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ℓdiversity: Privacy beyond kanonymity
 IN ICDE
, 2006
"... Publishing data about individuals without revealing sensitive information about them is an important problem. In recent years, a new definition of privacy called kanonymity has gained popularity. In a kanonymized dataset, each record is indistinguishable from at least k − 1 other records with resp ..."
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Cited by 672 (13 self)
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Publishing data about individuals without revealing sensitive information about them is an important problem. In recent years, a new definition of privacy called kanonymity has gained popularity. In a kanonymized dataset, each record is indistinguishable from at least k − 1 other records with respect to certain “identifying ” attributes. In this paper we show using two simple attacks that a kanonymized dataset has some subtle, but severe privacy problems. First, an attacker can discover the values of sensitive attributes when there is little diversity in those sensitive attributes. This kind of attack is a known problem [60]. Second, attackers often have background knowledge, and we show that kanonymity does not guarantee privacy against attackers using background knowledge. We give a detailed analysis of these two attacks and we propose a novel and powerful privacy criterion called ℓdiversity that can defend against such attacks. In addition to building a formal foundation for ℓdiversity, we show in an experimental evaluation that ℓdiversity is practical and can be implemented efficiently.
Differential privacy: A survey of results
 In Theory and Applications of Models of Computation
, 2008
"... Abstract. Over the past five years a new approach to privacypreserving ..."
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Cited by 258 (0 self)
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Abstract. Over the past five years a new approach to privacypreserving
Practical privacy: the sulq framework
 In PODS ’05: Proceedings of the twentyfourth ACM SIGMODSIGACTSIGART symposium on Principles of database systems
, 2005
"... We consider a statistical database in which a trusted administrator introduces noise to the query responses with the goal of maintaining privacy of individual database entries. In such a database, a query consists of a pair (S, f) where S is a set of rows in the database and f is a function mapping ..."
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Cited by 223 (35 self)
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We consider a statistical database in which a trusted administrator introduces noise to the query responses with the goal of maintaining privacy of individual database entries. In such a database, a query consists of a pair (S, f) where S is a set of rows in the database and f is a function mapping database rows to {0, 1}. The true answer is P i∈S f(di), and a noisy version is released as the response to the query. Results of Dinur, Dwork, and Nissim show that a strong form of privacy can be maintained using a surprisingly small amount of noise – much less than the sampling error – provided the total number of queries is sublinear in the number of database rows. We call this query and (slightly) noisy reply the SuLQ (SubLinear Queries) primitive. The assumption of sublinearity becomes reasonable as databases grow increasingly large. We extend this work in two ways. First, we modify the privacy analysis to realvalued functions f and arbitrary row types, as a consequence greatly improving the bounds on noise required for privacy. Second, we examine the computational power of the SuLQ primitive. We show that it is very powerful indeed, in that slightly noisy versions of the following computations can be carried out with very few invocations of the primitive: principal component analysis, k means clustering, the Perceptron Algorithm, the ID3 algorithm, and (apparently!) all algorithms that operate in the in the statistical query learning model [11].
A learning theory approach to noninteractive database privacy
 In Proceedings of the 40th annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing
, 2008
"... In this paper we demonstrate that, ignoring computational constraints, it is possible to release synthetic databases that are useful for accurately answering large classes of queries while preserving differential privacy. Specifically, we give a mechanism that privately releases synthetic data usefu ..."
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Cited by 220 (25 self)
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In this paper we demonstrate that, ignoring computational constraints, it is possible to release synthetic databases that are useful for accurately answering large classes of queries while preserving differential privacy. Specifically, we give a mechanism that privately releases synthetic data useful for answering a class of queries over a discrete domain with error that grows as a function of the size of the smallest net approximately representing the answers to that class of queries. We show that this in particular implies a mechanism for counting queries that gives error guarantees that grow only with the VCdimension of the class of queries, which itself grows at most logarithmically with the size of the query class. We also show that it is not possible to release even simple classes of queries (such as intervals and their generalizations) over continuous domains with worstcase utility guarantees while preserving differential privacy. In response to this, we consider a relaxation of the utility guarantee and give a privacy preserving polynomial time algorithm that for any halfspace query will provide an answer that is accurate for some small perturbation of the query. This algorithm does not release synthetic data, but instead another data structure capable of representing an answer for each query. We also give an efficient algorithm for releasing synthetic data for the class of interval queries and axisaligned rectangles of constant dimension over discrete domains. 1.
Wherefore Art Thou R3579X? Anonymized Social Networks, Hidden Patterns, and Structural Steganography
, 2007
"... In a social network, nodes correspond to people or other social entities, and edges correspond to social links between them. In an effort to preserve privacy, the practice of anonymization replaces names with meaningless unique identifiers. We describe a family of attacks such that even from a singl ..."
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Cited by 220 (2 self)
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In a social network, nodes correspond to people or other social entities, and edges correspond to social links between them. In an effort to preserve privacy, the practice of anonymization replaces names with meaningless unique identifiers. We describe a family of attacks such that even from a single anonymized copy of a social network, it is possible for an adversary to learn whether edges exist or not between specific targeted pairs of nodes.
PrivacyPreserving Data Publishing: A Survey on Recent Developments
"... The collection of digital information by governments, corporations, and individuals has created tremendous opportunities for knowledge and informationbased decision making. Driven by mutual benefits, or by regulations that require certain data to be published, there is a demand for the exchange an ..."
