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Of threats and costs: A gametheoretic approach to security risk management
 Performance Models and Risk Management in Communication Systems
, 2010
"... Abstract Security is one of the main concerns in current telecommunication networks: the service providers and individual users have to protect themselves against attacks, and to this end a careful analysis of their optimal strategies is of essential importance. Indeed, attackers and defenders are t ..."
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Abstract Security is one of the main concerns in current telecommunication networks: the service providers and individual users have to protect themselves against attacks, and to this end a careful analysis of their optimal strategies is of essential importance. Indeed, attackers and defenders are typically agents trying strategically to design the most important damages and the most secure use of the resources, respectively, and the natural modelling framework of these interactions is that of noncooperative game theory. This chapter aims at providing a comprehensive review of gametheoretic aspects of security. We first describe the basics on game theory through simple security problems, and then present and discuss some specific problems in more detail. Finally, we also deal with security economics, focussing on the selfish relationships between customers and providers as well as between competing providers, which represents another important aspect of our nonstandard approach towards security risk assessement. 1
Towards the WorldWide Quantum Network
"... Abstract. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) networks are of much interest due to their capacity of providing extremely high security keys to network participants. Most QKD network studies so far focus on trusted models where all the network nodes are assumed to be perfectly secured. This restricts QKD ..."
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Abstract. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) networks are of much interest due to their capacity of providing extremely high security keys to network participants. Most QKD network studies so far focus on trusted models where all the network nodes are assumed to be perfectly secured. This restricts QKD networks to be small. In this paper, we first develop a novel model dedicated to largescale QKD networks, some of whose nodes could be eavesdropped secretely. Then, we investigate the key transmission problem in the new model by an approach based on percolation theory and stochastic routing. Analyses show that under computable conditions largescale QKD networks could protect secret keys with an extremely high probability. Simulations validate our results. 1
On the Effectiveness of Proactive PathDiversity Based Routing for Robustness to Path Failures
"... Abstract. Path disruptions are frequent occurrences on today's Internet. They may be due to congestion or failures, which in turn may be attributed to unintentional factors (e.g., hardware failures) or caused by malicious activity. Several efforts todate have focused on enhancing robustness f ..."
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Abstract. Path disruptions are frequent occurrences on today's Internet. They may be due to congestion or failures, which in turn may be attributed to unintentional factors (e.g., hardware failures) or caused by malicious activity. Several efforts todate have focused on enhancing robustness from the endtoend viewpoint by using path diversity. Most of these studies are limited to singleor twopath approaches. This paper is the first to address the question of what degree of path diversity is needed to effectively mitigate the effect of path failures. We seek to answer this question through extensive experiments in PlanetLab. To evaluate the effect of path diversity on routing robustness in regards to a wide spectrum of applications, we introduce a new performance metric we named outage duration. Experimental results show that proactively forwarding packets using a high degree of path diversity is more effective in overcoming path failures in comparison with singlepath or twopath approaches. In addition, for applications in which low packet loss probability is as important as uninterrupted connectivity, we suggest a packet forwarding scheme based on link gains and discuss the tradeoffs between robustness and packet delivery probability.
Graph optimization using fractal decomposition with application to cooperative routing problems.” Submitted for publication
, 2007
"... We introduce a method of hierarchically decomposing graph optimization problems to obtain approximate solutions with low computation. The method uses a partition on the graph to convert the original problem to a high level problem and several lower level problems. On each level, the resulting proble ..."
