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ModifiedCS: Modifying compressive sensing for problems with partially known support
 in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Inf. Theory (ISIT), 2009
"... Abstract—We study the problem of reconstructing a sparse signal from a limited number of its linear projections when a part of its support is known, although the known part may contain some errors. The “known ” part of the support, denoted, may be available from prior knowledge. Alternatively, in a ..."
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Cited by 126 (33 self)
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Abstract—We study the problem of reconstructing a sparse signal from a limited number of its linear projections when a part of its support is known, although the known part may contain some errors. The “known ” part of the support, denoted, may be available from prior knowledge. Alternatively, in a problem of recursively reconstructing time sequences of sparse spatial signals, one may use the support estimate from the previous time instant as the “known ” part. The idea of our proposed solution (modifiedCS) is to solve a convex relaxation of the following problem: find the signal that satisfies the data constraint and is sparsest outside of. We obtain sufficient conditions for exact reconstruction using modifiedCS. These are much weaker than those needed for compressive sensing (CS) when the sizes of the unknown part of the support and of errors in the known part are small compared to the support size. An important extension called regularized modifiedCS (RegModCS) is developed which also uses prior signal estimate knowledge. Simulation comparisons for both sparse and compressible signals are shown. Index Terms—Compressive sensing, modifiedCS, partially known support, prior knowledge, sparse reconstruction.
Combinatorial Algorithms for Compressed Sensing
 In Proc. of SIROCCO
, 2006
"... Abstract — In sparse approximation theory, the fundamental problem is to reconstruct a signal A ∈ R n from linear measurements 〈A, ψi 〉 with respect to a dictionary of ψi’s. Recently, there is focus on the novel direction of Compressed Sensing [1] where the reconstruction can be done with very few—O ..."
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Cited by 113 (1 self)
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Abstract — In sparse approximation theory, the fundamental problem is to reconstruct a signal A ∈ R n from linear measurements 〈A, ψi 〉 with respect to a dictionary of ψi’s. Recently, there is focus on the novel direction of Compressed Sensing [1] where the reconstruction can be done with very few—O(k log n)— linear measurements over a modified dictionary if the signal is compressible, that is, its information is concentrated in k coefficients with the original dictionary. In particular, these results [1], [2], [3] prove that there exists a single O(k log n) × n measurement matrix such that any such signal can be reconstructed from these measurements, with error at most O(1) times the worst case error for the class of such signals. Compressed sensing has generated tremendous excitement both because of the sophisticated underlying Mathematics and because of its potential applications. In this paper, we address outstanding open problems in Compressed Sensing. Our main result is an explicit construction of a nonadaptive measurement matrix and the corresponding reconstruction algorithm so that with a number of measurements polynomial in k, log n, 1/ε, we can reconstruct compressible signals. This is the first known polynomial time explicit construction of any such measurement matrix. In addition, our result improves the error guarantee from O(1) to 1 + ε and improves the reconstruction time from poly(n) to poly(k log n). Our second result is a randomized construction of O(k polylog(n)) measurements that work for each signal with high probability and gives perinstance approximation guarantees rather than over the class of all signals. Previous work on Compressed Sensing does not provide such perinstance approximation guarantees; our result improves the best known number of measurements known from prior work in other areas including Learning Theory [4], [5], Streaming algorithms [6], [7], [8] and Complexity Theory [9] for this case. Our approach is combinatorial. In particular, we use two parallel sets of group tests, one to filter and the other to certify and estimate; the resulting algorithms are quite simple to implement. I.
Counting faces of randomlyprojected polytopes when the projection radically lowers dimension
 J. of the AMS
, 2009
"... 1.1. Three surprises of high dimensions. This paper develops asymptotic methods to count faces of random highdimensional polytopes; a seemingly dry and unpromising pursuit. Yet our conclusions have surprising implications in statistics, probability, information theory, and signal processing with ..."
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Cited by 110 (5 self)
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1.1. Three surprises of high dimensions. This paper develops asymptotic methods to count faces of random highdimensional polytopes; a seemingly dry and unpromising pursuit. Yet our conclusions have surprising implications in statistics, probability, information theory, and signal processing with potential impacts in
Sampling theorems for signals from the union of finitedimensional linear subspaces
 IEEE Trans. on Inform. Theory
, 2009
"... Compressed sensing is an emerging signal acquisition technique that enables signals to be sampled well below the Nyquist rate, given that the signal has a sparse representation in an orthonormal basis. In fact, sparsity in an orthonormal basis is only one possible signal model that allows for sampli ..."
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Cited by 110 (14 self)
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Compressed sensing is an emerging signal acquisition technique that enables signals to be sampled well below the Nyquist rate, given that the signal has a sparse representation in an orthonormal basis. In fact, sparsity in an orthonormal basis is only one possible signal model that allows for sampling strategies below the Nyquist rate. In this paper we consider a more general signal model and assume signals that live on or close to the union of linear subspaces of low dimension. We present sampling theorems for this model that are in the same spirit as the NyquistShannon sampling theorem in that they connect the number of required samples to certain model parameters. Contrary to the NyquistShannon sampling theorem, which gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the number of required samples as well as a simple linear algorithm for signal reconstruction, the model studied here is more complex. We therefore concentrate on two aspects of the signal model, the existence of one to one maps to lower dimensional observation spaces and the smoothness of the inverse map. We show that almost all linear maps are one to one when the observation space is at least of the same dimension as the largest dimension of the convex hull of the union of any two subspaces in the model. However, we also show that in order for the inverse map to have certain smoothness properties such as a given finite Lipschitz constant, the required observation dimension necessarily depends logarithmically
Compressive Wireless Sensing
, 2006
"... Compressive Sampling is an emerging theory that is based on the fact that a relatively small number of random projections of a signal can contain most of its salient information. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Compressive Wireless Sensing for sensor networks in which a fusion center retr ..."
