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FOUNDATIONAL ASPECTS OF THEORIES OF MEASUREMENT
, 1957
"... can be neither precise control nor prediction of phenomena without measurement. The point of a theory of measurement is to make explicit the structure that a set of empirical data must satisfy in order to apply numerical computations to them. From an abstract standpoint a set of empirical data consi ..."
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Cited by 110 (2 self)
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can be neither precise control nor prediction of phenomena without measurement. The point of a theory of measurement is to make explicit the structure that a set of empirical data must satisfy in order to apply numerical computations to them. From an abstract standpoint a set of empirical data consists of a collection of relations between a specified set of objects. The problem of measurement is to assign numbers to the objects in such a way that the relations receive an exact and reasonable numerical interpretation. In constru~ting a particular theory of measurement it is not appropriate to consider only a single set of data, for the theory should be applicable to many situations. Furthermore the theory is not concerned with all possible sets of data 'on relevant sets of objects, but only with those which have a structure fixed in advance. Finally coherence is given to the theory by specifyinga uniform numerical interpretation of this structure. Before turning to problems connected with construction of theories of measurement, we want to give a precise settheoretical meaning to the notions involved. To begin with, we treat sets of empirical data as being (finitary) relatiOnal systems, that is to say, finite sequences of the form trL=< A, R l, · • •,R>, where A is a nonempty set of elements called the n domain of the relational system at, and Rl, •..,R n are finitaljr relations onA. The relational system?l1..... is called finite if the set A is finite;
Foundational Aspects of Syntax
, 1999
"... Introduction A large variety of computing systems, such as compilers, interpreters, static analyzers, and theorem provers, need to manipulate syntactic objects like programs, types, formulas, and proofs. A common characteristic of these syntactic objects is that they contain variable binders, such ..."
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Cited by 16 (10 self)
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Introduction A large variety of computing systems, such as compilers, interpreters, static analyzers, and theorem provers, need to manipulate syntactic objects like programs, types, formulas, and proofs. A common characteristic of these syntactic objects is that they contain variable binders, such as quantifiers, scoping operators, and parameters. The presence of binders complicates formal specifications and symbolic processing. Consider, for example, a function definition of the form f(x) = let y = e in x + y: When analyzing or transforming a program containing the call f(e 0 ), we might wish to replace f(e 0 ) with the body of f in which x is substituted by e 0 . But we cannot simply apply the substitution [x 7! e<
Logical foundations of objectoriented and framebased languages
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 1995
"... We propose a novel formalism, called Frame Logic (abbr., Flogic), that accounts in a clean and declarative fashion for most of the structural aspects of objectoriented and framebased languages. These features include object identity, complex objects, inheritance, polymorphic types, query methods, ..."
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Cited by 876 (65 self)
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We propose a novel formalism, called Frame Logic (abbr., Flogic), that accounts in a clean and declarative fashion for most of the structural aspects of objectoriented and framebased languages. These features include object identity, complex objects, inheritance, polymorphic types, query methods
FOUNDATIONAL ASPECTS OF SIZE ANALYSIS: EXERCISES
"... From the point of view of a mathematician resource analysis of programs (function definitions) amounts to verifying satisfiability of arithmetic predicates for checking size dependencies and solving recurrences for inference. The exercises we are going to do should give you a flavor of these two asp ..."
Illusion and wellbeing: A social psychological perspective on mental health.
 Psychological Bulletin,
, 1988
"... Many prominent theorists have argued that accurate perceptions of the self, the world, and the future are essential for mental health. Yet considerable research evidence suggests that overly positive selfevaluations, exaggerated perceptions of control or mastery, and unrealistic optimism are charac ..."
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Cited by 988 (20 self)
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evaluations, exaggerated perceptions of control or mastery, and unrealistic optimismcan serve a wide variety of cognitive, affective, and social functions. We also attempt to resolve the following paraPreparation of this article was supported by National Science Foundation Grant BNS 8308524, National Cancer Institute
The DLV System for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning
 ACM Transactions on Computational Logic
, 2002
"... Disjunctive Logic Programming (DLP) is an advanced formalism for knowledge representation and reasoning, which is very expressive in a precise mathematical sense: it allows to express every property of finite structures that is decidable in the complexity class ΣP 2 (NPNP). Thus, under widely believ ..."
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Cited by 456 (102 self)
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problems of lower complexity in a simpler and more natural fashion. This paper presents the DLV system, which is widely considered the stateoftheart implementation of disjunctive logic programming, and addresses several aspects. As for problem solving, we provide a formal definition of its kernel
Some foundational aspects of quantum computers and quantum robots
, 1997
"... This paper addresses foundational issues related to quantum computing. The need for a universally valid theory such as quantum mechanics to describe to some extent its own validation is noted. This includes quantum mechanical descriptions of systems that do theoretical calculations (i.e. quantum com ..."
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This paper addresses foundational issues related to quantum computing. The need for a universally valid theory such as quantum mechanics to describe to some extent its own validation is noted. This includes quantum mechanical descriptions of systems that do theoretical calculations (i.e. quantum
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