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We introduce a method of hierarchically decomposing graph optimization problems to obtain approximate solutions with low computation. The method uses a partition on the graph to convert the original problem to a high level problem and several lower level problems. On each level, the resulting problems are in exactly the same form as the original one, so they can be further decomposed. In this way, the problems become fractal in nature. We use bestcase and worstcase instances of the decomposed problems to establish upper and lower bounds on the optimal criteria, and these bounds are achieved with significantly less computation than what is required to solve the original problem. We show that as the number of hierarchical levels increases, the computational complexity approaches O(n) at the expense of looser approximation bounds. For regular lattice graphs, we provide constant factor bounds on the approximation error. We demonstrate the fractal decomposition method on three example problems related to cooperative routing: shortest path matrix, maximum flow matrix, and cooperative search. Largescale simulations show that this fractal decomposition method is computationally fast and can yield good results for practical problems. 1
Interplay Between Security Providers, Consumers, and Attackers: A Weighted Congestion Game Approach
, 2011
"... Network users can choose among different security solutions to protect their data. Those solutions are offered by competing providers, with possibly different performance and price levels. In this paper, we model the interactions among users as a noncooperative game, with a negative externality comi ..."
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Network users can choose among different security solutions to protect their data. Those solutions are offered by competing providers, with possibly different performance and price levels. In this paper, we model the interactions among users as a noncooperative game, with a negative externality coming from the fact that attackers target popular systems to maximize their expected gain. Using a nonatomic weighted congestion game model for user interactions, we prove the existence and uniqueness of a user equilibrium, compute the corresponding Price of Anarchy, that is the loss of efficiency due to user selfishness, and investigate some consequences for the (higherlevel) pricing game played by security providers.
Vulnerability Analysis in Multicommodity Stochastic Networks by Game Theory
"... Abstract—In this paper, by applying the game theoretical framework, we propose a new vulnerability identification method in the multicommodity stochastic network. A new performance indicator–expected achievable capacity (EAC)–is proposed to quantify the vulnerability level of network links when the ..."
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Abstract—In this paper, by applying the game theoretical framework, we propose a new vulnerability identification method in the multicommodity stochastic network. A new performance indicator–expected achievable capacity (EAC)–is proposed to quantify the vulnerability level of network links when the network is attacked by an intelligent adversary. To compute for EAC, a maximin problem is formulated and solved by the method of successive average and linear programming. Reported numerical results on a grid network topology with multiple OD demands show that the effect of network vulnerability can be well represented by the proposed EAC and hence this suggests the usefulness of the proposed network vulnerability analysis framework. I.
Reliability Evaluation by Expected Achievable Capacity in Stochastic Network Using Game Theory
"... Abstract — To obtain a network with high fault tolerance, all possible characteristics of a failure event must be captured in the analysis. Also, an efficient method to identify and then upgrade vulnerable network components is required. A network game model between a router and intelligent attacker ..."
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Abstract — To obtain a network with high fault tolerance, all possible characteristics of a failure event must be captured in the analysis. Also, an efficient method to identify and then upgrade vulnerable network components is required. A network game model between a router and intelligent attacker has been widely explored to overcome this challenge. In this paper, based on game theory framework, we have proposed a new vulnerability identification method to measure network reliability when the network is attacked by an intelligent adversary, who destroys network links to minimize capacity achieved between two network terminals. A new performance indicator– expected achievable capacity (EAC) has been proposed to help quantifying link vulnerability. To obtain EAC, a maximin problem is formulated and the method of successive averages is chosen to solve for the game solution. Numerical results show that the effect of worstcase failure on EAC can be thoroughly analyzed by the proposed framework. I.
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"... Interplay between security providers, consumers, and attackers: a weighted congestion game approach ..."
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Interplay between security providers, consumers, and attackers: a weighted congestion game approach
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"... Interplay between security providers, consumers, and attackers: a weighted congestion game approach Network users can choose among different security solutions to protect their data. Those solutions are offered by competing providers, with possibly different performance and price levels. In this pap ..."
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Interplay between security providers, consumers, and attackers: a weighted congestion game approach Network users can choose among different security solutions to protect their data. Those solutions are offered by competing providers, with possibly different performance and price levels. In this paper, we model the interactions among users as a noncooperative game, with a negative externality coming from the fact that attackers target popular systems to maximize their expected gain. Using a nonatomic weighted congestion game model for user interactions, we prove the existence and uniqueness of a user equilibrium, compute the corresponding Price of Anarchy, that is the loss of efficiency due to user selfishness, and investigate some consequences for the (higherlevel) pricing game played by security providers.