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893
Complex systems: Network thinking
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2006
"... (To appear in Artificial Intelligence.) I am convinced that the nations and people who master the new sciences of complexity will become the economic, cultural, and political superpowers of the next century. —Heinz Pagels [50] When I hear the word “complexity, ” I don’t exactly reach for my hammer, ..."
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(To appear in Artificial Intelligence.) I am convinced that the nations and people who master the new sciences of complexity will become the economic, cultural, and political superpowers of the next century. —Heinz Pagels [50] When I hear the word “complexity, ” I don’t exactly reach for my hammer, but I suspect my eyes narrow. It has the dangerous allure of an incantation, threatening to acquire the same blithe explanatory role that “adaptation ” once did in biology. —Philip Ball [1] 1
Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers
"... Advancements in handheld computing, particularly their portability, social interactivity, context
sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality open new opportunities immersive learning
environments. This paper articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations
in environmental en ..."
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Cited by 33 (2 self)
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Advancements in handheld computing, particularly their portability, social interactivity, context
sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality open new opportunities immersive learning
environments. This paper articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations
in environmental engineering education by immersing students in the roles of scientists
conducting investigations. This design experiment examines if augmented reality simulation
games can be used to help students understand science as a social practice, whereby inquiry is a
process of balancing and managing resources, combining multiple data sources, and forming and
revising hypotheses in situ. We provide four case studies of secondary environmental science
students participating in the program. Positioning students in virtual investigations made
apparent their beliefs about science, and confronted simplistic beliefs about the nature of science.
Playing the game in “real” space also triggered students’ preexisting knowledge, suggesting that
a powerful potential of augmented reality simulation games could be in their ability to connect
academic content and practices with their physical lived worlds. The game structure provided
students a narrative to think with, although students differed in their ability to create a coherent
narrative of events. We argue that Environmental Detectives is one model for helping students
understand the socially situated nature of scientific practice.
Local information transfer as a spatiotemporal filter432 for complex systems. Physical Review E
, 2008
"... We present a measure of local information transfer, derived from an existing averaged informationtheoretical measure, namely transfer entropy. Local transfer entropy is used to produce profiles of the information transfer into each spatiotemporal point in a complex system. These spatiotemporal prof ..."
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We present a measure of local information transfer, derived from an existing averaged informationtheoretical measure, namely transfer entropy. Local transfer entropy is used to produce profiles of the information transfer into each spatiotemporal point in a complex system. These spatiotemporal profiles are useful not only as an analytical tool, but also allow explicit investigation of different parameter settings and forms of the transfer entropy metric itself. As an example, local transfer entropy is applied to cellular automata, where it is demonstrated to be a novel method of filtering for coherent structure. More importantly, local transfer entropy provides the first quantitative evidence for the longheld conjecture that the emergent traveling coherent structures known as particles (both gliders and domain walls, which have analogues in many physical processes) are the dominant information transfer agents in cellular automata.
Case studies for selforganization in computer science
 Journal of Systems Architecture
"... Abstract. SelfOrganization is bound to greatly affect computer science. The simplicity and yet power of selforganized models will allow researchers to propose efficient solutions to problems never before thought possible to be addressed efficiently. The published works in the field clearly demonst ..."
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Cited by 32 (12 self)
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Abstract. SelfOrganization is bound to greatly affect computer science. The simplicity and yet power of selforganized models will allow researchers to propose efficient solutions to problems never before thought possible to be addressed efficiently. The published works in the field clearly demonstrate the potential of this approach. This paper first reviews a number of interesting selforganization phenomena found in nature, then it discusses their potential applicability in several computer science application scenarios. 1
Multilinear Formulas and Skepticism of Quantum Computing
 In Proc. ACM STOC
, 2004
"... Several researchers, including Leonid Levin, Gerard 't Hooft, and Stephen Wolfram, have argued that quantum mechanics will break down before the factoring of large numbers becomes possible. If this is true, then there should be a natural "Sure/Shor separator"that is, a set of qua ..."
