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## IXI~~~ill 0ta In Search of an Elegant Solution: Reanalysis of Plucker, Callahan, and Tomchin, With Respects to Pyryt and Plucker

### Citations

3120 | Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Model - Hu, Bentler - 1999 |

2775 |
Structural equations with latent variables
- Bollen
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e idea of this being tantamount to "proving" the null hypothesis, which is a statistician's nightmare. More practically, this test is based on a number of assumptions, such as multivariate normality (=-=Bollen, 1989-=-), which are seldom met in practice and for which there is mixed evidence of robustness of the statistic under violation of these assumptions (Hu & Bentler, 1995). Additionally, the value is a direct ... |

1969 | Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. - Gardner - 1983 |

1014 |
Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures
- Bentler, Bonett
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Pyryt (2000). X2 = Chi-square, AGFI = LISREL Adjusted Goodness-of-Fit; NFI = Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index; NNFI (also know as TLI, Tucker-Lewis Coefficient) = Bentler-Bonett Non-Normed Fit Index (=-=Bentler & Bonett, 1980-=-); CFI = Comparative Fit Index (Bentler, 1990); PNFI = Parsimony-adjusted NFI; RMR = Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1984). cate acceptable fit (Loehlin, 1998). The RMR prov... |

614 | Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. - Gardner - 1993 |

548 |
user’s guide.
- Arbuckle, Wothke
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ms are available to conduct CFA, including LISREL (Linear Structural Relations; Jdreskog & S6rbom, 1984), EQS (Bentler & Wu, 1995a, 1995b), and AMOS 4.0 (Analysis ofMoment Structures; Arbuckle, 1993; =-=Arbuckle & Wothke, 1995-=-). Kline (1998) provided a good review ofseveral ofthe most popular software programs for structural equation modeling, although such software programs are being continually changed and updated. The a... |

543 | Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. - Hu, Bentler - 1998 |

481 |
Evaluating model fit. In:
- Hu, Bentler
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...assumptions, such as multivariate normality (Bollen, 1989), which are seldom met in practice and for which there is mixed evidence of robustness of the statistic under violation of these assumptions (=-=Hu & Bentler, 1995-=-). Additionally, the value is a direct function of sample size, thereby resulting in the anomaly that a smaller sample size is destined to produce a better fit regardless of other considerations. In o... |

316 |
Comparative fit indices in structural models.
- Bentler
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Goodness-of-Fit; NFI = Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index; NNFI (also know as TLI, Tucker-Lewis Coefficient) = Bentler-Bonett Non-Normed Fit Index (Bentler & Bonett, 1980); CFI = Comparative Fit Index (=-=Bentler, 1990-=-); PNFI = Parsimony-adjusted NFI; RMR = Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1984). cate acceptable fit (Loehlin, 1998). The RMR provides an indication of the residual variance i... |

289 | A beginner’s guide to Structural Equation Modelling - Schumacker, Lomax - 1996 |

261 | Analyzing models with unobserved variables: analysis of covariance structures - Carmines, McIver - 1981 |

252 | Goodness-of-fit indexes in confirmatory factor analysis: The effect of sample size. - Marsh, Balla, et al. - 1988 |

183 | Evaluation of goodness-of-fit indices for structural equation models, - Mulaik, James, et al. - 1989 |

159 | Can test statistics in covariance structure analysis be trusted?”, - Hu, Bentler, et al. - 1992 |

141 |
Multifaceted conceptions of fit in structural equation models. In
- Tanaka
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lysis. Although there are dozens of fit indices, seven (along with citations for sources) for all models tested are given in Table 1. Fit indices were chosen that reflect different dimensions of fit (=-=Tanaka, 1993-=-). Neither Model 1 nor Model 2 fit particularly well, in that fit indices failed to meet expected standards. Perhaps the most ubiquitous of the fit indices is the chi-square. There has been a great de... |

85 | Human cognitive abilities. - Carroll - 1993 |

80 |
EQS for Windows User’s Guide.
- Bentler, Wu
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f the use of correlation versus covariance matrices. Procedure A number ofcomputer programs are available to conduct CFA, including LISREL (Linear Structural Relations; Jdreskog & S6rbom, 1984), EQS (=-=Bentler & Wu, 1995-=-a, 1995b), and AMOS 4.0 (Analysis ofMoment Structures; Arbuckle, 1993; Arbuckle & Wothke, 1995). Kline (1998) provided a good review ofseveral ofthe most popular software programs for structural equat... |

