### Citations

10927 | The mathematical theory of communication. - Shannon, Wiener - 1949 |

864 |
Electonic transport in mesoscopic systems (Cambridge Univ.
- Datta
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed in authentication. One such system immediately comes to mind: the electronic analog of coherent multiple scattering. This field is usually referred to as electronic transport in mesoscopic systems =-=[76]-=-[77]. A lot of the pioneering work in this field was done by RolfLandauer. There are many similarities between the propagation of light through disordered microstructures and that of electrons through... |

714 |
Three approaches to the quantitative definition of information,
- Kolmogorov
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ropy) is a definition of physical complexity which quantifies physical complexity in terms of the randomness in the physical system. It was introduced independently by Solomonoff [67][68], Kolmogorov =-=[69]-=-, and Chaitin [70]in the early 1960s. Kolmogorov Complexity (KC) is defined as the size of the smallest computer program (in bits) required to generate the object in question to some degree of accurac... |

652 |
Light Scattering by Small Particles
- Hulst
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Sab12 (but not Sab) by using a polar nephelometer, which sends light in to the slab at a specific angle and detects the amount of light scattered in all directions. The reader is referred to [59] and =-=[60]-=- for more details of the construction and use of nephelometers. SCALING, ATTACKS, AND FABRICATION COMPL EXITY 10.4 Fabrication methods Even if all we wanted to discover were the Tab, and not the sab, ... |

451 |
The MD5 Message Digest Algorithm.
- Rivest
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...R OF CORRESPONDING PIXELS FROM THE PREVIOUS FIGURE By way of comparison, we now take a look at equivalent performance of an oft-used computational one-way hash function called Message Digest 5 or MD5 =-=[63]-=-. As input to the function, we provided three text fragments which were different by a single character. They were One- Way One Way One Way We then determined the FHD between the outputs of MD5 when t... |

325 | Generalized privacy amplification.
- Bennett, Brassard, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rivacy-amplification protocol. This protocol essentially, over several rounds, converts the two distributions into 8 -functions located at 0 and 0.5 respectively. The interested reader is referred to =-=[84]-=- and [85] for more details. We now consider two common attacks on physical authentication systems.These two attacks, for algorithmic one-way functions, are described in section 2.2.3. The brute force ... |

296 | On the length of programs for computing finite binary sequences.
- Chaitin
- 1966
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion of physical complexity which quantifies physical complexity in terms of the randomness in the physical system. It was introduced independently by Solomonoff [67][68], Kolmogorov [69], and Chaitin =-=[70]-=-in the early 1960s. Kolmogorov Complexity (KC) is defined as the size of the smallest computer program (in bits) required to generate the object in question to some degree of accuracy. To see what thi... |

179 | Critical behavior in the satisfiability of random Boolean expressions,
- Kirkpatrick, Selman
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s well known in complexity theory that dramatic changes in computational cost, analogous to physical phase transitions, occur at the boundary between under- and over-constrained INTRODUCTION problems =-=[73]-=-[74]. This connection between physical phase transitions and computational complexity suggests that physical one-way functions could become harder to invert as the regime of operation moves closer to ... |

111 | The thermodynamics of computationâ€”A review.
- Bennett
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r, indeed, the existence) of a probability density function for the ensemble of physical states. However, the two definitions are not all that dissimilar at least for thermodynamic ensembles. Bennett =-=[71]-=- has pointed out that, for a thermodynamic ensemble, the average Kolmogorov complexity is equal to the statistical ensemble entropy. We now briefly outline some of the properties, without proof, of Ko... |

77 | Practical and provably-secure commitment schemes from collision-free hashing.
- Halevi, Micali
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...from which other, more complex, cryptographic functions are built up. For example, John Rompel [15] showed that one-way functions are necessary and sufficient for secure signatures. Halevi and Micali =-=[64]-=- demonstrated a practical bit commitment scheme based solely on collision-free hash functions. Public-key encryption of the Diffie-Hellman flavor [9] relies on trapdoor one-way functions, where invers... |

58 | A formal theory of inductive inference: Part I.
- Solomonoff
- 1964
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., and algorithmic entropy) is a definition of physical complexity which quantifies physical complexity in terms of the randomness in the physical system. It was introduced independently by Solomonoff =-=[67]-=-[68], Kolmogorov [69], and Chaitin [70]in the early 1960s. Kolmogorov Complexity (KC) is defined as the size of the smallest computer program (in bits) required to generate the object in question to s... |

40 | Breaking up is hard to do: modeling security threats for smart cards
- Schneier, Shostack
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dholder against the terminal-counterfeit or modified cards running modified software can be used to subvert the security of the protocol between the card and the terminal. According to Bruce Schneier =-=[72]-=-, "Good protocol design mitigates the risk of these kinds of attacks, which can be made more difficult by hard-to-forge physical aspects of the card (e.g., the hologram on the Visa and MasterCard card... |

