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527
The iSLIP Scheduling Algorithm for InputQueued Switches
, 1999
"... An increasing number of high performance internetworking protocol routers, LAN and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switches use a switched backplane based on a crossbar switch. Most often, these systems use input queues to hold packets waiting to traverse the switching fabric. It is well known th ..."
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Cited by 425 (8 self)
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An increasing number of high performance internetworking protocol routers, LAN and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switches use a switched backplane based on a crossbar switch. Most often, these systems use input queues to hold packets waiting to traverse the switching fabric. It is well known that if simple first in first out (FIFO) input queues are used to hold packets then, even under benign conditions, headofline (HOL) blocking limits the achievable bandwidth to approximately 58.6 % of the maximum. HOL blocking can be overcome by the use of virtual output queueing, which is described in this paper. A scheduling algorithm is used to configure the crossbar switch, deciding the order in which packets will be served. Recent results have shown that with a suitable scheduling algorithm, 100 % throughput can be achieved. In this paper, we present a scheduling algorithm called iSLIP. An iterative, roundrobin algorithm, iSLIP can achieve 100% throughput for uniform traffic, yet is simple to implement in hardware. Iterative and noniterative versions of the algorithms are presented, along with modified versions for prioritized traffic. Simulation results are presented to indicate the performance of iSLIP under benign and bursty traffic conditions. Prototype and commercial implementations of iSLIP exist in systems with aggregate bandwidths ranging from 50 to 500 Gb/s. When the traffic is nonuniform, iSLIP quickly adapts to a fair scheduling policy that is guaranteed never to starve an input queue. Finally, we describe the implementation complexity of iSLIP. Based on a twodimensional (2D) array of priority encoders, singlechip schedulers have been built supporting up to 32 ports, and making approximately 100 million scheduling decisions per second.
Dynamic Power Allocation and Routing for Time Varying Wireless Networks
 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
, 2003
"... We consider dynamic routing and power allocation for a wireless network with time varying channels. The network consists of power constrained nodes which transmit over wireless links with adaptive transmission rates. Packets randomly enter the system at each node and wait in output queues to be tran ..."
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Cited by 358 (73 self)
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We consider dynamic routing and power allocation for a wireless network with time varying channels. The network consists of power constrained nodes which transmit over wireless links with adaptive transmission rates. Packets randomly enter the system at each node and wait in output queues to be transmitted through the network to their destinations. We establish the capacity region of all rate matrices (# ij ) that the system can stably supportwhere (# ij ) represents the rate of traffic originating at node i and destined for node j. A joint routing and power allocation policy is developed which stabilizes the system and provides bounded average delay guarantees whenever the input rates are within this capacity region. Such performance holds for general arrival and channel state processes, even if these processes are unknown to the network controller. We then apply this control algorithm to an adhoc wireless network where channel variations are due to user mobility, and compare its performance with the GrossglauserTse relay model developed in [13].
Fairness and optimal stochastic control for heterogeneous networks
 Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, March 2005. TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL
, 2008
"... Abstract — We consider optimal control for general networks with both wireless and wireline components and time varying channels. A dynamic strategy is developed to support all traffic whenever possible, and to make optimally fair decisions about which data to serve when inputs exceed network capaci ..."
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Cited by 266 (63 self)
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Abstract — We consider optimal control for general networks with both wireless and wireline components and time varying channels. A dynamic strategy is developed to support all traffic whenever possible, and to make optimally fair decisions about which data to serve when inputs exceed network capacity. The strategy is decoupled into separate algorithms for flow control, routing, and resource allocation, and allows each user to make decisions independent of the actions of others. The combined strategy is shown to yield data rates that are arbitrarily close to the optimal operating point achieved when all network controllers are coordinated and have perfect knowledge of future events. The cost of approaching this fair operating point is an endtoend delay increase for data that is served by the network.
Matching output queueing with a combined input output queued switch
 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS
, 1999
"... The Internet is facing two problems simultaneously: there is a need for a faster switching/routing infrastructure, and a need to introduce guaranteed qualities of service (QoS). Each problem can be solved independently: switches and routers can be made faster by using inputqueued crossbars, instead ..."
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Cited by 191 (21 self)
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The Internet is facing two problems simultaneously: there is a need for a faster switching/routing infrastructure, and a need to introduce guaranteed qualities of service (QoS). Each problem can be solved independently: switches and routers can be made faster by using inputqueued crossbars, instead of shared memory systems; and QoS can be provided using WFQbased packet scheduling. However, until now, the two solutions have been mutually exclusive  all of the work on WFQbased scheduling algorithms has required that switches/routers use outputqueueing, or centralized shared memory. This paper demonstrates that a Combined Input Output Queueing (CIOQ) switch running twice as fast as an inputqueued switch can provide precise emulation of a broad class of packet scheduling algorithms, including WFQ and strict priorities. More precisely, we show that for an switch, a "speedup" of is necessary and a speedup of two is sufficient for this exact emulation. Perhaps most interestingly, this result holds for all traffic arrival patterns. On its own, the result is primarily a theoretical observation; it shows that it is possible to emulate purely OQ switches with CIOQ switches running at approximately twice the linerate. To make the result more practical, we introduce several scheduling algorithms that, with a speedup of two, can emulate an OQ switch. We focus our attention on the simplest of these algorithms, Critical Cells First (CCF), and consider its runningtime and implementation complexity. We conclude that additional techniques are required to make the scheduling algorithms implementable at high speed, and propose two specific strategies.
