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208
Probabilistic model checking of the IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network protocol
 Proc. 2nd Joint International Workshop on Process Algebra and Probabilistic Methods, Performance Modeling and Verification (PAPM/PROBMIV’02), volume 2399 of LNCS
, 2002
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D.: Symmetry reduction for probabilistic model checking
 International Organization for Standardization. ISO Information Processing Systems  Data Communication HighLevel Data Link Control Procedure  Frame Structure. IS 3309
, 2006
"... Abstract. We present an approach for applying symmetry reduction techniques to probabilistic model checking, a formal verification method for the quantitative analysis of systems with stochastic characteristics. We target systems with a set of nontrivial, but interchangeable, components such as tho ..."
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Cited by 45 (13 self)
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Abstract. We present an approach for applying symmetry reduction techniques to probabilistic model checking, a formal verification method for the quantitative analysis of systems with stochastic characteristics. We target systems with a set of nontrivial, but interchangeable, components such as those which commonly arise in randomised distributed algorithms or probabilistic communication protocols. We show, for three types of probabilistic models, that symmetry reduction, similarly to the nonprobabilistic case, allows verification to instead be performed on a bisimilar quotient model which may be up to factorially smaller. We then propose an efficient algorithm for the construction of the quotient model using a symbolic implementation based on multiterminal binary decision diagrams (MTBDDs) and, using four large case studies, demonstrate that this approach offers not only a dramatic increase in the size of probabilistic model which can be quantitatively analysed but also a significant decrease in the corresponding runtimes. 1
Stochastic Bigraphs
 MFPS 2008
, 2008
"... In this paper we present a stochastic semantics for Bigraphical Reactive Systems. A reduction and a labelled stochastic semantics for bigraphs are defined. As a sanity check, we prove that the two semantics are consistent with each other. We illustrate the expressiveness of the framework with an exa ..."
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Cited by 44 (13 self)
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In this paper we present a stochastic semantics for Bigraphical Reactive Systems. A reduction and a labelled stochastic semantics for bigraphs are defined. As a sanity check, we prove that the two semantics are consistent with each other. We illustrate the expressiveness of the framework with an example of membrane budding in a biological system.
A.: RequirementsAware Systems. A Research Agenda for RE For SelfAdaptive Systems
 In: 18th International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE 2010), IEEE (2010) 95
"... Abstract — Requirements are sensitive to the context in which the systemtobe must operate. Where such context is wellunderstood and is static or evolves slowly, existing RE techniques can be made to work well. Increasingly, however, development projects are being challenged to build systems to op ..."
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Cited by 41 (15 self)
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Abstract — Requirements are sensitive to the context in which the systemtobe must operate. Where such context is wellunderstood and is static or evolves slowly, existing RE techniques can be made to work well. Increasingly, however, development projects are being challenged to build systems to operate in contexts that are volatile over short periods in ways that are imperfectly understood. Such systems need to be able to adapt to new environmental contexts dynamically, but the contextual uncertainty that demands this selfadaptive ability makes it hard to formulate, validate and manage their requirements. Different contexts may demand different requirements tradeoffs. Unanticipated contexts may even lead to entirely new requirements. To help counter this uncertainty, we argue that requirements for selfadaptive systems should be runtime entities that can be reasoned over in order to understand the extent to which they are being satisfied and to support adaptation decisions that can take advantage of the systems ’ selfadaptive machinery. We take our representations of software architectures used to be considered designtimeonly entities but computational reflection showed that architectural concerns could be represented at runtime too, helping systems to dynamically reconfigure themselves according to changing context. We propose to use analogous mechanisms to achieve requirements reflection. In this paper we discuss the ideas that support requirements reflection as a means to articulate some of the outstanding research challenges. Keywords Requirements, reflection, runtime, selfadaptive systems I.
2007): Bisimulation Minimisation Mostly Speeds Up Probabilistic Model Checking
 In: Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, 13th International Conference (TACAS’07), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4424
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Cited by 40 (9 self)
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The following full text is a publisher's version.
