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XML Compression via DAGs
, 2013
"... Unranked trees can be represented using their minimal dag (directed acyclic graph). For XML this achieves high compression ratios due to their repetitive mark up. Unranked trees are often represented through first child/next sibling (fcns) encoded binary trees. We study the difference in size ( = nu ..."
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Cited by 6 (3 self)
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Unranked trees can be represented using their minimal dag (directed acyclic graph). For XML this achieves high compression ratios due to their repetitive mark up. Unranked trees are often represented through first child/next sibling (fcns) encoded binary trees. We study the difference in size ( = number of edges) of minimal dag versus minimal dag of the fcns encoded binary tree. One main finding is that the size of the dag of the binary tree can never be smaller than the square root of the size of the minimal dag, and that there are examples that match this bound. We introduce a new combined structure, the hybrid dag, which is guaranteed to be smaller than (or equal in size to) both dags. Interestingly, we find through experiments that last child/previous sibling encodings are much better for XML compression via dags, than fcns encodings. This is because optional elements are more likely to appear towards the end of child sequences.
Tree compression with top trees.
 In Proc. ICALP
, 2013
"... We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast navigat ..."
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Cited by 4 (0 self)
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We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast navigational queries directly on the compressed representation. We show that the new compression scheme achieves close to optimal worstcase compression, can compress exponentially better than DAG compression, is never much worse than DAG compression, and supports navigational queries in logarithmic time.
A really simple approximation of smallest grammar
 IN PROC. 25TH ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON COMBINATORIAL PATTERN MATCHING (CPM), LNCS 8486
, 2014
"... In this paper we present a really simple lineartime algorithm constructing a contextfree grammar of size O(g log(N/g)) for the input string, where N is the size of the input string and g the size of the optimal grammar generating this string. The algorithm works for arbitrary size alphabets, but ..."
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Cited by 2 (0 self)
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In this paper we present a really simple lineartime algorithm constructing a contextfree grammar of size O(g log(N/g)) for the input string, where N is the size of the input string and g the size of the optimal grammar generating this string. The algorithm works for arbitrary size alphabets, but the running time is linear assuming that the alphabet Σ of the input string can be identified with numbers from {1,..., Nc} for some constant c. Algorithms with such an approximation guarantee and running time are known, however all of them were nontrivial and their analyses were involved. The here presented algorithm computes the LZ77 factorisation and transforms it in phases to a grammar. In each phase it maintains an LZ77like factorisation of the word with at most ` factors as well as additional O(`) letters, where ` was the size of the original LZ77 factorisation. In one phase in a greedy way (by a lefttoright sweep and a help of the factorisation) we choose a set of pairs of consecutive letters to be replaced with new symbols, i.e. nonterminals of the constructed grammar. We choose at least 2/3 of the letters in the word and there are O(`) many different pairs among them. Hence there are O(logN) phases, each of them introduces O(`) nonterminals to a grammar. A more precise analysis yields a bound O( ` log(N/`)). As ` ≤ g, this yields the desired bound O(g log(N/g)).
Constructing Small Tree Grammars and Small Circuits for Formulas
, 2014
"... Abstract It is shown that every tree of size n over a fixed set of σ different ranked symbols can be decomposed into O( n log σ n ) = O( n log σ log n ) many hierarchically defined pieces. Formally, such a hierarchical decomposition has the form of a straightline linear contextfree tree grammar o ..."
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Abstract It is shown that every tree of size n over a fixed set of σ different ranked symbols can be decomposed into O( n log σ n ) = O( n log σ log n ) many hierarchically defined pieces. Formally, such a hierarchical decomposition has the form of a straightline linear contextfree tree grammar of size O( n log σ n ), which can be used as a compressed representation of the input tree. This generalizes an analogous result for strings. Previous grammarbased tree compressors were not analyzed for the worstcase size of the computed grammar, except for the top dag of Bille et al., for which only the weaker upper bound of O( n log 0.19 n ) for unranked and unlabelled trees has been derived. The main result is used to show that every arithmetical formula of size n, in which only m ≤ n different variables occur, can be transformed (in time O(n log n)) into an arithmetical circuit of size O( n·log m log n ) and depth O(log n). This refines a classical result of Brent, according to which an arithmetical formula of size n can be transformed into a logarithmic depth circuit of size O(n). Missing proofs can be found in the long version ACM Subject Classification E.4 Data compaction and compression Keywords and phrases grammarbased compression, tree compression, arithmetical circuits Introduction Grammarbased compression has emerged to an active field in string compression during the past 20 years. The idea is to represent a given string s by a small contextfree grammar that generates only s; such a grammar is also called a straightline program, briefly SLP. For instance, the word (ab) 1024 can be represented by the SLP with the productions A 0 → ab and A i → A i−1 A i−1 for 1 ≤ i ≤ 10 (A 10 is the start symbol). The size of this grammar is much smaller than the size (length) of the string (ab) 1024 . In general, an SLP of size n (the size of an SLP is usually defined as the total length of all righthand sides of the productions) can produce a string of length 2 Ω(n) . Hence, an SLP can be seen indeed as a succinct representation of the generated string. The goal of grammarbased string compression is to construct from a given input string s a small SLP that produces s. Several algorithms for this have been proposed and analyzed. Prominent grammarbased string compressors are for instance LZ78, RePair, and BISECTION, see To evaluate the compression performance of a grammarbased compressor C, two different approaches can be found in the literature: A first approach is to analyze the size of the SLP produced by C for an input string x compared to the size of a smallest SLP for x. This leads to the approximation ratio for C, see
XML Compression via DAGs
, 2013
"... Unranked trees can be represented using their minimal dag (directed acyclic graph). For XML this achieves high compression ratios due to their repetitive mark up. Unranked trees are often represented through first child/next sibling (fcns) encoded binary trees. We study the difference in size ( = n ..."
Abstract
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Unranked trees can be represented using their minimal dag (directed acyclic graph). For XML this achieves high compression ratios due to their repetitive mark up. Unranked trees are often represented through first child/next sibling (fcns) encoded binary trees. We study the difference in size ( = number of edges) of minimal dag versus minimal dag of the fcns encoded binary tree. One main finding is that the size of the dag of the binary tree can never be smaller than the square root of the size of the minimal dag, and that there are examples that match this bound. We introduce a new combined structure, the hybrid dag, which is guaranteed to be smaller than (or equal in size to) both dags. Interestingly, we find through experiments that last child/previous sibling encodings are much better for XML compression via dags, than fcns encodings. We determine the average sizes of unranked and binary dags over a given set of labels (under uniform distribution) in terms of their exact generating functions, and in terms of their asymptotical behavior.
A Polynomial Time Algorithm for Deciding Branching Bisimilarity on Totally Normed BPA
, 2014
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