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Active learning literature survey
, 2010
"... The key idea behind active learning is that a machine learning algorithm can achieve greater accuracy with fewer labeled training instances if it is allowed to choose the data from which is learns. An active learner may ask queries in the form of unlabeled instances to be labeled by an oracle (e.g., ..."
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Cited by 326 (1 self)
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The key idea behind active learning is that a machine learning algorithm can achieve greater accuracy with fewer labeled training instances if it is allowed to choose the data from which is learns. An active learner may ask queries in the form of unlabeled instances to be labeled by an oracle (e.g., a human annotator). Active learning is wellmotivated in many modern machine learning problems, where unlabeled data may be abundant but labels are difficult, timeconsuming, or expensive to obtain. This report provides a general introduction to active learning and a survey of the literature. This includes a discussion of the scenarios in which queries can be formulated, and an overview of the query strategy frameworks proposed in the literature to date. An analysis of the empirical and theoretical evidence for active learning, a summary of several problem setting variants, and a discussion
Active SemiSupervision for Pairwise Constrained Clustering
 Proc. 4th SIAM Intl. Conf. on Data Mining (SDM2004
"... Semisupervised clustering uses a small amount of supervised data to aid unsupervised learning. One typical approach specifies a limited number of mustlink and cannotlink constraints between pairs of examples. This paper presents a pairwise constrained clustering framework and a new method for acti ..."
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Cited by 136 (9 self)
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Semisupervised clustering uses a small amount of supervised data to aid unsupervised learning. One typical approach specifies a limited number of mustlink and cannotlink constraints between pairs of examples. This paper presents a pairwise constrained clustering framework and a new method for actively selecting informative pairwise constraints to get improved clustering performance. The clustering and active learning methods are both easily scalable to large datasets, and can handle very high dimensional data. Experimental and theoretical results confirm that this active querying of pairwise constraints significantly improves the accuracy of clustering when given a relatively small amount of supervision. 1
Learning Hidden Markov Models for Information Extraction Actively from Partially Labeled Text
, 2002
"... A vast range of information is expressed in unstructured or semistructured text, in a form that is hard to decipher automatically. Consequently, it is of enormous importance to construct tools that allow users to extract information from textual documents as easily as it can be extracted from struc ..."
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Cited by 55 (0 self)
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A vast range of information is expressed in unstructured or semistructured text, in a form that is hard to decipher automatically. Consequently, it is of enormous importance to construct tools that allow users to extract information from textual documents as easily as it can be extracted from structured databases. Information Extraction (IE)...
NonRedundant MultiView Clustering Via Orthogonalization
"... Typical clustering algorithms output a single clustering of the data. However, in real world applications, data can often be interpreted in many different ways; data can have different groupings that are reasonable and interesting from different perspectives. This is especially true for highdimensi ..."
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Cited by 39 (5 self)
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Typical clustering algorithms output a single clustering of the data. However, in real world applications, data can often be interpreted in many different ways; data can have different groupings that are reasonable and interesting from different perspectives. This is especially true for highdimensional data, where different feature subspaces may reveal different structures of the data. Why commit to one clustering solution while all these alternative clustering views might be interesting to the user. In this paper, we propose a new clustering paradigm for explorative data analysis: find all nonredundant clustering views of the data, where data points of one cluster can belong to different clusters in other views. We present a framework to solve this problem and suggest two approaches within this framework: (1) orthogonal clustering, and (2) clustering in orthogonal subspaces. In essence, both approaches find alternative ways to partition the data by projecting it to a space that is orthogonal to our current solution. The first approach seeks orthogonality in the cluster space, while the second approach seeks orthogonality in the feature space. We test our framework on both synthetic and highdimensional benchmark data sets, and the results show that indeed our approaches were able to discover varied solutions that are interesting and meaningful.
Simultaneous Unsupervised Learning of Disparate Clusterings
"... Most clustering algorithms produce a single clustering for a given data set even when the data can be clustered naturally in multiple ways. In this paper, we address the difficult problem of uncovering disparate clusterings from the data in a totally unsupervised manner. We propose two new approache ..."
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Cited by 35 (0 self)
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Most clustering algorithms produce a single clustering for a given data set even when the data can be clustered naturally in multiple ways. In this paper, we address the difficult problem of uncovering disparate clusterings from the data in a totally unsupervised manner. We propose two new approaches for this problem. In the first approach we aim to find good clusterings of the data that are also decorrelated with one another. To this end, we give a new and tractable characterization of decorrelation between clusterings, and present an objective function to capture it. We provide an iterative “decorrelated” kmeans type algorithm to minimize this objective function. In the second approach, we model the data as a sum of mixtures and associate each mixture with a clustering. This approach leads us to the problem of learning a convolution of mixture distributions. Though the latter problem can be formulated as one of factorial learning [8, 13, 16], the existing formulations and methods do not perform well on many real highdimensional data sets. We propose a new regularized factorial learning framework that is more suitable for capturing the notion of disparate clusterings in modern, highdimensional data sets. The resulting algorithm does well in uncovering multiple clusterings, and is much improved over existing methods. We evaluate our methods on two realworld data sets a music data set from the text mining domain, and a portrait data set from the computer vision domain. Our methods achieve a substantially higher accuracy than existing factorial learning as well as traditional clustering algorithms.