Energy optimal control for time varying wireless networks
 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory
, 2006
"... Abstract — We develop a dynamic control strategy for minimizing energy expenditure in a time varying wireless network with adaptive transmission rates. The algorithm operates without knowledge of traffic rates or channel statistics, and yields average power that is arbitrarily close to the minimum p ..."
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Cited by 184 (50 self)
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Abstract — We develop a dynamic control strategy for minimizing energy expenditure in a time varying wireless network with adaptive transmission rates. The algorithm operates without knowledge of traffic rates or channel statistics, and yields average power that is arbitrarily close to the minimum possible value achieved by an algorithm optimized with complete knowledge of future events. Proximity to this optimal solution is shown to be inversely proportional to network delay. We then present a similar algorithm that solves the related problem of maximizing network throughput subject to peak and average power constraints. The techniques used in this paper are novel and establish a foundation for stochastic network optimization.
A Distributed CSMA Algorithm for Throughput and Utility Maximization in Wireless Networks
"... In multihop wireless networks, designing distributed scheduling algorithms to achieve the maximal throughput is a challenging problem because of the complex interference constraints among different links. Traditional maximalweight (MW) scheduling, although throughputoptimal, is difficult to imple ..."
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Cited by 181 (8 self)
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In multihop wireless networks, designing distributed scheduling algorithms to achieve the maximal throughput is a challenging problem because of the complex interference constraints among different links. Traditional maximalweight (MW) scheduling, although throughputoptimal, is difficult to implement in distributed networks; whereas a distributed greedy protocol similar to IEEE 802.11 does not guarantee the maximal throughput. In this paper, we introduce an adaptive CSMA scheduling algorithm that can achieve the maximal throughput distributedly under some assumptions. Major advantages of the algorithm include: (1) It applies to a very general interference model; (2) It is simple, distributed and asynchronous. Furthermore, we combine the algorithm with endtoend flow control to achieve the optimal utility and fairness of competing flows. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by simulations. Finally, we consider some implementation issues in the setting of 802.11 networks.
HighSpeed Policybased Packet Forwarding Using Efficient Multidimensional Range Matching
 In ACM SIGCOMM
, 1998
"... The ability to provide differentiated services to users with widely varying requirements is becoming increasingly important, and Internet Service Providers would like to provide these differentiated services using the same shared network infrastructure. The key mechanism, that enables differentiatio ..."
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Cited by 172 (0 self)
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The ability to provide differentiated services to users with widely varying requirements is becoming increasingly important, and Internet Service Providers would like to provide these differentiated services using the same shared network infrastructure. The key mechanism, that enables differentiation in a connectionless network, is the packet classification function that parses the headers of the packets, and after determining their context, classifies them based on administrative policies or realtime reservation decisions. Packet classification, however, is a complex operation that can become the bottleneck in routers that try to support gigabit link capacities. Hence, many proposals for differentiated services only require classification at lower speed edge routers and also avoid classification based on multiple fields in the packet header even if it might be advantageous to service providers. In this paper, we present new packet classification schemes that, with a worstcase and tr...
Maxweight scheduling in a generalized switch: State space collapse and workload minimization in heavy traffic. The Annals of Applied Probability,
, 2004
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Maximizing Throughput in Wireless Networks via Gossiping
, 2006
"... A major challenge in the design of wireless networks is the need for distributed scheduling algorithms that will efficiently share the common spectrum. Recently, a few distributed algorithms for networks in which a node can converse with at most a single neighbor at a time have been presented. These ..."
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Cited by 146 (30 self)
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A major challenge in the design of wireless networks is the need for distributed scheduling algorithms that will efficiently share the common spectrum. Recently, a few distributed algorithms for networks in which a node can converse with at most a single neighbor at a time have been presented. These algorithms guarantee 50 % of the maximum possible throughput. We present the first distributed scheduling framework that guarantees maximum throughput. It is based on a combination of a distributed matching algorithm and an algorithm that compares and merges successive matching solutions. The comparison can be done by a deterministic algorithm or by randomized gossip algorithms. In the latter case, the comparison may be inaccurate. Yet, we show that if the matching and gossip algorithms satisfy simple conditions related to their performance and to the inaccuracy of the comparison (respectively), the framework attains the desired throughput. It is shown that the complexities of our algorithms, that achieve nearly 100 % throughput, are comparable to those of the algorithms that achieve 50 % throughput. Finally, we discuss extensions to general interference models. Even for such models, the framework provides a simple distributed throughput optimal algorithm.