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Fundamental Cognitive Concepts of Space (and Time): Using CrossLinguistic, Crowdsourced Data to Cognitively Calibrate Modes of Overlap
, 2013
"... This article makes several contributions to research on fundamental spatial and temporal concepts: First, we set out to render the notion of fundamental concepts of space and time more precise. Second, we introduce an efficient approach for collecting behavioral data combining crowdsourcing techno ..."
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This article makes several contributions to research on fundamental spatial and temporal concepts: First, we set out to render the notion of fundamental concepts of space and time more precise. Second, we introduce an efficient approach for collecting behavioral data combining crowdsourcing technology, efficient experimental software tools, and an effective and comprehensive analysis methodology. Third, we present behavioral studies that allow for identifying and calibrating potential candidates of fundamental spatial concepts from a cognitive perspective. Fourth, one prominent topic in the area of spatiotemporal cognition is the influence of language on how humans conceptualize their dynamic spatial environments. We used the aforementioned framework to collect data not only from English speaking participants but also from native Chinese and Korean speakers. Our application domain are the modes of overlap proposed by Galton [13]. We are able to show that the originally proposed spatial relations of the region connection calculus and intersection models are capturing cognitively fundamental distinctions that humans make with respect to modes of overlap. While finer distinctions are formally possible, they should not be considered fundamental conceptualizations in either Chinese, Korean, or English. The results show that our framework allows for efficiently answering questions about fundamental concepts of space, time, and spacetime essential for theories of spatial information.
A.: Investigating intuitive granularities of overlap relations
 In: Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics & Cognitive Computing
, 2013
"... Abstract—We present four human behavioral experiments to address the question of intuitive granularities in fundamental spatial relations as they can be found in formal spatial calculi that focus on invariant characteristics under certain (especially topological) transformations. Of particular inter ..."
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Abstract—We present four human behavioral experiments to address the question of intuitive granularities in fundamental spatial relations as they can be found in formal spatial calculi that focus on invariant characteristics under certain (especially topological) transformations. Of particular interest to this article is the concept of two spatially extended entities overlapping each other. The overlap concept has been extensively treated in Galton’s mode of overlap calculus [1]. In the first two experiments, we used a category construction task to calibrate this calculus against behavioral data and found that participants adopted a very coarse view on the concept of overlap, only distinguishing between three general relations: proper part, overlap, and nonoverlap. In the following two experiments, we changed the instructions to explicitly address the possibility that humans could be swayed to adopt a more detailed level of granularity, that is, we encouraged them to create as many meaningful groups as possible. The results show that the three relations identified earlier (overlap, nonoverlap, and proper part) are very robust and a natural level of granularity across all four experiments but that contextual factors gain more influence at finer levels of granularity. I.
Swiss Canton Regions: A Model for Complex Objects in Geographic Partitions
"... Abstract. Spatial regions are a fundamental abstraction of geographic phenomena. While simple regions—disklike and simply connected—prevail, in partitions complex configurations with holes and/or separations occur often as well. Swiss cantons are one highlighting example of these, bringing in addit ..."
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Abstract. Spatial regions are a fundamental abstraction of geographic phenomena. While simple regions—disklike and simply connected—prevail, in partitions complex configurations with holes and/or separations occur often as well. Swiss cantons are one highlighting example of these, bringing in addition variations of holes and separations with point contacts. This paper develops a formalism to construct topologically distinct configurations based on simple regions. Using an extension to the compound object model, this paper contributes a method for explicitly constructing a complex region, called a canton region, and also provides a mechanism to determine the corresponding complement of such a region.
M.J.: From Metric to Topology: Determining Relations in Discrete Space
, 2015
"... Abstract. This paper considers the nineteen planar discrete topological relations that apply to regions bounded by a digital Jordan curve. Rather than modeling the topological relations with purely topological means, metrics are developed that determine the topological relations. Two sets of five su ..."
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Abstract. This paper considers the nineteen planar discrete topological relations that apply to regions bounded by a digital Jordan curve. Rather than modeling the topological relations with purely topological means, metrics are developed that determine the topological relations. Two sets of five such metrics are found to be minimal and sufficient to uniquely identify each of the nineteen topological relations. Key to distinguishing all nineteen relations are regions ’ margins (i.e., the neighborhood of their boundaries). Deriving topological relations from metric properties in ℝ! vs. ℤ! reveals that the eight binary topological relations between two simple regions in ℝ! can be distinguished by a minimal set of six metrics, whereas in ℤ!, a more finegrained set of relations (19) can be distinguished by a smaller set of metrics (5). Determining discrete topological relations from metrics enables not only the refinement of the set of known topological relations in the digital plane, but further enables the processing of raster images where the topological relation is not explicitly stored by reverting to mere pixel counts.
Intuitive Direction Concepts
"... Abstract Experiments in this article test the hypothesis that formal direction models used in artificial intelligence correspond to intuitive direction concepts of humans. Cognitively adequate formal models of spatial relations are important for information retrieval tasks, cognitive robotics, and ..."
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Abstract Experiments in this article test the hypothesis that formal direction models used in artificial intelligence correspond to intuitive direction concepts of humans. Cognitively adequate formal models of spatial relations are important for information retrieval tasks, cognitive robotics, and multiple spatial reasoning applications. We detail two experiments using two objects (airplanes) systematically located in relation to each other. Participants performed a grouping task to make their intuitive direction concepts explicit. The results reveal an important, so far insufficiently discussed aspect of cognitive direction concepts: Intuitive (natural) direction concepts do not follow a onesizefitsall strategy. The behavioral data only forms a clear picture after participants' competing strategies are identified and separated into categories (groups) themselves. The results are important for researchers and designers of spatial formalisms as they demonstrate that modeling cognitive direction concepts formally requires a flexible approach to capture group differences.
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"... IOS Press Place reference systems A constructive activity model of reference to places ..."
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IOS Press Place reference systems A constructive activity model of reference to places
1 Cognitive Evaluation of Spatial Formalisms: Intuitive Granularities of Overlap Relations *
"... We present four human behavioral experiments to address the question of intuitive granularities in fundamental spatial relations as they can be found in formal spatial calculi. These calculi focus on invariant characteristics under certain (especially topological) transformations. Of particular inte ..."
Abstract
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We present four human behavioral experiments to address the question of intuitive granularities in fundamental spatial relations as they can be found in formal spatial calculi. These calculi focus on invariant characteristics under certain (especially topological) transformations. Of particular interest to this article is the concept of two spatially extended entities overlapping each other. The overlap concept has been extensively treated in Galton’s mode of overlap calculus [1]. In the first two experiments, we used a category construction task to calibrate this calculus against behavioral data and found that participants adopted a very coarse view on the concept of overlap and distinguished only between three general relations: proper part, overlap, and nonoverlap. In the following two experiments, we changed the instructions to explicitly address the possibility that humans could be swayed to adopt a more detailed level of granularity, that is, we encouraged them to create as many meaningful groups as possible. The results show that the three relations identified in the first two experiments (overlap, nonoverlap, and proper part) are very robust and a natural level of granularity across all four experiments. However, the results also reveal that contextual factors gain more influence at finer levels of granularity. 1