@MISC{_theassumption, author = {}, title = {the assumption made above indeed results in a very small error}, year = {} }

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in this case. VI. CONCLUSIONS The influence of non-ideal integrators on a specified filter transfer function can be analyzed independently of the filter topology using only simple equations in which the quality factor of the integrator is the key parameter. Because the quality factor follows directly from the phase of the integrator as a function of frequency we obtain a practically useful formulation. The exam-ple of application demonstrates the possibility to find integrator specifications from the filter specifications. Especially for high frequency continuous-time filters where integrator design is criti-cal it is important to have accurate specifications for the integra-tor circuits to match. APPENDIX A The modified biquad coefficients in (14): U *- alT2 + UOT? 1- blT2 + boT,Z a; = b; = (‘44) 1- blT2 + boT,Z 1 bl T: Tl- +- + b o b6 = 1- b l q + 4q2 Case of a First-Order Section: With S = s/oo we write for a first-order section: a,S + a. S + bo H ( S) =-. Replacing Hid(S) by H, ( S) from (12) we obtain ais + a& S + bh ” ( S) =-. Using the same conventions as for the biquad case we find 1 For Tl 3.> 1 and q-=z 1 we find small sensitivities of pole and zero frequencies and dc-gain with respect to Tl and T2. ACKNOWLEDGMENT their comments and correction of the text. The authors wish to thank R. F. Wassenaar and B. Nauta for