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Cited by 109 (4 self)
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Compressive Sampling is an emerging theory that is based on the fact that a relatively small number of random projections of a signal can contain most of its salient information. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Compressive Wireless Sensing for sensor networks in which a fusion center retrieves signal field information from an ensemble of spatially distributed sensor nodes. Energy and bandwidth are scarce resources in sensor networks and the relevant metrics of interest in our context are 1) the latency involved in information retrieval; and 2) the associated powerdistortion tradeoff. It is generally recognized that given sufficient prior knowledge about the sensed data (e.g., statistical characterization, homogeneity etc.), there exist schemes that have very favorable powerdistortionlatency tradeoffs. We propose a distributed matched sourcechannel communication scheme, based in part on recent results in compressive sampling theory, for estimation of sensed data at the fusion center and analyze, as a function of number of sensor nodes, the tradeoffs between power, distortion and latency. Compressive wireless sensing is a universal scheme in the sense that it requires no prior knowledge about the sensed data. This universality, however, comes at the cost of optimality (in terms of a less favorable powerdistortionlatency tradeoff) and we quantify this cost relative to the case when sufficient prior information about the sensed data is assumed.
Necessary and sufficient conditions on sparsity pattern recovery
, 2009
"... The paper considers the problem of detecting the sparsity pattern of a ksparse vector in R n from m random noisy measurements. A new necessary condition on the number of measurements for asymptotically reliable detection with maximum likelihood (ML) estimation and Gaussian measurement matrices is ..."
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Cited by 106 (12 self)
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The paper considers the problem of detecting the sparsity pattern of a ksparse vector in R n from m random noisy measurements. A new necessary condition on the number of measurements for asymptotically reliable detection with maximum likelihood (ML) estimation and Gaussian measurement matrices is derived. This necessary condition for ML detection is compared against a sufficient condition for simple maximum correlation (MC) or thresholding algorithms. The analysis shows that the gap between thresholding and ML can be described by a simple expression in terms of the total signaltonoise ratio (SNR), with the gap growing with increasing SNR. Thresholding is also compared against the more sophisticated lasso and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) methods. At high SNRs, it is shown that the gap between lasso and OMP over thresholding is described by the range of powers of the nonzero component values of the unknown signals. Specifically, the key benefit of lasso and OMP over thresholding is the ability of lasso and OMP to detect signals with relatively small components.
Structured compressed sensing: From theory to applications
 IEEE TRANS. SIGNAL PROCESS
, 2011
"... Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging field that has attracted considerable research interest over the past few years. Previous review articles in CS limit their scope to standard discretetodiscrete measurement architectures using matrices of randomized nature and signal models based on standard ..."
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Cited by 104 (16 self)
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Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging field that has attracted considerable research interest over the past few years. Previous review articles in CS limit their scope to standard discretetodiscrete measurement architectures using matrices of randomized nature and signal models based on standard sparsity. In recent years, CS has worked its way into several new application areas. This, in turn, necessitates a fresh look on many of the basics of CS. The random matrix measurement operator must be replaced by more structured sensing architectures that correspond to the characteristics of feasible acquisition hardware. The standard sparsity prior has to be extended to include a much richer class of signals and to encode broader data models, including continuoustime signals. In our overview, the theme is exploiting signal and measurement structure in compressive sensing. The prime focus is bridging theory and practice; that is, to pinpoint the potential of structured CS strategies to emerge from the math to the hardware. Our summary highlights new directions as well as relations to more traditional CS, with the hope of serving both as a review to practitioners wanting to join this emerging field, and as a reference for researchers that attempts to put some of the existing ideas in perspective of practical applications.
Toeplitz compressed sensing matrices with applications to sparse channel estimation
, 2010
"... Compressed sensing (CS) has recently emerged as a powerful signal acquisition paradigm. In essence, CS enables the recovery of highdimensional sparse signals from relatively few linear observations in the form of projections onto a collection of test vectors. Existing results show that if the entri ..."
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Cited by 93 (12 self)
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Compressed sensing (CS) has recently emerged as a powerful signal acquisition paradigm. In essence, CS enables the recovery of highdimensional sparse signals from relatively few linear observations in the form of projections onto a collection of test vectors. Existing results show that if the entries of the test vectors are independent realizations of certain zeromean random variables, then with high probability the unknown signals can be recovered by solving a tractable convex optimization. This work extends CS theory to settings where the entries of the test vectors exhibit structured statistical dependencies. It follows that CS can be effectively utilized in linear, timeinvariant system identification problems provided the impulse response of the system is (approximately or exactly) sparse. An immediate application is in wireless multipath channel estimation. It is shown here that timedomain probing of a multipath channel with a random binary sequence, along with utilization of CS reconstruction techniques, can provide significant improvements in estimation accuracy compared to traditional leastsquares based linear channel estimation strategies. Abstract extensions of the main results are also discussed, where the theory of equitable graph coloring is employed to establish the utility of CS in settings where the test vectors exhibit more general statistical dependencies.
Counting faces of randomly projected polytopes when the projection radically lowers dimension
 Journal of the American Mathematical Society
, 2009
"... 1.1. Three surprises of high dimensions. This paper develops asymptotic methods to count faces of random highdimensional polytopes, a seemingly dry and unpromising pursuit. Yet our conclusions have surprising implications – in statistics, probability, information theory, and signal processing – wit ..."
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Cited by 89 (7 self)
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1.1. Three surprises of high dimensions. This paper develops asymptotic methods to count faces of random highdimensional polytopes, a seemingly dry and unpromising pursuit. Yet our conclusions have surprising implications – in statistics, probability, information theory, and signal processing – with potential