basic property of mesh networks: even when no node receives a packet correctly, any given bit is likely to be received by some node correctly. Instead of insisting on forwarding only correct ..."
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Cited by 82 (2 self)
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This paper describes MIXIT, a system that improves the throughput of wireless mesh networks. MIXIT exploits a basic property of mesh networks: even when no node receives a packet correctly, any given bit is likely to be received by some node correctly. Instead of insisting on forwarding only correct packets, MIXIT routers use physical layer hints to make their best guess about which bits in a corrupted packet are likely to be correct and forward them to the destination. Even though this approach inevitably lets erroneous bits through, we find that it can achieve high throughput without compromising endtoend reliability. The core component of MIXIT is a novel network code that operates on small groups of bits, called symbols. It allows the nodes to opportunistically route groups of bits to their destination with low overhead. MIXIT’s network code also incorporates an endtoend error correction component that the destination uses to correct any errors that might seep through. We have implemented MIXIT on a software radio platform running the Zigbee radio protocol. Our experiments on a 25node indoor testbed show that MIXIT has a throughput gain of 2.8 × over MORE, a stateoftheart opportunistic routing scheme, and about 3.9 × over traditional routing using the ETX metric.
Reliable physical layer network coding
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
, 2011
"... When two or more users in a wireless network transmit simultaneously, their electromagnetic signals are linearly superimposed on the channel. As a result, a receiver that is interested in one of these signals sees the others as unwanted interference. This property of the wireless medium is typicall ..."
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Cited by 54 (5 self)
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When two or more users in a wireless network transmit simultaneously, their electromagnetic signals are linearly superimposed on the channel. As a result, a receiver that is interested in one of these signals sees the others as unwanted interference. This property of the wireless medium is typically viewed as a hindrance to reliable communication over a network. However, using a recently developed coding strategy, interference can in fact be harnessed for network coding. In a wired network, (linear) network coding refers to each intermediate node taking its received packets, computing a linear combination over a finite field, and forwarding the outcome towards the destinations. Then, given an appropriate set of linear combinations, a destination can solve for its desired packets. For certain topologies, this strategy can attain significantly higher throughputs over routingbased strategies. Reliable physical layer network coding takes this idea one step further: using judiciously chosen linear errorcorrecting codes, intermediate nodes in a wireless network can directly recover linear combinations of the packets from the observed noisy superpositions of transmitted signals. Starting with some simple examples, this survey explores the core ideas behind this new technique and the possibilities it offers for communication over interferencelimited wireless networks.
Construction of large constant dimension codes with a prescribed minimum distance
, 2008
"... In this paper we construct constant dimension space codes with prescribed minimum distance. There is an increased interest in space codes since a paper [13] by Kötter and Kschischang were they gave an application in network coding. There is also a connection to the theory of designs over finite fi ..."
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Cited by 46 (4 self)
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In this paper we construct constant dimension space codes with prescribed minimum distance. There is an increased interest in space codes since a paper [13] by Kötter and Kschischang were they gave an application in network coding. There is also a connection to the theory of designs over finite fields. We will modify a method of Braun, Kerber and Laue [7] which they used for the construction of designs over finite fields to do the construction of space codes. Using this approach we found many new constant dimension spaces codes with a larger number of codewords than previously known codes. We will finally give a table of the best found constant dimension space codes.
An Algebraic Approach to PhysicalLayer Network Coding
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 2010
"... The problem of designing new physicallayer network coding (PNC) schemes via lattice partitions is considered. Building on recent work by Nazer and Gastpar, who demonstrated its asymptotic gain using informationtheoretic tools, we take an algebraic approach to show its potential in nonasymptotic ..."