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Cited by 30 (7 self)
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Several researchers, including Leonid Levin, Gerard 't Hooft, and Stephen Wolfram, have argued that quantum mechanics will break down before the factoring of large numbers becomes possible. If this is true, then there should be a natural "Sure/Shor separator"that is, a set of quantum states that can account for all experiments performed to date, but not for Shor's factoring algorithm. We propose as a candidate the set of states expressible by a polynomial number of additions and tensor products. Using a recent lower bound on multilinear formula size due to Raz, we then show that states arising in quantum errorcorrection require n## additions and tensor products even to approximate, which incidentally yields the first superpolynomial gap between general and multilinear formula size of functions. More broadly, we introduce a complexity classification of pure quantum states, and prove many basic facts about this classification. Our goal is to refine vague ideas about a breakdown of quantum mechanics into specific hypotheses that might be experimentally testable in the near future.
On Cellular Automaton Approaches to Modeling Biological Cells
 IMA 134: Mathematical Systems Theory in Biology, Communication, and Finance
, 2002
"... Abstract. We discuss two different types of Cellular Automata (CA): latticegasbased cellular automata (LGCA) and the cellular Potts model (CPM), and describe their applications in biological modeling. LGCA were originally developed for modeling ideal gases and fluids. We describe several extension ..."
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Abstract. We discuss two different types of Cellular Automata (CA): latticegasbased cellular automata (LGCA) and the cellular Potts model (CPM), and describe their applications in biological modeling. LGCA were originally developed for modeling ideal gases and fluids. We describe several extensions of the classical LGCA model to selfdriven biological cells. In particular, we review recent models for rippling in myxobacteria, cell aggregation, swarming, and limb bud formation. These LGCAbased models show the versatility of CA in modeling and their utility in addressing basic biological questions. The CPM is a more sophisticated CA, which describes individual cells as extended objects of variable shape. We review various extensions to the original Potts model and describe their application to morphogenesis; the development of a complex spatial structure by a collection of cells. We focus on three phenomena: cell sorting in aggregates of embryonic chicken cells, morphological development of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum and avascular tumor growth. These models include intercellular and extracellular interactions, as well as cell growth and death.
Geographic Automata Systems
 International Journal of Geographical Information Science
, 2005
"... A novel approach to automatabased modeling for spatial systems is described: geographic automata and Geographic Automata Systems. We detail a framework that takes advantage of the formalism of automata theory and GI Science to unite cellular automata and multiagent systems techniques, and provides ..."
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Cited by 28 (7 self)
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A novel approach to automatabased modeling for spatial systems is described: geographic automata and Geographic Automata Systems. We detail a framework that takes advantage of the formalism of automata theory and GI Science to unite cellular automata and multiagent systems techniques, and provides a spatial approach to bottomup modeling of complex geographic systems that are comprised of infrastructure and human objects. The suitability of the framework is also discussed with reference to existing cellular automata and multiagent systems models used in urban studies. Practical implementation of the framework is illustrated with reference to an objectbased urban simulation environment and implementation of a popular sociospatial segregation model.
AgentBased Modeling: A New Approach for Theory Building
 in Social Psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review
, 2007
"... The online version of this article can be found at: ..."
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Cited by 26 (0 self)
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The online version of this article can be found at:
Pcompleteness of cellular automaton Rule 110
 In International Colloquium on Automata Languages and Programming (ICALP), volume 4051 of LNCS
, 2006
"... We show that the problem of predicting t steps of the 1D cellular automaton Rule 110 is Pcomplete. The result is found by showing that Rule 110 simulates deterministic Turing machines in polynomial time. As a corollary we find that the small universal Turing machines of Mathew Cook run in polyn ..."
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We show that the problem of predicting t steps of the 1D cellular automaton Rule 110 is Pcomplete. The result is found by showing that Rule 110 simulates deterministic Turing machines in polynomial time. As a corollary we find that the small universal Turing machines of Mathew Cook run in polynomial time, this is an exponential improvement on their previously known simulation time overhead.