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**1 - 2**of**2**### b Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes

, 2013

"... We discuss the presence of exotic electromagnetic phenomena in systems with finite charge density which are described by hydrodynamics. We show that such sys-tems generically have negative refractive index for low frequencies electromagnetic waves, i.e. the energy flux and the phase velocity of the ..."

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We discuss the presence of exotic electromagnetic phenomena in systems with finite charge density which are described by hydrodynamics. We show that such sys-tems generically have negative refractive index for low frequencies electromagnetic waves, i.e. the energy flux and the phase velocity of the wave propagate in opposite directions. We comment on possible phenomenological applications, focusing on the Quark Gluon Plasma.

### Negative Refraction and Superconductivity

, 2013

"... We discuss exotic properties of charged hydrodynamical systems, in the broken superconducting phase, probed by electromagnetic waves. Motivated by general arguments from hydrodynamics, we observe that negative refraction, namely the propagation in opposite directions of the phase velocities and of t ..."

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We discuss exotic properties of charged hydrodynamical systems, in the broken superconducting phase, probed by electromagnetic waves. Motivated by general arguments from hydrodynamics, we observe that negative refraction, namely the propagation in opposite directions of the phase velocities and of the energy flux, is expected for low enough frequencies. We corroborate this general idea by analyzing a holographic superconductor in the AdS/CFT correspondence, where the response functions can be explicitly computed. We study the dual gravitational theory both in the probe and in the backreacted case. We find that, while in the first case the refractive index is positive at every frequency, in the second case there is negative refraction at low enough frequencies. This is in agreement with hydrodynamic considerations.