Multiple NonRedundant Spectral Clustering Views
"... in several different ways for different purposes. For example, images of faces of people can be grouped based Many clustering algorithms only find one on their pose or identity. Web pages collected from clustering solution. However, data can ofuniversities can be clustered based on the type of webt ..."
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Cited by 32 (4 self)
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in several different ways for different purposes. For example, images of faces of people can be grouped based Many clustering algorithms only find one on their pose or identity. Web pages collected from clustering solution. However, data can ofuniversities can be clustered based on the type of webten be grouped and interpreted in many difpage’s owner, {faculty, student, staff}, field, {physics, ferent ways. This is particularly true in math, engineering, computer science}, or identity of the highdimensional setting where differthe university. In some cases, a data analyst wishes ent subspaces reveal different possible groupto find a single clustering, but this may require an alings of the data. Instead of committing gorithm to consider multiple clusterings and discard to one clustering solution, here we introthose that are not of interest. In other cases, one may duce a novel method that can provide sevwish to summarize and organize the data according to eral nonredundant clustering solutions to multiple possible clustering views. In either case, it is the user. Our approach simultaneously learns important to find multiple clustering solutions which nonredundant subspaces that provide multiare nonredundant. ple views and finds a clustering solution in each view. We achieve this by augmenting a spectral clustering objective function to incorporate dimensionality reduction and multiple views and to penalize for redundancy between the views. 1.
Finding alternative clusterings using constraints
 In Proceedings of the 8th IEEE international conference on data mining (ICDM
, 2008
"... The aim of data mining is to find novel and actionable insights. However, most algorithms typically just find a single explanation of the data even though alternatives could exist. In this work, we explore a general purpose approach to find an alternative clustering of the data with the aid of mustl ..."
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Cited by 31 (2 self)
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The aim of data mining is to find novel and actionable insights. However, most algorithms typically just find a single explanation of the data even though alternatives could exist. In this work, we explore a general purpose approach to find an alternative clustering of the data with the aid of mustlink and cannotlink constraints. This problem has received little attention in the literature and since our approach can be incorporated into many clustering algorithm that uses a distance function, compares favorably with existing work. 1.
Generation of Alternative Clusterings Using the CAMI Approach
"... Exploratory data analysis aims to discover and generate multiple views of the structure within a dataset. Conventional clustering techniques, however, are designed to only provide a single grouping or clustering of a dataset. In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm called CAMI, that can uncove ..."
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Cited by 26 (3 self)
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Exploratory data analysis aims to discover and generate multiple views of the structure within a dataset. Conventional clustering techniques, however, are designed to only provide a single grouping or clustering of a dataset. In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm called CAMI, that can uncover alternative clusterings from a dataset. CAMI takes a mathematically appealing approach, combining the use of mutual information to distinguish between alternative clusterings, coupled with an expectation maximization framework to ensure clustering quality. We experimentally test CAMI on both synthetic and realworld datasets, comparing it against a variety of stateoftheart algorithms. We demonstrate that CAMI’s performance is high and that its formulation provides a number of advantages compared to existing techniques. 1
Active Clustering: Robust and Efficient Hierarchical Clustering using Adaptively Selected Similarities
"... Hierarchical clustering based on pairwise similarities is a common tool used in a broad range of scientific applications. However, in many problems it may be expensive to obtain or compute similarities between the items to be clustered. This paper investigates the hierarchical clustering of N items ..."
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Cited by 18 (6 self)
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Hierarchical clustering based on pairwise similarities is a common tool used in a broad range of scientific applications. However, in many problems it may be expensive to obtain or compute similarities between the items to be clustered. This paper investigates the hierarchical clustering of N items based on a small subset of pairwise similarities, significantly less than the complete set of N(N − 1)/2 similarities. First, we show that if the intracluster similarities exceed intercluster similarities, then it is possible to correctly determine the hierarchical clustering from as few as 3N log N similarities. We demonstrate this order of magnitude savings in the number of pairwise similarities necessitates sequentially selecting which similarities to obtain in an adaptive fashion, rather than picking them at random. We then propose an active clustering method that is robust to a limited fraction of anomalous similarities, and show how even in the presence of these noisy similarity values we can resolve the hierarchical clustering using only O ( N log 2 N) pairwise similarities. 1