Ymer: A statistical model checker
 COMPUTER AIDED VERIFICATION. LNCS
, 2005
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On combining functional verification and performance evaluation using CADP
 FME 2002: International Symposium of Formal Methods Europe, volume 2391 of LNCS
, 2002
"... Abstract. Considering functional correctness and performance evaluation in a common framework is desirable, both for scientific and economic reasons. In this paper, we describe how the Cadp toolbox, originally designed for verifying the functional correctness of Lotos specifications, can also be use ..."
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Cited by 37 (8 self)
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Abstract. Considering functional correctness and performance evaluation in a common framework is desirable, both for scientific and economic reasons. In this paper, we describe how the Cadp toolbox, originally designed for verifying the functional correctness of Lotos specifications, can also be used for performance evaluation. We illustrate the proposed approach by the performance study of the Scsi2 bus arbitration protocol. 1
Quantitative Verification: Models, Techniques and Tools
, 2007
"... Automated verification is a technique for establishing if certain properties, usually expressed in temporal logic, hold for a system model. The model can be defined using a highlevel formalism or extracted directly from software using methods such as abstract interpretation. The verification procee ..."
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Cited by 35 (15 self)
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Automated verification is a technique for establishing if certain properties, usually expressed in temporal logic, hold for a system model. The model can be defined using a highlevel formalism or extracted directly from software using methods such as abstract interpretation. The verification proceeds through exhaustive exploration of the statetransition graph of the model and is therefore more powerful than testing. Quantitative verification is an analogous technique for establishing quantitative properties of a system model, such as the probability of battery power dropping below minimum, the expected time for message delivery and the expected number of messages lost before protocol termination. Models analysed through this method are typically variants of Markov chains, annotated with costs and rewards that describe resources and their usage during execution. Properties are expressed in temporal logic extended with probabilistic and reward operators. Quantitative verification involves a combination of a traversal of the statetransition graph of the model and numerical computation. This paper gives a brief overview of current research in quantitative verification, concentrating on the potential of the method and outlining future challenges. The modelling approach is described and the usefulness of the methodology illustrated with an example of a realworld protocol standard – Bluetooth device discovery – that has been analysed using the PRISM model checker (www.prismmodelchecker.org).
Motion planning and control from temporal logic specifications with probabilistic satisfaction guarantees
 in ICRA, 2010
"... Abstract — We present a computational framework for automatic deployment of a robot from a temporal logic specification over a set of properties of interest satisfied at the regions of a partitioned environment. We assume that, during the motion of the robot in the environment, the current region c ..."
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Cited by 32 (5 self)
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Abstract — We present a computational framework for automatic deployment of a robot from a temporal logic specification over a set of properties of interest satisfied at the regions of a partitioned environment. We assume that, during the motion of the robot in the environment, the current region can be precisely determined, while due to sensor and actuation noise, the outcome of a control action can only be predicted probabilistically. Under these assumptions, the deployment problem translates to generating a control strategy for a Markov Decision Process (MDP) from a temporal logic formula. We propose an algorithm inspired from probabilistic Computation Tree Logic (PCTL) model checking to find a control strategy that maximizes the probability of satisfying the specification. We illustrate our method with simulation and experimental results. I.
Counterexample generation in probabilistic model checking
 IEEE TRANS. ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
, 2009
"... Providing evidence for the refutation of a property is an essential, if not the most important, feature of model checking. This paper considers algorithms for counterexample generation for probabilistic CTL formulas in discretetime Markov chains. Finding the strongest evidence (i.e., the most prob ..."
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Cited by 32 (9 self)
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Providing evidence for the refutation of a property is an essential, if not the most important, feature of model checking. This paper considers algorithms for counterexample generation for probabilistic CTL formulas in discretetime Markov chains. Finding the strongest evidence (i.e., the most probable path) violating a (bounded) untilformula is shown to be reducible to a singlesource (hopconstrained) shortest path problem. Counterexamples of smallest size that deviate most from the required probability bound can be obtained by applying (small amendments to) kshortest (hopconstrained) paths algorithms. These results can be extended to Markov chains with rewards, to LTL model checking, and are useful for Markov decision processes. Experimental results show that, typically, the size of a counterexample is excessive. To obtain much more compact representations, we present a simple algorithm to generate (minimal) regular expressions that can act as counterexamples. The feasibility of our approach is illustrated by means of two communication protocols: leader election in an anonymous ring network and the Crowds protocol.