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Cited by 219 (16 self)
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The collection of digital information by governments, corporations, and individuals has created tremendous opportunities for knowledge and informationbased decision making. Driven by mutual benefits, or by regulations that require certain data to be published, there is a demand for the exchange and publication of data among various parties. Data in its original form, however, typically contains sensitive information about individuals, and publishing such data will violate individual privacy. The current practice in data publishing relies mainly on policies and guidelines as to what types of data can be published, and agreements on the use of published data. This approach alone may lead to excessive data distortion or insufficient protection. Privacypreserving data publishing (PPDP) provides methods and tools for publishing useful information while preserving data privacy. Recently, PPDP has received considerable attention in research communities, and many approaches have been proposed for different data publishing scenarios. In this survey, we will systematically summarize and evaluate different approaches to PPDP, study the challenges in practical data publishing, clarify the differences and requirements that distinguish PPDP from other related problems, and propose future research directions.
Smooth sensitivity and sampling in private data analysis
 In STOC
, 2007
"... We introduce a new, generic framework for private data analysis. The goal of private data analysis is to release aggregate information about a data set while protecting the privacy of the individuals whose information the data set contains. Our framework allows one to release functions f of the data ..."
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Cited by 173 (16 self)
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We introduce a new, generic framework for private data analysis. The goal of private data analysis is to release aggregate information about a data set while protecting the privacy of the individuals whose information the data set contains. Our framework allows one to release functions f of the data with instancebased additive noise. That is, the noise magnitude is determined not only by the function we want to release, but also by the database itself. One of the challenges is to ensure that the noise magnitude does not leak information about the database. To address that, we calibrate the noise magnitude to the smooth sensitivity of f on the database x — a measure of variability of f in the neighborhood of the instance x. The new framework greatly expands the applicability of output perturbation, a technique for protecting individuals ’ privacy by adding a small amount of random noise to the released statistics. To our knowledge, this is the first formal analysis of the effect of instancebased noise in the context of data privacy. Our framework raises many interesting algorithmic questions. Namely, to apply the framework one must compute or approximate the smooth sensitivity of f on x. We show how to do this efficiently for several different functions, including the median and the cost of the minimum spanning tree. We also give a generic procedure based on sampling that allows one to release f(x) accurately on many databases x. This procedure is applicable even when no efficient algorithm for approximating smooth sensitivity of f is known or when f is given as a black box. We illustrate the procedure by applying it to kSED (kmeans) clustering and learning mixtures of Gaussians.
Our Data, Ourselves: Privacy via Distributed Noise Generation
 In EUROCRYPT
, 2006
"... Abstract. In this work we provide efficient distributed protocols for generating shares of random noise, secure against malicious participants. The purpose of the noise generation is to create a distributed implementation of the privacypreserving statistical databases described in recent papers [14 ..."
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Cited by 152 (15 self)
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Abstract. In this work we provide efficient distributed protocols for generating shares of random noise, secure against malicious participants. The purpose of the noise generation is to create a distributed implementation of the privacypreserving statistical databases described in recent papers [14,4,13]. In these databases, privacy is obtained by perturbing the true answer to a database query by the addition of a small amount of Gaussian or exponentially distributed random noise. The computational power of evenasimple form of these databases, when the queryis just of the form È i f(di), that is, the sum over all rows i in the database of a function f applied to the data in row i, has been demonstrated in [4]. A distributed implementation eliminates the need for a trusted database administrator. The results for noise generation are of independent interest. The generation of Gaussian noise introduces a technique for distributing shares of many unbiased coins with fewer executions of verifiable secret sharing than would be needed using previous approaches (reduced by afactorofn). The generation of exponentially distributed noise uses two shallow circuits: one for generating many arbitrarily but identically biased coins at an amortized cost of two unbiased random bits apiece, independent of the bias, and the other to combine bits of appropriate biases to obtain an exponential distribution. 1
A firm foundation for private data analysis
 Commun. ACM
"... In the information realm, loss of privacy is usually associated with failure to control access to information, to control the flow of information, or to control the purposes for which information is employed. Differential privacy arose in a context in which ensuring privacy is a challenge even if al ..."
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Cited by 139 (3 self)
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In the information realm, loss of privacy is usually associated with failure to control access to information, to control the flow of information, or to control the purposes for which information is employed. Differential privacy arose in a context in which ensuring privacy is a challenge even if all these control problems are solved: privacypreserving statistical analysis of data. The problem of statistical disclosure control – revealing accurate statistics about a set of respondents while preserving the privacy of individuals – has a venerable history, with an extensive literature spanning statistics, theoretical computer science, security, databases, and cryptography (see, for example, the excellent survey [1], the discussion of related work in [2] and the Journal of Official Statistics 9 (2), dedicated to confidentiality and disclosure control). This long history
Personalized Privacy Preservation
 SIGMOD 2006
, 2006
"... We study generalization for preserving privacy in publication of sensitive data. The existing methods focus on a universal approach that exerts the same amount of preservation for all persons, without catering for their concrete needs. The consequence is that we may be offering insufficient protecti ..."
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Cited by 132 (7 self)
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We study generalization for preserving privacy in publication of sensitive data. The existing methods focus on a universal approach that exerts the same amount of preservation for all persons, without catering for their concrete needs. The consequence is that we may be offering insufficient protection to a subset of people, while applying excessive privacy control to another subset. Motivated by this, we present a new generalization framework based on the concept of personalized anonymity. Our technique performs the minimum generalization for satisfying everybody’s requirements, and thus, retains the largest amount of information from the microdata. We carry out a careful theoretical study that leads to valuable insight into the behavior of alternative solutions. In particular, our analysis mathematically reveals the circumstances where the previous work fails to protect privacy, and establishes the superiority of the proposed solutions. The theoretical findings are verified with extensive experiments.