73 |
Confirmatory Factor Analysis.
- Long
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...les and the common factors, (e) the relationships among the observed variables and the unique factors (errors or disturbances), and (t) the variances and covariances among the unique (error) factors (=-=Long, 1983-=-). It is useful to specify models through the use of path diagrams. Most of the current versions of software pro00 SO I 3 0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~sat PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV on September 16, 2016gcq.sagepub... |

24 | Using confirmatory factor analysis to aid in understanding the constructs measured by intelligence tests - Keith - 1997 |

20 |
EQS for Macintosh user’s guide.
- Bentler, Wu
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f the use of correlation versus covariance matrices. Procedure A number ofcomputer programs are available to conduct CFA, including LISREL (Linear Structural Relations; Jdreskog & S6rbom, 1984), EQS (=-=Bentler & Wu, 1995-=-a, 1995b), and AMOS 4.0 (Analysis ofMoment Structures; Arbuckle, 1993; Arbuckle & Wothke, 1995). Kline (1998) provided a good review ofseveral ofthe most popular software programs for structural equat... |

16 | Wherefore art thou, multiple intelligences? Alternative assessments for identifying talent in ethnically diverse and low income students
- Plucker, Callahan, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s. Confirmatory factor analysis might have been the preferred choice from the beginning given the authors' stated purpose to "confirm the presence of four intelligences in the battery of activities" (=-=Plucker et al., 1996-=-, p. 81). Exploratory factor analysis was an interesting choice given that it provides no formal mechanisms for hypothesis testing. Although Plucker et al. might be lauded for establishing a four-fact... |

10 | Software Programs for Structural Equation Modeling:AMOS - Kline - 1998 |

7 | Reporting analysis of covariance structures - Boomsma - 2000 |

5 |
LISREL-VI user's guide (3rd ed
- Joreskog, Sorbom
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Coefficient) = Bentler-Bonett Non-Normed Fit Index (Bentler & Bonett, 1980); CFI = Comparative Fit Index (Bentler, 1990); PNFI = Parsimony-adjusted NFI; RMR = Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (=-=Joreskog & Sorbom, 1984-=-). cate acceptable fit (Loehlin, 1998). The RMR provides an indication of the residual variance in the original matrix, and, when a correlation matrix is used, a value ofless than .05 indicates accept... |

3 | A primer ofLISREL: Basic applications and programming for confirmatory factor analytic models - Byrne - 1989 |

3 | Confirmatory factor analysis of the Stanford-Binet: Fourth Edition for a normal sample - Gridley, McIntosh - 1991 |

3 |
Confirmatory factor analysis of planning, attention, simultaneous, and successive cognitive processing tasks
- NAGLIERI, DAS, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r case, g) or factors and the individual tasks, thus addressing Pyryt's (2000) concern about whether g is the predominant influence on such tasks. Historically, a common approach to this problem (cf. =-=Naglieri, Braden, & Gottling, 1993-=-) has been to specify a single factor model. Indeed, Pyryt interpreted his first factor from the structure matrix as a general factor. However, as Keith (1997) has suggested, if there is a higher orde... |

3 | Finding g: Easy viewing through higher order factor analysis. Gifted Child Quarterly - Pyryt - 2000 |

2 |
Latent variable models (3rd ed
- Loehlin
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ndex (Bentler & Bonett, 1980); CFI = Comparative Fit Index (Bentler, 1990); PNFI = Parsimony-adjusted NFI; RMR = Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1984). cate acceptable fit (=-=Loehlin, 1998-=-). The RMR provides an indication of the residual variance in the original matrix, and, when a correlation matrix is used, a value ofless than .05 indicates acceptable fit (Loehlin, 1998). None ofthes... |

1 |
AMOS 3.6 user's guide
- Arbuckle
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...fcomputer programs are available to conduct CFA, including LISREL (Linear Structural Relations; Jdreskog & S6rbom, 1984), EQS (Bentler & Wu, 1995a, 1995b), and AMOS 4.0 (Analysis ofMoment Structures; =-=Arbuckle, 1993-=-; Arbuckle & Wothke, 1995). Kline (1998) provided a good review ofseveral ofthe most popular software programs for structural equation modeling, although such software programs are being continually c... |

1 | Flip sides of the same coin or marching to the beat of different drummers? A response to Pyryt - Plucker - 2000 |

1 |
Causality and scientific explanation (Vol. 1). Ann Arbor: University ofMichigan
- Wallace
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...erlying latent variables are presumed to be the "causes" of differences in scores obtained on the observed variables. Debate about the term cause and the nature of causality has a long history (e.g., =-=Wallace, 1972-=-). However, Bollen (1989) offered a cogent description ofits use in structural equation modeling. In Figure 1, variability on Spatial Checklist, Pablo, Mechanical Pump, and Tangrams is "caused" by var... |