37 |
A formal theory of inductive inference. Parts I and II.
- Solomonoff
- 1964
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d algorithmic entropy) is a definition of physical complexity which quantifies physical complexity in terms of the randomness in the physical system. It was introduced independently by Solomonoff [67]=-=[68]-=-, Kolmogorov [69], and Chaitin [70]in the early 1960s. Kolmogorov Complexity (KC) is defined as the size of the smallest computer program (in bits) required to generate the object in question to some ... |

35 |
How to define complexity in physics and why,
- Bennett
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cerned with quantifying the complexity of physical systems. Although there is a large body of literature on the computational complexity of simulating physical systems, it is, in the words of Bennett =-=[66]-=-, "not immediately evident how a measure of the complexity offunctions can be applied to states ofphysical models." We offer the idea that building physical cryptosystems will allow us to view the com... |

27 |
Conductance viewed as transmission
- Imry, Landauer
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n authentication. One such system immediately comes to mind: the electronic analog of coherent multiple scattering. This field is usually referred to as electronic transport in mesoscopic systems [76]=-=[77]-=-. A lot of the pioneering work in this field was done by RolfLandauer. There are many similarities between the propagation of light through disordered microstructures and that of electrons through dis... |

14 |
Eds., Frontiers in problem solving: phase transitions and complexity
- Hogg, Huberman, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ll known in complexity theory that dramatic changes in computational cost, analogous to physical phase transitions, occur at the boundary between under- and over-constrained INTRODUCTION problems [73]=-=[74]-=-. This connection between physical phase transitions and computational complexity suggests that physical one-way functions could become harder to invert as the regime of operation moves closer to loca... |

6 |
Between Silk and Cyanide: A Codemaker's War 1941â€”1945
- Marks
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he received message with the identical 100 bits of his copy of the pad. The result is the original message. A fascinating account of an innovative method of making and using one-time pads provided in =-=[65]-=-. A distinguishing feature of this cryptosystem is that exactly two copies of the pad exist, one with the sender and one with the receiver. An adversary without the pad would have to do a dictionary s... |

3 |
An authenticated camera
- Wagner, D, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t and complexity of the token reader. As a scaling problem, however, it certainly merits investigation. An application that I would like to see implemented is an authenticated camera. Schneier et al. =-=[75]-=- describe develop protocols for an authenticated camera that allows people to verify that a given digital image was taken by a specific camera at a specific time and specific place. These protocols re... |

3 |
Ballistic electron transport in semiconductor heterostructures and its analogies in electromagnetic propagation in general dielectrics
- Henderson, Gaylord, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y low temperatures, that the conductance of disordered wired fluctuates in much the same way as speckle, and the mathematical treatment of conductance fluctuations is identical to that of speckle [78]=-=[79]-=-[80]. Given this, I can imagine that it would be possible to use POWFs to generate unique identifiers using silicon microstructures. Specifically, I can imagine every silicon chip having its own uniqu... |

2 |
Ballistic conductance fluctuations in shape space
- Chan, Clarke, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...w temperatures, that the conductance of disordered wired fluctuates in much the same way as speckle, and the mathematical treatment of conductance fluctuations is identical to that of speckle [78][79]=-=[80]-=-. Given this, I can imagine that it would be possible to use POWFs to generate unique identifiers using silicon microstructures. Specifically, I can imagine every silicon chip having its own unique ta... |

2 |
Multivariable control, simulation, optimization and signal processing for the microlithographic process
- Kailath
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...otolithography where feature sizes are approaching 0.1 micron. However, this process is extremely expensive and current 90% yield main-line fabrication plants cost on the order of two billion dollars =-=[81]-=-[82]. Further, standard topdown fabrication techniques are all geared toward producing regular structures at the submicron scale - producing arbitrarily random structures at these scales is still a ve... |

1 |
Time Series
- Weiner
- 1949
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...if the speckle pattern were random, running it through a set of Gabor filters at multiple scales introduces correlations that are approximately equal to the reciprocal of the bandwidth of the filters =-=[62]-=-. The effective number of independent bits in the Gabor hash string is, however, determined by looking at the experimental mean and variance. 8.2.4 which, for p = 0.4981 and (2 = 0.0011, is N= 228 bit... |

1 |
Microlithography cost analysis, Interface '99 Symposium
- Bruggeman
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ithography where feature sizes are approaching 0.1 micron. However, this process is extremely expensive and current 90% yield main-line fabrication plants cost on the order of two billion dollars [81]=-=[82]-=-. Further, standard topdown fabrication techniques are all geared toward producing regular structures at the submicron scale - producing arbitrarily random structures at these scales is still a very c... |