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26,043
A Simple Way to Estimate the
, 2002
"... Systems that are more dependable and less expensive to maintain may be more expensive to purchase. If ordinary customers cannot calculate the costs of downtime, such systems may not succeed because it will be difficult to justify a higher price. Hence, we propose an easytocalculate estimate of down ..."
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Systems that are more dependable and less expensive to maintain may be more expensive to purchase. If ordinary customers cannot calculate the costs of downtime, such systems may not succeed because it will be difficult to justify a higher price. Hence, we propose an easytocalculate estimate of downtime. As one reviewer commented, the cost estimate we propose ‘‘is simply a symbolic translation of the most obvious, common sense approach to the problem.’ ’ We take this remark as a complement, noting that prior work has ignored pieces of this obvious formula. We introduce this formula, argue why it will be important to have a formula that can easily be calculated, suggest why it will be hard to get a more accurate estimate, and give some examples. Widespread use of this obvious formula can lay a foundation for systems that reduce downtime.
Reasoning the fast and frugal way: Models of bounded rationality.
 Psychological Review,
, 1996
"... Humans and animals make inferences about the world under limited time and knowledge. In contrast, many models of rational inference treat the mind as a Laplacean Demon, equipped with unlimited time, knowledge, and computational might. Following H. Simon's notion of satisncing, the authors have ..."
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Cited by 611 (30 self)
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have proposed a family of algorithms based on a simple psychological mechanism: onereason decision making. These fast and frugal algorithms violate fundamental tenets of classical rationality: They neither look up nor integrate all information. By computer simulation, the authors held a competition
1 Simple ways to make friends.
"... This paper describes a study of the effects of mimicry and social praise when used by an artificial social agent. An experiment (N=50) is described which shows that social praise increases the perceived friendliness of a chatrobot, while, mimicry displaying matching behavior enhances the perceive ..."
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the perceived intelligence of the robot. We advice designers to incorporate both mimicry and social praise in their persuasive systems. Different ways of implementing mimicry and praise in an ambient persuasive scenario are discussed.
Simple way of teaching transistor amplifiers
"... For small signal analysis a simple change from commonly used tranconductance gm to transresistance rm=1/gm leads to a significant simplification of all equations. Moreover these equations are much easier to memorize since they have a form of resistor ratio for CE (CS) and CB (CG) configurations and ..."
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For small signal analysis a simple change from commonly used tranconductance gm to transresistance rm=1/gm leads to a significant simplification of all equations. Moreover these equations are much easier to memorize since they have a form of resistor ratio for CE (CS) and CB (CG) configurations
On the optimality of the simple Bayesian classifier under zeroone loss
 MACHINE LEARNING
, 1997
"... The simple Bayesian classifier is known to be optimal when attributes are independent given the class, but the question of whether other sufficient conditions for its optimality exist has so far not been explored. Empirical results showing that it performs surprisingly well in many domains containin ..."
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Cited by 818 (27 self)
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The simple Bayesian classifier is known to be optimal when attributes are independent given the class, but the question of whether other sufficient conditions for its optimality exist has so far not been explored. Empirical results showing that it performs surprisingly well in many domains
Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart
, 2008
"... To survive in a world where knowledge is limited, time is pressing, and deep thought is often an unattainable luxury, decisionmakers must use bounded rationality. In this precis of Simple heuristics that make us smart, we explore fast and frugal heuristics—simple rules for making decisions with re ..."
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Cited by 456 (15 self)
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with realistic mental resources. These heuristics enable smart choices to be made quickly and with a minimum of information by exploiting the way that information is structured in particular environments. Despite limiting information search and processing, simple heuristics perform comparably to more complex
Lambertian Reflectance and Linear Subspaces
, 2000
"... We prove that the set of all reflectance functions (the mapping from surface normals to intensities) produced by Lambertian objects under distant, isotropic lighting lies close to a 9D linear subspace. This implies that, in general, the set of images of a convex Lambertian object obtained under a wi ..."
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Cited by 526 (20 self)
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the effects of Lambertian materials as the analog of a convolution. These results allow us to construct algorithms for object recognition based on linear methods as well as algorithms that use convex optimization to enforce nonnegative lighting functions. Finally, we show a simple way to enforce non
Keying hash functions for message authentication
, 1996
"... The use of cryptographic hash functions like MD5 or SHA for message authentication has become a standard approach inmanyInternet applications and protocols. Though very easy to implement, these mechanisms are usually based on ad hoc techniques that lack a sound security analysis. We present new cons ..."
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Cited by 611 (39 self)
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in a simple way, and replaceability of the underlying hash function is easily supported.
A theory of timed automata
, 1999
"... Model checking is emerging as a practical tool for automated debugging of complex reactive systems such as embedded controllers and network protocols (see [23] for a survey). Traditional techniques for model checking do not admit an explicit modeling of time, and are thus, unsuitable for analysis of ..."
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Cited by 2651 (32 self)
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of realtime systems whose correctness depends on relative magnitudes of different delays. Consequently, timed automata [7] were introduced as a formal notation to model the behavior of realtime systems. Its definition provides a simple way to annotate statetransition graphs with timing constraints
Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning
, 2002
"... Modelling sequential data is important in many areas of science and engineering. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Kalman filter models (KFMs) are popular for this because they are simple and flexible. For example, HMMs have been used for speech recognition and biosequence analysis, and KFMs have bee ..."
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Cited by 770 (3 self)
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) space instead of O(T); a simple way of using the junction tree algorithm for online inference in DBNs; new complexity bounds on exact online inference in DBNs; a new deterministic approximate inference algorithm called factored frontier; an analysis of the relationship between the BK algorithm and loopy
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