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## Collusion resistance of multimedia fingerprinting using orthogonal modulation (2005)

Venue: | IEEE Trans. on Image Proc |

Citations: | 14 - 7 self |

### Citations

1072 | Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia
- Cox, Kilian, et al.
- 1997
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Citation Context ...trum embedding technique borrows ideas from spread spectrum modulation and has proven robustness against a number of signal processing operations (such as lossy compression and filtering) and attacks =-=[2,3]-=-. With appropriately chosen features and additional alignment procedures, the embedded spread spectrum watermark can survive moderate geometric distortions, such as rotation, scale, shift, and croppin... |

490 | Quantization index modulation: A class of provably good methods for digital watermarking and information embedding
- Chen, Wornell
- 2001
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Citation Context ...tortions, such as rotation, scale, shift, and cropping [4,5]. Further, information theoretic studies suggest that it is nearly capacity optimal when the original host signal is available in detection =-=[6,7]-=-. The combination of robustness and capacity makes the spread spectrum embedding a promising technique for protecting multimedia. In addition, as we shall see in this paper, its capability of putting ... |

347 | Collusion-secure fingerprinting for digital data
- Boneh, Shaw
- 1998
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Citation Context ... a collusion attack. 4.1. The Marking Assumption and Collusion-Secure Fingerprint Codes An early work on designing collusion-resistant binary fingerprint codes was presented by Boneh and Shaw in 1995 =-=[24]-=-, which primarily considered the problem of fingerprinting generic data that satisfy an underlying principle referred to as the Marking Assumption. In this work, a fingerprint consists of a collection... |

261 | Information-Theoretic Analysis of Information Hiding
- Moulin, O'Sullivan
- 2003
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Citation Context ...tortions, such as rotation, scale, shift, and cropping [4,5]. Further, information theoretic studies suggest that it is nearly capacity optimal when the original host signal is available in detection =-=[6,7]-=-. The combination of robustness and capacity makes the spread spectrum embedding a promising technique for protecting multimedia. In addition, as we shall see in this paper, its capability of putting ... |

104 | Anti-collusion fingerprinting for multimedia
- Trappe, Wu, et al.
- 2003
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Citation Context ...media fingerprints, and this has a critical impact on the design of fingerprint codes. It is also desirable to capture as many colluders as possible, instead of only capturing one. Recent research in =-=[17]-=- explored these directions and jointly considered the encoding, embedding, and detection of fingerprints for multimedia. A new class of structured codes, known as anti-collusion codes (ACC), has been ... |

76 |
Image adaptive watermarking using visual models
- Podilchuk, Zeng
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...trum embedding technique borrows ideas from spread spectrum modulation and has proven robustness against a number of signal processing operations (such as lossy compression and filtering) and attacks =-=[2,3]-=-. With appropriately chosen features and additional alignment procedures, the embedded spread spectrum watermark can survive moderate geometric distortions, such as rotation, scale, shift, and croppin... |

69 | Multiresolution scene-based video watermarking using perceptual models - Swanson, Zhu, et al. - 1998 |

52 |
Analysis of attacks on image watermarks with randomized coefficients
- Stone
- 1996
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Citation Context ... important class of nonlinear collusion attacks is based upon such operations as taking the maximum, minimum, and median of corresponding components of the K colluders’ independent watermarked copies =-=[15,19]-=-. For simplicity in analysis, nonlinear attacks are typically assumed to be performed in the same domain of features as the fingerprint embedding. The Just-Noticeable-Difference (JND) from human visua... |

52 | Multimedia Data Hiding
- Wu, Liu
- 2002
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Citation Context ...lation value. The algorithm then iterates by breaking that subset into smaller 3 Note that there are other types of watermarking schemes that do not suffer from interference from unknown host signals =-=[7,21]-=-. Their appropriateness for fingerprinting and anti-collusion capabilities remain under investigation.ssubsets, and correlating the test signal with the sum of the fingerprints from these smaller subs... |

52 | A statistical watermark detection technique without using original images for resolving rightful ownerships of digital images
- Zeng, Liu
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... single fingerprint, three detection statistics, referred to as TN−, Z− and q−statistic, were proposed to measure the similarity between the colluded observation and the original embedded fingerprint =-=[15, 18, 22]-=-. All these three tests are correlation-based, involving the correlation between the multimedia test signal and the original fingerprints. Their difference lies in their normalization. A high value in... |

46 |
A note on the limits of collusionresistant watermarks
- Ergun, Kilian, et al.
- 1999
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Citation Context ...lluders in fingerprinting applications. A straightforward way of applying spread spectrum watermarking to fingerprinting is to use mutually orthogonal watermarks as fingerprints to identify each user =-=[8, 9]-=- 2 . The orthogonality or independence allows for distinguishing the fingerprints to the maximum extent. The simplicity of encoding and embedding orthogonal fingerprints makes them attractive to ident... |

45 |
translation resilient public watermarking for images
- Lin, Wu, et al.
- 2000
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Citation Context ...With appropriately chosen features and additional alignment procedures, the embedded spread spectrum watermark can survive moderate geometric distortions, such as rotation, scale, shift, and cropping =-=[4,5]-=-. Further, information theoretic studies suggest that it is nearly capacity optimal when the original host signal is available in detection [6,7]. The combination of robustness and capacity makes the ... |

40 | Combining digital watermarks and collusion secure fingerprints for digital images
- Dittmann, Schmitt, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s with a higher β are better. For (v, k, λ)-BIBD AND-ACC codes, their efficiency is β = λ(v − 1)/(k 2 − k) ≥ 1. Another attempt at using the theory of combinatorics to design fingerprints was made by =-=[28]-=-, where projective geometry was used to construct their codes. In terms of the β value defined above, the fingerprinting scheme employing BIBD ACC is more efficient from a coding perspective as it req... |

