### Table 7 : Results obtained with Discrete Hidden Markov Model

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### (Table 2). 2.3.2 Hidden Markov Model (HMM)

"... In PAGE 5: ....3.1 Video Analysis The video analysis was performed by two expert surgeons encoding the video of each step of the surgical procedure frame by frame (NTSC - 30 frames per second). The encoding process used a code-book of 14 different discrete tool maneuvers in which the endoscopic tool was interacting with the tissue (Table2 ). Each identified surgical tool/tissue interaction, had a unique F/T pattern.... In PAGE 8: ... 1b. (a) Forces (b) Torques Studying the magnitudes of F/T applied by R1 and ES during each step of the MIS procedures for the different tool/tissue interactions (Table2 ) using the grand median analysis showed that the F/T magnitudes applied by these groups were significantly different (p lt;0.05) and task dependent (Fig.... ..."

### Table 1 State Transition Matrix for a Hidden Markov Model

"... In PAGE 25: ...alues such as Sunny = 1.0, Rainy = 0, and Foggy = 0. 2. A state transition matrix ( Table1 ) that stores the probability of going from one state to another. For example, the first row gives the probability of a sunny day following a sunny day, a rainy day following a sunny day, a foggy day following a sunny day, and so on.... ..."

### Table 2. Accuracy of Hidden Markov Models to recognize haptic gestures

### Table 3: Results of 3 classes segmentation based on hidden Markov models.

"... In PAGE 6: ... Two successive frames will be shifted of 512 samples. Table3 shows results of 3 classes segmentation. Quality rates are better than with simple approaches reviewed in previous section.... ..."

### Table 1. Observations of a Hidden Markov Model for a meeting of 4 individuals

2005

"... In PAGE 2: ... One observation is a vector containing a binary value (speaking, not speaking) for each individual that is recorded. This vector is transformed to a 1-dimensional discrete code used as input for the HMM (see Table1 ). The automatic speech detector has a sampling rate of 62.... ..."

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### Table I. Performances of SignalP in the neural network (NN) and hidden Markov model (HMM) versions

in Review

### Table 5.1: Cross-entropies for Hidden Markov Models treating the melody notes as observed events and the harmonic symbols as hidden states

### Table 1: The scales of hidden Markov models matching the input word quot;ONE quot; with three vector quantization algorithms

1992

"... In PAGE 7: ... Then the model which produces the highest probability is the output. Table1 demonstrates the recognition improvement of the VQ/MHMM system. The numbers in the table are the output scales of individual VQ/HMM and VQ/MHMM recognizers when the input word is \ONE quot;.... ..."

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