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21
The GF Resource grammar library
 August
, 2002
"... The GF Resource Grammar Library is a set of natural language grammars implemented in GF (Grammatical Framework). These grammars are in a strong sense parallel: they are built upon a common abstract syntax, i.e. a common tree structure. Individual languages are obtained via compositional mappings fro ..."
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Cited by 32 (7 self)
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The GF Resource Grammar Library is a set of natural language grammars implemented in GF (Grammatical Framework). These grammars are in a strong sense parallel: they are built upon a common abstract syntax, i.e. a common tree structure. Individual languages are obtained via compositional mappings from abstract syntax trees to feature structures specific to each language. The grammar defines, for each language, a complete set of morphological paradigms and a syntax fragment comparable to CLE (Core Language Engine). It is available as opensource software under the GNU LGPL License.
Translating formal software specifications to natural language/a grammar based approach
 In Proceedings of Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics (LACL’05
, 2005
"... Abstract. We describe a system for automatically translating formal software specifications to natural language. The system produces natural language which is acceptable to a human reader, and it supports byhand optimization by users who are not experts of our system. The translation system is imple ..."
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Abstract. We describe a system for automatically translating formal software specifications to natural language. The system produces natural language which is acceptable to a human reader, and it supports byhand optimization by users who are not experts of our system. The translation system is implemented using the Grammatical Framework, a grammar formalism based on MartinLöf’s type theory. We show that this grammarbased approach scales well enough to handle a nontrivial case study: translating the Object Constraint Language specifications of the Java Card API into English. 1
Formal and informal software specifications
, 2005
"... The topic of this thesis is to bridge the gap between formal and informal software specifications. Formal specifications are required for the use of formal methods to verify the correctness of software. If we expect formal methods to be used in realistic software development projects, we need to ena ..."
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The topic of this thesis is to bridge the gap between formal and informal software specifications. Formal specifications are required for the use of formal methods to verify the correctness of software. If we expect formal methods to be used in realistic software development projects, we need to enable people with varying levels of familiarity with formal specification languages to understand, maintain and create formal specifications. To address these problems, we provide a tool for translating specifications written in the formal language OCL, a substandard of UML, to natural language. We also provide a multilingual, syntaxdirected editor where OCL and natural language specifications can be edited in parallel. The implementation of our work is to a large extent based on the Grammatical Framework (GF). GF is a grammar formalism based on type theory, which provides a special purpose language for defining grammars, and a compiler for this language. We have developed a GF grammar for specifications
A Polynomial Time Extension of Parallel Multiple ContextFree Grammar
 In LACL 2005
, 2005
"... Abstract. It is already known that parallel multiple contextfree grammar (PMCFG) [1] is an instance of the equivalent formalisms simple literal movement grammar (sLMG) [2,3] and range concatenation grammar (RCG) [4,5]. In this paper we show that by adding the single operation of intersection, borro ..."
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Abstract. It is already known that parallel multiple contextfree grammar (PMCFG) [1] is an instance of the equivalent formalisms simple literal movement grammar (sLMG) [2,3] and range concatenation grammar (RCG) [4,5]. In this paper we show that by adding the single operation of intersection, borrowed from conjunctive grammar [6], PMCFG becomes equivalent to sLMG and RCG. As a corollary we get that PMCFG with intersection describe exactly the class of languages recognizable in polynomial time. The layout of this paper is as follows. The first section contains definitions of the basic grammar formalisms we are interested in. The second section introduces the intersection operation for PMCFG. The third section contains the main result of the paper – that PMCFG extended with the intersection operation is equivalent to simple LMG and RCG. The fourth and last section is a small discussion of the results.
Grammatical Framework (GF) for MT in sublanguage domains
"... Grammatical Framework (GF) is a metalanguage for multilingual linguistic descriptions, which can be used to build rulebased interlingua MT applications in natural sublanguage domains. The GF opensource package contains linguistic and computational resources to facilitate language engineering incl ..."
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Grammatical Framework (GF) is a metalanguage for multilingual linguistic descriptions, which can be used to build rulebased interlingua MT applications in natural sublanguage domains. The GF opensource package contains linguistic and computational resources to facilitate language engineering including: a resource grammar library for ten languages, a user interface for multilingual authoring and a grammar development environment. 1
Hyperintensional Semantics in A HigherOrder Logic with Definable Subtypes
 Lambda Calculus, Type Theory, and Natural Language
, 2005
"... Higher order grammar (HOG) is a linguistic formalism that aims to combine the advantages of existing constraintbased formalisms (such as HPSG) and prooftheoretic ones (such as categorial grammar) by using higherorder logic (HOL) as the description language; the underlying intuitionistic type syst ..."
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Higher order grammar (HOG) is a linguistic formalism that aims to combine the advantages of existing constraintbased formalisms (such as HPSG) and prooftheoretic ones (such as categorial grammar) by using higherorder logic (HOL) as the description language; the underlying intuitionistic type system plays a role analogous to that of a categorial type logic, while the classical higherorder term logic serves to impose constraints (analogous to the role played by RSRL in HPSG). Here we focus on semantics, showing how the use of a HOL with definable substypes leads to a novel and surprisingly straightforward solution of the notorious granularity problem about naturallanguage (NL) meanings. We also call attention to a hitherto unnoticed problem in standard approaches to NL semantics having to do with nonprincipal ultrafilters and show why it does not arise under our proposal. The two main technical innovations that make the proposal work are (1) axiomatization of NL entailment as a preorder (as opposed to an order) on the set of (primitive) propositions, and (2) definition of the set of worlds as a certain subset of the powerset of the set of propositions.
Practical parsing of parallel multiple contextfree grammars
 In Proceedings of TAG+11, the 11th International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammar and Related Formalisms
"... Abstract We discuss four previously published parsing algorithms for parallell multiple contextfree grammar (PMCFG), and argue that they are similar to each other, and implement an Earleystyle topdown algorithm. Starting from one of these algorithms, we derive three modifications one bottomup ..."
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Abstract We discuss four previously published parsing algorithms for parallell multiple contextfree grammar (PMCFG), and argue that they are similar to each other, and implement an Earleystyle topdown algorithm. Starting from one of these algorithms, we derive three modifications one bottomup and two variants using a left corner filter. An evaluation shows that substantial improvements can be made by using the algorithm that performs best on a given grammar. The algorithms are implemented in Python and released under an opensource licence. We start by introducing the necessary concepts. Then we discuss four previously published PMCFG algorithms, and argue that they are similar. We take Angelov (2009) as a starting point for introducing three new parsing strategies. Finally we discuss various optimizations of the parsing strategies and give a small evaluation.