29 | Group-oriented fingerprinting for multimedia forensics
- Wang, Wu, et al.
- 2008
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Citation Context ...truct a corresponding B matrix is to use binary codes. The c-secure code and the BIBD ACC code discussed in Section 4 are two examples. In more general constructions, entries of B can be real numbers =-=[30]-=-. The key issue is how to strategically introduce correlation among different fingerprints to allow for accurate identification of individual fingerprint as well as multiple contributing fingerprints ... |

27 | Resistance of digital watermarks to collusive attacks
- Kilian, Leighton, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lluders in fingerprinting applications. A straightforward way of applying spread spectrum watermarking to fingerprinting is to use mutually orthogonal watermarks as fingerprints to identify each user =-=[8, 9]-=- 2 . The orthogonality or independence allows for distinguishing the fingerprints to the maximum extent. The simplicity of encoding and embedding orthogonal fingerprints makes them attractive to ident... |

26 | Capacity of digital watermarks subjected to an optimal collusion attack
- Su, Eggers, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... It was shown that O( � N/ log N) adversaries are sufficient to defeat the underlying watermarks, where N is the total length of the fingerprint signal. Similar results were also presented in [9]. In =-=[16]-=-, a more general linear attack than in [8] was considered, where original image x adding fingerprints s1 sK … … sn yn y1 … yK collusion by averaging Figure 2. Model for collusion by averaging. 1/K z a... |

25 |
Improved Boneh-Shaw content fingerprinting
- Yacobi
- 2001
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Citation Context ...f Boneh-Shaw code offers insight into fingerprinting both bitstreams and other data for which the each bit or unit of a fingerprint is marked in a non-overlapped manner. Improvement was introduced in =-=[25]-=- to merge the low-level code with the direct sequence spread spectrum embedding for multimedia and to extend the Marking Assumption to allow for random jamming. The two-level code construction also in... |

20 | Efficient watermark detection and collusion security
- Zane
- 1962
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Citation Context ...evel code with the direct sequence spread spectrum embedding for multimedia and to extend the Marking Assumption to allow for random jamming. The two-level code construction also inspired the work in =-=[26]-=-, which uses the orthogonal fingerprinting in the low level and structured errorsn [I] [II] [III] [IV] Primitive Code n-1 1 1 1 A 0 1 1 B 0 0 1 C 0 0 0 D 111 111 111 A 000 111 111 B 000 000 111 C 000 ... |

19 |
Collusion resistant fingerprinting for multimedia
- Wu, Trappe, et al.
- 2004
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Citation Context ...der this unified formulation, a different sequence {b1j, b2j, ..., bvj} is assigned for each user j. Its matrix representation, B = {bij}, has different structure for different fingerprint strategies =-=[29]-=-. An identity matrix for B represents orthogonal fingerprinting wj = uj, where each user is identified with an orthogonal basis signal. The orthogonality allows one to distinguish different users’ fin... |

18 | pattern matching attack on watermarking systems - Kirovski, Petitcolas, et al. - 2002 |

13 | A Content-Dependent Spatially Localized Video Watermark for Resistance to Collusion and Interpolation Attacks - Su, Kundur, et al. - 2001 |

12 | Multimedia content screening using a dual watermarking and fingerprinting system
- Kirovski, Malvar, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sing random number generators to produce independent watermark signals for different users. The orthogonal model also provides foundations to a few variations, such as the receiver-end fingerprinting =-=[10]-=-.sof individual copies. We will present a detailed discussion on linear and nonlinear collusions in the context of orthogonal fingerprint for which analytic study is more feasible, while the analysis ... |

11 | Nonlinear collusion attacks on independent fingerprints for multimedia - Zhao, Wu, et al. |

11 | Resistance of orthogonal gaussian fingerprints to collusion attacks
- Wang, Wu, et al.
- 2003
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Citation Context ...ective attack, but it also introduces larger, more perceivable distortion to the host signal than other attacks. Colluders may also apply additional noise after the nonlinear combining, as studied in =-=[19,20]-=-. As the amount of distortion introduced by the nonlinear combining increases, the amount of additional noise that can be added while maintaining perceptual constraints decreases. 3.2. Colluder Identi... |

11 |
Modifications of competitive group testing
- Du, Xue, et al.
- 1994
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Citation Context ...is a significant computational improvement over conventional matched filtering. While the ideal case of the recursive algorithm is closely related to tree-based searching algorithms and group testing =-=[23]-=-, it should be noted that identifying colluders involves randomness, which raises issues not present in tree-based searching. In particular, the intermediate decisions made at each node of the algorit... |

8 |
Data Hiding in Image and Video
- Wu, Liu
- 2003
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Citation Context ...utational costs associated with content registration. 3. ORTHOGONAL/INDEPENDENT FINGERPRINTING As we have discussed, using orthogonal signals to represent different messages, or orthogonal modulation =-=[14]-=-, is a popular technique for watermarking and naturally lends itself to fingerprinting applications. The spread spectrum watermarking method, where the watermarks are statistically independent and oft... |

2 |
Highfidelity Watermark for Tracking
- Lubin, Bloom, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...With appropriately chosen features and additional alignment procedures, the embedded spread spectrum watermark can survive moderate geometric distortions, such as rotation, scale, shift, and cropping =-=[4,5]-=-. Further, information theoretic studies suggest that it is nearly capacity optimal when the original host signal is available in detection [6,7]. The combination of robustness and capacity makes the ... |