@MISC{Mirizzi06neutrinos:optimal, author = {A Mirizzi and G G Raffelt and P D Serpico}, title = {neutrinos: optimal detector locations}, year = {2006} }

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Abstract

Abstract. A model-independent experimental signature for flavour oscillations in the neutrino signal from the next Galactic supernova (SN) would be the observation of Earth matter effects. We calculate the probability for observing a Galactic SN shadowed by the Earth as a function of the detector’s geographic latitude. This probability depends only mildly on details of the Galactic SN distribution. A location at the North Pole would be optimal with a shadowing probability of about 60%, but a far-northern location such as Pyhäsalmi in Finland, the proposed site for a large-volume scintillator detector, is almost equivalent (58%). We also consider several pairs of detector locations and calculate the probability that only one of them is shadowed, allowing a comparison between a shadowed and a direct signal. For the South Pole combined with Kamioka, this probability is almost 75%; for the South Pole combined with Pyhäsalmi, it is almost 90%. One particular scenario consists of a large-volume scintillator detector located in Pyhäsalmi to measure the geo-neutrino flux in a continental location and another such detector in Hawaii to measure it in an oceanic location. The probability that only one of them is shadowed exceeds 50%, whereas the probability that at least one is shadowed is about 80%. We provide an online tool to calculate different shadowing probabilities for the one-and two-detector cases.