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Cited by 41 (4 self)
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The problem of designing new physicallayer network coding (PNC) schemes via lattice partitions is considered. Building on recent work by Nazer and Gastpar, who demonstrated its asymptotic gain using informationtheoretic tools, we take an algebraic approach to show its potential in nonasymptotic settings. We first relate NazerGastpar’s approach to the fundamental theorem of finitely generated modules over a principle ideal domain. Based on this connection, we generalize their code construction and simplify their encoding and decoding methods. This not only provides a transparent understanding of their approach, but more importantly, it opens up the opportunity to design efficient and practical PNC schemes. Finally, we apply our framework to the Gaussian relay network and demonstrate its advantage over conventional PNC schemes.
On metrics for error correction in network coding
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
, 2009
"... The problem of error correction in both coherent and noncoherent network coding is considered under an adversarial model. For coherent network coding, where knowledge of the network topology and network code is assumed at the source and destination nodes, the error correction capability of an (outer ..."
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Cited by 41 (4 self)
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The problem of error correction in both coherent and noncoherent network coding is considered under an adversarial model. For coherent network coding, where knowledge of the network topology and network code is assumed at the source and destination nodes, the error correction capability of an (outer) code is succinctly described by the rank metric; as a consequence, it is shown that universal network error correcting codes achieving the Singleton bound can be easily constructed and efficiently decoded. For noncoherent network coding, where knowledge of the network topology and network code is not assumed, the error correction capability of a (subspace) code is given exactly by a new metric, called the injection metric, which is closely related to, but different than, the subspace metric of Kötter and Kschischang. In particular, in the case of a nonconstantdimension code, the decoder associated with the injection metric is shown to correct more errors then a minimumsubspacedistance decoder. All of these results are based on a general approach to adversarial error correction, which could be useful for other adversarial channels beyond network coding. Index Terms Adversarial channels, error correction, injection distance, network coding, rank distance, subspace codes.
Practical defenses against pollution attacks in intraflow network coding for wireless mesh networks,”
, 2009
"... ABSTRACT Recent studies show that network coding can provide significant benefits to network protocols, such as increased throughput, reduced network congestion, higher reliability, and lower power consumption. The core principle of network coding is that intermediate nodes actively mix input packe ..."
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Cited by 35 (6 self)
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ABSTRACT Recent studies show that network coding can provide significant benefits to network protocols, such as increased throughput, reduced network congestion, higher reliability, and lower power consumption. The core principle of network coding is that intermediate nodes actively mix input packets to produce output packets. This mixing subjects network coding systems to a severe security threat, known as a pollution attack, where attacker nodes inject corrupted packets into the network. Corrupted packets propagate in an epidemic manner, depleting network resources and significantly decreasing throughput. Pollution attacks are particularly dangerous in wireless networks, where attackers can easily inject packets or compromise devices due to the increased network vulnerability. In this paper, we address pollution attacks against network coding systems in wireless mesh networks. We demonstrate that previous solutions to the problem are impractical in wireless networks, incurring an unacceptably high degradation of throughput. We propose a lightweight scheme, DART, that uses timebased authentication in combination with random linear transformations to defend against pollution attacks. We further improve system performance and propose EDART, which enhances DART with an optimistic forwarding scheme. A detailed security analysis shows that the probability of a polluted packet passing our verification procedure is very low. Performance results using the wellknown MORE protocol and realistic link quality measurements from the Roofnet experimental testbed show that our schemes improve system performance over 20 times compared to previous solutions.
Spread codes and spread decoding in network coding
 PROC. IEEE INTERN. SYMPOSIUM ON INFORM. THEORY
, 2008
"... In this paper we introduce the class of Spread Codes for the use in random network coding. Spread Codes are based on the construction of spreads in finite projective geometry. The major contribution of the paper is an efficient decoding algorithm of spread codes up to half the minimum distance. ..."
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Cited by 32 (10 self)
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In this paper we introduce the class of Spread Codes for the use in random network coding. Spread Codes are based on the construction of spreads in finite projective geometry. The major contribution of the paper is an efficient decoding algorithm of spread codes up to half the minimum distance.